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3 1924 078 39 


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Embellished with upwards of One Hundred Portraits of Citizens. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, 

Hy Andrew W. Young, 
In I he office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 


After the lapse of a period much longer than was anty:ipated, the writer 
offers to the public the result of his protracted labors. Although he has 
no assurance that the work will fully meet the expectations of all for 
whom it has been written, he indulges the hope that it will receive a 
good measure of the popular favor. But how much soever it may fall 
short of universal commendation, he has the satisfaction to believe, that 
its supposed defects will not be ascribed to any lack of effort, on his 
part, to fulfill the pledge of his " best endeavors to produce a history 
which should meet the expectations of the people, and reflect honor 
upon the county." This has certainly been his paramount object, irre- 
spective of the time deemed necessary for its accomplishment. 

The author takes occasion here to suggest to the reader the advantage of 
a careful reading of the Introduction before proceeding to the perusal of 
the History. Portions of the work which might othenvise appear somewhat 
obscure, will be rendered quite intelligible by the previous reading of the 
explanations in the introductory pages. 

/ ' ^/? r, , 



Apologetic and Explanatory. 

Seldom has a publication made its advent so long after its inception as 
this history of Chautauqua county. Fifty years ago>-a distinguished citizen of 
the county conceived the idea of such a history, and commenced the, collec- 
tion of material. This labor was, for many years, unremittingly continued, 
so far as his professional and public duties permitted. His removal from the 
state and other causes conspired to hinder the progress of the work, until dis- 
ease and the infirmities of age forbade the accomplishment, by his own hands, 
of his favorite and long-cherished object ; and the people oif the county, who 
had long awaited its appearance, abandoned the hope of its pubhcation. 

At this juncture, the name of the author, then in a distant state, was com- 
municated, by a friend, to the projector of the work. A coprespondence en- 
sued, which resulted in an engagement, on- my part, to^'iiss^e the entire re- 
sponsibility of its publication. It was a great, and. pecuniarily, a hazardous 
undertaking. To examine more than twenty large volumes of manuscript 
and printed scraps from county newspapers, and a large number of printed 
volumes, for such matter as could be made available in the compilation of the 
work ; and to collect, in person, an equal amount of additional matter from 
the twenty-six towns in the county, was a task which few who had a just con- 
ception of its magnitude would have readily assumed. 

An important characteristic of a work is accuracy. Yet in publications of 
no other kind than this is it so difficult. Few of the earlier settlers remain ; 
and the recollections of these few are so diverse and conflicting as to render 
them unreliable, unless confirmed by the concurrent statements of others. 
The collections of matter for several works containing historical sketches of 
this county, appear to have been too hastily and carelessly made. One of 
them, though a valuable work, abounds with errors. Several appear in the 
sketch of a single town, and more or less in the sketches of many other towns. 
Probably to save time and labor, most of these erroneous statements have 
been taken, on trust, from the first person applied to for information, and, 


without further inquiry, inserted in the forthcoming publication ; and, through 
that and succeeding histories, they will be transmitted to future generations. 

A large portion of this History is based on the collections of Judge Foote. 
These were commenced long before there were any i?//:^ settlers in the county ; 
and they consist chiefly of the experience and observation of the persons from 
whom they were obtained, and before their memories were impaired by time 
or age. A large portion of this matter has been examined by some c^f the 
early and well informed settlers still living, and has been found singularly free 
from inaccuracies. In the collection of new material, unusual pains have 
been taken to guard against errors. To ascertain the truth in the hundreds 
of disputed cases, has required an amount of labor of which few can form a 
just conception. And after the county had been several times traversed, and 
the newly collected matter written out, I was unwilling to permit it to be print- 
ed until I had again visited every town, and submitted the manuscript to my 
informants and others for examination. Any person, therefore, who questions 
the truth of any statement, has reason to doubt the correctness of his own 
memory, or of the source from which his information was obtained. Yet it 
would be a marvel if no inaccuracies should be discovered. Persons, not a 
few, have erred in relating transactions which occurred under their own ob- 
servation, or in which they had themselves participated. If, with all the pains 
taken to insure a correct history, the object has not been attained, it may be 
confidently pronounced unattainable. In family sketches, inaccuracies are 
most likely to appear. Persons intimately acquainted with families they have 
described, have not in all cases been quite correct ; and some sketches 
received in manuscript have not been entirely legible. Sundry errors, 
discovered since the body of the book was printed, are corrected on 
pages immediately preceding the Index, at the end of the work. 

Of the merits of the work, different opinions will be formed. Matter which 
some will appreciate, others may regard as unimportant. Some, perhaps, will 
read with little interest the adventures and experience of the early settlers, 
with which they are already familiar. Others will read this part of the work 
with greater interest than any other. A large portion of this History has been 
written, not so much for the present generation, as for the generations which 
are to follow. Many remember how earnestly they listened to the stories of 
pioneer life from the lips of their ancestors. Before the present generation 
shall have passed away, not an individual will remain to relate, from his own 
personal knowledge, the experiences of the first settlers which have so deeply 
interested us. This interest will not be abated by the lapse of time. The 
written nitrative "of incidents of " life in the woods,'' will be no less accepta- 
ble to those who come after us, than was the tira/ relation to ourselves. Hence, 


to commemorate the events and occurrences of the past — to transmit to our 
descendants a faithful history of our own time — is a duty. Many to whom 
such a history shall be transmitted, will estimate its value at many times its 
cost. Without it little will be known of early times, except what shall have 
come down to them by tradition, always imperfect and unreliable. 

This History is written for a population of 60,000, differing greatly in 
their views and tastes, which the historian can not entirely disregard. 
Hence, in addition to pioneer history, which constitutes a considerable por- 
tion of the work, the reader will find a great variety of other matter, civil, 
ecclesiastical, educational, commercial, agricultural, statistical and biographi- 
cal, which will render it convenient and useful as a book of reference, now 
and hereafter. It is believed that the exclusion of either of these subjects 
would have materially impaired its value. 

There was early manifested a desire among settlers to see the names of 
themselves or their ancestors associated with the history of the county. 
This desire is a natural and a proper one. A large portion of the early set- 
tlers in every town have been mentioned, and many others will be 
disappointed at not finding their own names. The omission was unavoida- 
ble. A notice of one-half of the families of this large county, would have 
infringed too much upon the space required for other topics. To visit every 
family was impossible : those only were called on who were most accessible and 
most likely to furnish the desired historical information. Hence the names of 
many of the more worthy and prominent citizens have necessarily been omitted. 

Biographical and genealogical sketches form a prominent feature of this 
History. They will generally be found in the historical sketches of the 
towns in which their subjects respectively resided or now reside. Sketches 
of persons who have resided in several towns, are in some cases inserted in 
the histories of the towns in which they passed the earlier or more eventful 
period of their lives. Probably no part of the History will be more fre- 
quently referred to than this. Many of these sketches contain much 
interesting historical matter, and will amply compensate a perusal. Their 
number has been materially increased by the unusual and unexpected num- 
ber of portraits furnished by citizens, who, by their generous contribution to 
the eipbelllshment of the work, deserved a full biographical and family 
sketch of the person represented by the portrait. One characteristic of 
these biographical notes can hardly escape the notice of the reader — the 
absence of eulogy, especially of the living. As persons widely difttr in their 
estimate of the characters of their fellow-men, it was deemed prudent not to 
venture beyond a simple statement of the more noticeable incidents and 
events of the life of any living subject. 


The attention of the reader is invited to the plan and arrangement of the 
work. Matter of general interest and application, and relating to the early 
history of the state and county, is first introduced, and is arranged under 
appropriate heads or titles. This greatly facilitates the finding of historical 
facts. The general history of the county is followed by a particular history 
of the several towns, in alphabetical order. The historical sketch of each 
town includes the names of early farmers, mechanics, business and profes- 
sional men, and notices of mills, manufactories, schools, churches, etc. This 
will aid in the search for matter relating to the towns. The Table of Con- 
tents at the beginning, and the Index at the end, of the volume, will gener- 
ally enable the reader to find what he seeks for. His searches, however, 
will be greatly facilitated by making himself familiar with the arrangement of 
the work. But the greatest advantage would be gained from at least one 
perusal, in course, of the entire History. Many interesting occurrences 
therein recorded, might, without such perusal, never come to the knowledge 
of the reader. 

It soon became apparent that the work would far exceed its prescribed 
limits. To keep it within a proper and convenient size and weight, type one 
size smaller than was at first intended, was selected ; the printed page was 
greatly enlarged ; and the reading matter was increased twenty per cent, be- 
yond the quantity promised. And paper of less than the usual weight and 
thickness was taken to render the book more convenient in the using, and to 
insure its greater strength and durability. 

Those who have read the foregoing pages will need no further apology for 
the unexpected delay in the issue of this work. No one regrets it more 
deeply than myself To my patrons this delay is a gain at my expense. A 
history of the county might have been written in half the time expended 
upon this ; but I would not offer to the public what was not satisfactory to 
myself. I presumed they would rather be served later with a good book than 
earlier with an indifferent one. In respect to its embellishment they will be 
more than satisfied. No definite number of portraits was promised. Instead 
of fifty, which, it was hoped, might be obtained, the public are presented 
with double that number, of which one-half are fine steel engravings, in 
which the subjects of the pictures will be readily recognized, except, per- 
haps, in a few cases of defective photographs, or of pictures taken 
twenty-five or thirty years ago. The aggregate cost of the portraits exceeds 
eight thousand dollars. 

To the numerous friends who have given me assurances of their interest 
in this enterprise, I offer my grateful acknowledgments. All who have been 
applied to for information, have cheerfully rendered ' the desired service. 


Next to Judge Foote, the projector of the History, who has devoted years 
of gratuitous labor to his favorite object, Hon. Obed Edson has the strong- 
est claim to the gratitude of the people of this county. The " prehistoric 
matter," (as it has been appropriately termed,) with which the work com- 
mences, and which has cost much time and elaborate reseiaarch, has been 
gratuitously furnished ; and it will be regarded, by most appreciative minds, 
as an invaluable contribution to the work. The lectures of the liate Hon. 
Samuel A. Brown, delivered in the Jamestown academy, in 1843, and Judge 
E. F. Warren's Historical Sketches of Chautauqua County,' have furnished 
valuable matter. Some has also been obtained from the sketches of early 
settlers in Stockton and EUery, by J. L. Bugbee, and S. S. Crissey, Esqs. 
As the greater portion of the matter thus obtained is interwoven with what 
has been collected from various other sources, specific credit could not, in all 
cases, be given to these authors, without unpleasant interruptions of the nar- 
rative, and the disfigurement of the printed page. Thanks are also due to 
Dr. Taylor for the free use of his History of Portland. Having devoted 
to his work several years of careful investigation, it is presumed to be, as re- 
spects the history of that town, generally correct and reliable. Hence 
much of what appears in this work relating to the history of Portlajid, has 
been taken from, or is based upon, that History. The few errors discovered 
in it are in matter relating to other towns, and come from those hastily pre- 
pared, unreliable histories elsewhere referred to. Dr. Taylor has done his 
fellow-citizens a valuable service, for which, doubtless, they are duly 

Matter was received from many sources after the greater portion of the 
work had been printed. Much of it was intended to supply omissions in pre- 
ceding pages, among which were parts of several biographical and family 
sketches accompanying portraits. This matter, together with some that had 
been prepared, and intended for the body of the work, appears in a " Sup- 
plement" of 50 pages, to which the special attention of the reader is invited. 
Much of this supplemental matter will be found arranged under the titles of 
the towns to which portions of it properly belonged. Other parts of it, among 
which is a sketch of Chautauqua lake and its surroundings, have been 
prepared since the printing was far advanced. 

Lastly, I congratulate myself on the termination of my arduous and pro- 
tracted labors. If those for whom these labors have been performed shall 
be satisfied, my highest object will have been attained. 

A. W. Y. 

December, iSyj. 


The Mound Builders, 17. The Neutral and other Huron-Iroquois Nations, 20. The Je- 
suits, 24. Wars of the Huron-Nations, 25. La Salle, 26. Baron La Ronton, 29. 
Indian Occupation, 30. Events leading to the French and Indian Wars, 34. Origin 
of the name Chautauqua, 35. The Portage-Road, 37. Washington's journey to French 
Creek, 45. The French War, 45. Pontiac's War, 48. Col. Broadhead's Expedi- 
tion, 50. British Expedition over Chautauqua Lake, in 1782, 51. Washington's cor- 
respondence with Gen. Irvine, 54. Survey of the State Boundary Line, 60. Indian 
Wars, and the conclusion, 61. , 

Discovery of America ; British grants ; efforts to establish colonies, 63. Cesaion of West- 
ern lands to the general government, 64. Phelps and Gorham's Purchase, 64. Hol- 
land Company's Purchase, 66-9. 

Controversy concerning the first settlement, 70. John and James McMahan's Purchases, 
73. Settlements in Westfield, Ripley, and Canadaway, 73-6. Portland and Hanover, 
76. South-east part of the county, 77. Chautauqua, 77. Kiantone, 77. 

Early dwellings, 78. Clearing land, 80. Wild animals, 81. Early fanning, 85. Early 
cooking, 87. Fare of the early settlers, 88. Household manufactures, 8g. Stores and 
trade, 91. Ashes a staple product, 94. Nature of trade, 97. Division of business, 98. 

Early schools ; course of instruction ; manner of teaching ; description of a school-house ; 
dunce block ; school fund, 102-4. 

Early occupation of the county by missionaries — Rev. John Spencer, and others, 105-8. 
Gospel land, 108. 

Division of the State into counties, 109-13. First county ofScers, 113. Building court- 
houses, 114. Division of the county into towns, 115. 


Old Portage Road, 116-17. Road from Pennsylvania to Chautauqua lake, 117. Mayville 
and Cattaraugus road, 118. 

Early mail contractors, post-offices, and postmasters, 119-26. 

Price of land and terms of sale, 126. Condition of the settlers, 128. Sale of the Compa- 
ny's lands ; Gepesee land tariff ; land-office destroyed, 129-31. Policy of Mr. Seward, 
131-5. Cherry Valley Company's purchase, 135. 


Sketch of La Fayette, 135. Reception at Westfield, 136. Reception at Fredonia, 139-42. 

Drinking customs, 142. Temperance reform measures, 144-46. 

Early measures of abolitionists ; violent opposition ; action of Congress, 146^. , 


Chautauqua County Medical Society, 148. Eclectic Medical Society, 148. 

Early encouraged by DeWitt Clinton, 149. Chautauqua County Agricultural Society 
formed, 150. 


New York and Erie Railroad Company, 150. Celebration at Dunkirk, 151. Buffalo & 
Erie and other railroads, 153. Atlantic & Great Western Railway, 153. Dunkirk, 
Allegany & Pittsburgh and other railroads, 154-5. 

Early parties and their principles ; the federalists and republicans ; nature of the Union, 
155-8. Alien and sedition laws ; Virginia and Kentucky resolutions, 158—60. Polit- 
ical parties in Chautauqua, 160-2. Parties in the state ; Clintonians and Bucktails, 
162-6. Anti-masonic party, 166-9. American party, 169-71. Present parties, 171. 

WAR HISTORY— War of 1812. 
Causes of the war ; war declared, 1 72-3. Chautauqua militia, 173-5. British cruisers ; bat- 
tle of Black Rock, 175-7. Officers of the militia companies ; results of the war, 178-81. 

Civil War. 
Origin of the war, 182-4. Commencement of hostilities ; confederate government ; Lin- 
coln's proclamation, 184-6. Movements in the North ; public meetings, 186—9. 
Further action of the government ; more troops raised, 189-91. Suspension of ha teas 
corpus, 191. Close of the war, 193-4. * 

Reiinion at Fredonia, 197-207. Reiinion at Forestville, 207-210. Reunion at James- 
town, 210-218. 

THE GREAT ECLIPSE OF 1806, 218-19. 

Formation of the town, and its settlement, 220-25. Biographical and genealogical 
sketches, 225-27. Churches, 227. [See Supplement, 625.] 

Formation and settlement of the town, 227-33. Biographical and genealogical sketches, 
233-41. Churches, 241. 


Formation of the town and its settlement, 241-6. Mills and factories, 247. Biographical 
and genealogical sketches, 248-50. Baptist church, 251. [Supplement — John Frew 
and Thomas Russell, 625. M. E. Church, 626.] 

Formation and settlement of the town, 251-56. Dunkirk, Warren & Pittsburgh railroad, 
257. Biographical and genealogical sketches,' 258-61. Churches and Lodges, 261-2. 


Formation and settlement, 262-70. Emigration of the Prendergast family, 264-6. Bio- 
graphical and genealogical sketches, 270-83. Churches and other associations, 283-4. 
Supplement — Lowry Families, 626 ; insecurity of land titles in Western Pennsylva- 
nia, 627-9; Lowrys, who settled in this county, and other settlers, 629-30. 

Formation and settlement, 284-91. Biographical and genealogical sketches, 291-3. 
Churches, and other associations, 293-4. 

Formation and settlement, 295-300. Biographical and genealogical sketches, 300-2. 
Churches, 302. 


Formation and settlement, 302-4. Village of Dunkirk, sketch of, 304-7. Manufactures, 
305-7,630-31. Biographical and genealogical sketches, 307-12. Churches, 312-13. 

Formation and settlement, 313-20. Biographical and genealogical , sketches, 320-26. 
Churches, 326. 


Formation and settlement, 327-30. First Independence celebration, 331. Worksburg, 
332. Biographical and genealogical sketches, 333-4. Jamestown : its survey and 
settlement, 335-6. Mills, 336 ; rising of water in the lake, 337. Settlers in the vil- 
•^e, 337-42. Territorial enlargement, 343. Village incorporated, 343. Manufac- 
tures, 344-50. Biographical and genealogical sketches, 350-72. Jamestown land 
association, 372. Cemeteries, 372. Churches and other associations, 373-6. Lum- 
ber manufacture, 376-9. 


Formation and settlement, 379-84. Biographical and genealogical sketches, 385-6. 
Churches, 386—7. 



Formation and topography of the town, 388-9. Its settlement, 389-93. Biographical 
and genealogical sketches, 394-5. Churches, 395-6. 

When formed, 396. Settlement of, 396-9. Biographical and genealogical sketches, 
400-2. Churches, 403. 


Erection and settlement of the town, 403-8. Silver Creek, 409-13. Great black-walnut 
tree, 414. Forestville, 413-15. Irving, 415-16. Biographical and genealogical 
sketches, 416-26. Churches, &c., 426-9. 

Erection, description, and settlement of, 429-36. Mills, stores, &c., 437-8. Biographical 
and genealogical sketches, 438-43. Churches, 443-5. 

Formation and description of, 445. Settlement of, 445-8. Biographical and genealogi- 
cal sketches, 449-51. Churches, 452. 

Formation and settlement of, 452-6. Mills, stores, &c., 456-8. Churches, 459, 

Erection, description, and aettlettient' of, 459-63. Mills, 463. Biographical and genea- 
logical sketches, 464-6. Chnrches, 466. 


Formation and settlement of, 466-75. Fredonia Academy, &c., 47S-6. Laona, 477-8. 
Biographical and genealogical sketches, 478-94. Churches, 494-6. [See also Sup- 
plement, town of Pomfret, 646.] 

Formation, description, and settlement of, 497-9. Early mechanics, merchants, mills, 
&c., S00-3. Grape and wine culture, 504-6. Biographical and genealogical 
sketches, 506-9. Churches, 509-12. [See also Supplement, Portland, 647.] 

Formation, description, and settlement of, 512—16. Mills, stores, &c., ^ly-lS. Bio- 
graphical sketches, 518-31. Churches, 531-2. [See Supplement, 640-2.] 

Formation and settlement of, 533-5. Biographical sketches, 535-44. 

Formation and settlement of, 544-7. Mills, machinery, &c., S47—S. Biographical 
sketches, 548-53- Churches, ic, 553-4. [See Supplement, 642.] 

Formation and settlement of, 554-61. Early merchants, mechanics, mills, etc., 561-2. 
Biographical sketches, 563-71. Churches, 571-3. [See Supplement, 643-5.] 

Erection and settlement of, 573-9- Mills, stores, and mechanics, 579-80. Biographical 
sketches, 580-4. Churches, 584. [See Supplement, 645.] 

Formation and settlement of, 584-8. Early stores, taverns, and physicians, 588-9. Mills, 
manufactories, etc., 590-1. " Warsaw club, " 592. Barcelona, 592. Biographical 
sketches, 593-615. Churches, 615-18. [See Supplement, 646.] 


A trench filled with human bones, uncovered in Harmony, 619-20. Indian mounds in 
EUicott, 620. 


Reservations, on the Holland Purchase — Cattaraugus Reservation, 621. Cayuga, Oneida, 

Onondaga, and Tonawanda, 622. Tuscarora, 623. 

COLD SUMMER — 623-4. 


William Wilcox, genealogical sketch of, 623. [See portrait and sketch, 227.] 


John Frew and' Thomas Russell, early settlers in this town, 625-6. Methodist Episcopal 

Church, 626. 


Lowry Families, 626-9. Land titles in North-western Pennsylvania, 627-9. Additional 

names of settlers in Mayville, 629-30. 


Locomotive works, and other manufacturing establishments, 630-1. Churches, 631-2. 


Family sketches of R. E. Fenton, Corydon Hitchcock, and N. A. Lowry, 632-3. 


Sketches of J. G. Hopkins, S. J. Smith, 633-4. Chautauqua Farmer, 634. 

Morris Norton, Charles Parker, and Stephen W. Steward, 634-5. 

William Falconer, Varanus Page, 635. Churches, 635-6. 

Settlement and sketches of additional settlers in this town, 636-9. Manufactures, 639. 
M. E. church, 639. H. Bosworth, N. D. Snow, R. H. Hall, W. H. Abell, 646-7. 

Judd W. Cass and John B. Dinsmore, early settlers, 640. Elihu and Dudley Marvin, 641. 


Josiah R. Keeler, an early settler in this town, and a prominent citizen, 642. 

Ellsworth family, 643. Fisher families, 643-4. Sawyer Phillips' family, 644. 


Villeroy Balcom, an early settler ; biographical sketch of, 645. Freewill Baptist church, 
organization and sketch of, 645-6. 


Sherman Williams, correction of biographical sketch of, 646. 


Thomas J. Wheeler, biographical and genealogical sketch of, 647-8. 


Judges Elial T. Foote and Thomas B. Campbell decline reappointments ; action of the 
court thereon, 648-50. 

BANKS, 650-2. 



Appointment of, by council of appointment, for Genesee county, and of Niagara, 652. 


Appointments for Genesee and Niagara counties, 652. 


Election of, in the districts of which Chautauqua was a part, 652-3. ' * 


The districts they represented, and the years in which they served, 653. 

The districts and counties they represented, and tljje years in which they served, 654. 

The districts or counties they represented, and the year of each convenfipn, 655. 

From districts including the county of Chautauqua, 655. 





A summer resort ; its steamers, 659-62 ; hotels, 662-3. Fair Point, Point Chautauqua, 




Abell, Moseley W., . 
Abell, Thomas G., 

Sketch, . 
Abell, William H., . 
Allen, Augustus F., . 
Angell, Cyrus D. , 
Baker, Henry, 
Balcom, Villeroy, 
Baldwin, Levi, 
Barker, Leverett, . 
Barker, George, 
Barr*tt, Samuel, 
Bemus, Charles, . 
Benedict, Odin, 
Bentley, Uriah, 
Bishop, Elijah, 
Blasdell, Stephen, 
Bliss, Elam C, 
Bly, Theron S., 
Brewer, Francis B., . 
Brigham, Willard W., 
Brockway, Burban, 
Brown, Samuel A., . 
Bumell, Madison, 
Burritt, Charles, . 
Campbell, Thomas B., 
Chandler, Woodley W. , 

Sketch, . . 
Chapin, James E. , 
Cook, Orsell, . 
Couch, Warren, 
Cushing, Zattu, . * 
Cushing, William B., 
Dewey, Lester R., 
Dorman, Dearing, 
Drake, Jeremiah C, 
Eason, David, . . 

Sketch, . 
Eaton, David, . 
Edson, John M., . . 
Ellsworth, Jeremiah, 
pUsworth, Stukely, 
Farwell, Omar, 
Fenton, William H,, 

















Fenton, Reuben E., . 

Fletcher, Adolphus, 
Foote, Elial T., . . 

Sketch, . . . 
Foote, Charles C, 
Frank, Michael, . 
Gage, Charles B., 
GifFord, William, 
Gleason, Hiram N., 
Griffith, John, . . . 
Griswold, John E., 
Hall, John P., . 
Hall, Ralph H., . . 

Sketch, . . . 
Hall, Asa, .... 
Hazeltine, Daniel, 
Hinkley, Watson S., 
Hitchcock, Corj'don, 
Houghton, Jacob, 
Hungerford, Sextus H., 
Jones, Solomon, . 
Jones, EUick, . 
Kent, Joseph, . . 
Kip, Benjamin H., 
La Due, Joshua, . 
Leland, Cephas R., . 
Lowry, Morrow B., . 
Maples, Charles G., . 
Marshall, John E., 
Marvin, Richard P., 
Marvin, Dudley, . 
May borne, Wm. A., 
McKenzie, Donald, . 
McMahan, James, 

Minton, John H., 
Mixer, Nathan, . . 
Montgomery, James, 
Morian, Jacob, 
MuUett, James, . . 
Orton, Samuel G., 
Osborne, Thomas A., 
Patterson, George W. , 


■ • 358 
358, 632 

. 362 
. . 361 
. 420 
. . 271 

■ • 550 

• • 485 

. . 486 

486, 647 

. 600 


. 601 












Pattison, Jonathan S 543 

Southland, Judson, 

. . . . 240 

Peacock, William, ... 


Spencer, John, . . 

. . . . 612 

Pier, Rufus, 


Sprague, Jonathan, . 

• • 492 

Plumb, Alvin 


Steward, John,' . . 


Prendergast, Matthew, . . 


Steward, Sardius, 


Prendergast, Jediah, . . . 


Steward, Stephen W., 


Prendergast, James, . . 


Strunk, William H., 

• • 333 

Prendergast, Alex. T., . . . 


Taylor, Horace C, . 

. . . . 509 

Prendergast, Stephen, . . . 


Tinker, Reuben, . 

. 613 

Prendergast, Henry A., . . 


Tracy, Jedediah, . . 


Pullman, Lewis 


Warren, Amos K., . 

• 571 

Rice, Victor M. 


Warren, Chauncey, . 

■ 570 

Risley, Elijah, .... 


Warren, Emory F., 

• • 493 

Robertson, John R., 


Wells, Austin L., 

. 614 

Sackett, Niram, . 


White, Squire, 

• 494 

Shepard, Fitch, . 


Wilcox, William, 

. . 227 

Sherman, Daniel, 


Sketch, . . 

227, 625 

Sixbey, Herman, . 


Williams, Daniel, 

• • ■ 443 

Skinner, Otis, 


Williams, Sherman, 

. 615 

Slawson, Silas N., 


Sketch, . . . 

. . 615, 646 

Smallwood, John, 


Willson, John I., 

• • -37' 

Smith, Austin, 


Wilson, William R., 

. 402 

Smith, Philip M., 


Winsor, Samuel B., . 

• 372 

Smith, Rodney B., 


Young, Andrew W., 

.... 5 

Snow, Noah D., . 


Sketch, . . 

• 529 

Sketch, . . 


I, 646 

Young, Charles P., . 

.... 530 

Note. — Some persons who have furnished portraits, paid for the number at first 
supposed to be necessary to supply the whole edition of the History. It was subsequently 
ascertained that a larger edition would be needed to supply the demand. Some of those 
who had paid for the smaller number being indisposed to increase the expense, or being 
satisfied with that number, their portraits do not appear in the entire edition. Two or 
three may yet be added, which are not mentioned in the above list. 

Corrections. — A few errors have been discovered in the printed sheets, which are 
noticed and corrected on page 667. 

Abbreviations. — The letter /., or //., signifies township ; and r. signifies range. The 
interrogation point in parenthesis marks (?) means query, and indicates that the preceding 
statement is doubtful, and needs further inquiry. * 




The Mound Builders. 

The pioneers of Chautauqua county found it an unbroken wilderness ; yet 
often when exploring its silent depths, where forest- shadows hung deepest, 
they were startled at the discovery of unmistakable evidences of its having 
been anciently inhabited by a numerous people. Crowning the brows of 
hills that were flanked by dark ravines ; along the shores of its lakes and 
streams ; in its valleys at numerous points, were the plain traces of their 
industry ; earthworks or fortifications mostly circular ; pits bearing marks of 
use by fire ; ancient highways and mounds, in which lay buried mouldering 
skeletons ; and later, where forests had given place to cultivated fields, the 
spade and plow in the spring time, made strange revelations of rude imple- 
ments of war and peace, and oftentimes of the crumbling relics of an ancient 
burial place. At first these monuments were believed to be of European 
origin ; and patient research was made among early records for an account 
of events happening upon the eastern continent, a little prior to and about 
the time of the discovery of America, that would afford an explanation of 
their existence. But the great age of the forest trees growing above them, 
and other marks of antiquity, demonstrated this belief to be unfounded. A 
solution of the mystery was then sought among the traditions of the aborig- 
ines ; but carefulf investigation has proved these ruins to be so old that 
tradition can throw no light upon them ; and that they cannot be the work 
of the ancestors of the Indians found here. 

Commencing near the centre of the state, they extend westwardly. Over 
Chautauqua county they were thickly strewn ; farther to the west and south, 
in the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi, these ancient remains were still 
more numerously found, in larger dimensions, and it is evident of much 
greater antiquity. There, for a long period of time, must have dwelt a large 
and industrious people. The geometric precision with which their works 
were constructed ; the fine workmanship of their pottery ; their ornaments 
and implements made of copper, silver and porphyry ; the remarkable skill, 


and the long period of time during which they must have worked the copper 
mines of Lake Superior, proved them to have possessed a considerable degree 
of civilization. Still further to the south, in Mexico, Central America, and 
Peru, are found ruins of a more magnificent character; of immense cities 
leagues in extent ; superb edifices of hewn stone, pure in design, and correct 
in architecture ; built by a people possessed of a knowledge of painting, 
sculpture, and astronomy ; who understood the art of writing, as shown by 
inscriptions upon their palaces, and the written books, rescued during the 
Spanish conquest of Mexico, some of which are still in existence and have 
been partially translated.* Although these ancient remains found in Chau- 
tauqua county, as compared with those of Mexico and Peru, seem but humble 
memorials of the past, they are, notwithstanding, equally with those more 
imposing ruins, genuine relics of olden times, erected by the labor of human 
hands long before the discovery of America by Columbus, t 

In the town of Sheridan, not far from where the Erie railway crosses the 
highway that leads from Fredonia to Forestville, at an early day was plainly 
to be seen an ancient fortification, circular in form, inclosing many acres. 
The evidences then existed, that the land in that vicinity had once been 
cleared, but had since come up to timber of at least three hundred years 
growth. Pestles, mortars, and other stone implements were found, and 
numerous pits occurring at regular intervals, were formerly observed there. 
These, in every instance, were found two together, or in pairs. In this 
vicinity, from time to time, many human bones have also been brought to 
light. In the summer of 1870, a large grave was opened, from which a 
great number of human skeletons were exhumed. These were the bones of 
individuals of both sexes and all years, from infancy to old age. They were 
indiscriminately mingled together, clearly indicatihg an unceremonious and 
promiscuous burial. Near the eastern boundary of the village of Fredonia, 
not far from the Canadaway, extending from bank to bank, a distance of • 
about two hundred feet across the level summit of an eminence, still known 
as " Fort Hill," was an ancient intrenchment ; in front of which were once 
the traces of a large pit. In the vicinity of these remains, human bones 
and the usual Indian relics have occasionally been found. In the town of 
Westfield, were extensive remains of earth-works ; and in the town of Port- 
land, besides a circular earth-work and other evidences of ^cient occupation, 
there were also several ancient roadways. Excavations have shown that one 
of them was underlaid by a bed of large stones, deeply covered with earth 
and gravel. J 

Around the beautiful lakes and village of Cassadaga occur, perhaps, the 
most extensive remains of any in the county. At the extremity of the cape 

* Ancient America, by J. D. Baldwin. 

f It is the opinion of Squier the archaeologist, that the remains found in Western New 
York, and the mounds of the Mississippi Valley, are not the work of the same people. 
The latter are undoubtedly much the oldest. 

i History of Portland, by Dr. Taylor. 


which extends from the south-western side far into the lower of these 
lakes, is a curious and conspicuous mound. Its longest diameter is about 
seven rods; its shortest, five. Its summit is about twelve feet above the 
level of the lake, and is about eight feet above the low neck of land in its 
rear, that connects it with the higher and wider part of the cape. Whether 
it is an artificial structure, or the work of Nature, is open to conjecture; it 
seems, however, to have been anciently occupied, for the usual relics have 
been found there in great abundance. Stretching across this cape for a dis- 
tance of, perhaps, twenty rods, along the bririk of the plateau that rises 
about twelve rods in the rear of this tumulus, was an earthenware breast- 
work. Still further to the rear, extending nearly from shore to shore, was 
another breastwork. Thus were several acres inclosed by these earthen 
works, and the two shores of the lake. In the vicinity, large quantities of 
pottery and stone utensils have been found. Near the northern shore of the 
lake was a large mound ; although frequent plowing has reduced its dimen- 
sions, it is still four or five feet high, and three or four rods in diameter. It 
is said to have been twelve feet high when first seen, with forest trees of 
centuries' growth standing upon it. About 1822, this mound was excavated, 
and a large number of human skeletons exhumed. Extending from an 
extensive fire bed in the neighborhood of this mound, in a north-westerly 
direction, a distance of sixty rods or more, on the east side of the 
lake, was an elevated strip of land of the width of the track of an ordi- 
nary turnpike, bearing the appearance of having been once a graded way. 
The traces of this ancient road are still plainly visible. At various other 
places around Cassadaga, and along the shore of the lake, were numerous 
caches and extensive fire beds, or hearths, with an abundance of coal and 
ashes buried deep in the ground. Skeletons have been exhumed in many 
places, and arrows, pottery and stone implements in great profusion. 

Extensive remains were also found at Sinclairville and in its vicinity. A 
distance of about one mile south of that village, in the town of Gerry, was 
a circular intrenchment inclosing several acres; within which. numerous 
skeletons and rude implements of stone have been discovered. North-east 
of this intrenchment, a distance of about one hundred and thirty rods, was 
an ancient cemetery, in which the remains of many people seem to have 
been regularly interred. This old Indian burying ground was well known 
from the first settlement of the county, and was a subject of much specula- 
tion among the early inhabitants. Fifty years ago, or more, as many as fifty 
skeletons were disinterred on one occasion. Some of them are said to have 
been of unusual size ; and within the last twenty years, twenty-five skeletons 
were disinterred on another occasion.* The bodies were regularly buried in 
a sitting position, in rows, alternating and facing each other. In the woods, 
in Gerry, two miles south-east of Sinclairville, is still visible one of these cir- 
cular fortifications, with large forest trees growing from its ditch and wall. 
Close by Sinclairville, upon the high bluff to the west, that rises precipitously 

* The author was present on this occasion. 


from Mill creek, was once an earth-work, circular in form, within which 
was a deep excavation. The excavation and intrenchment have long since 
disappeared, and now, from this commanding eminence so inclosed, a beau- 
tiful prospect may be had of the village and the surrounding hills. 

Extending along the northern and southern boundary of the plateau, on 
which a principal part of the village is situated, were two earthen breast- 
works. Between these two embankments, the main fortifications seemed to 
be situated. It was an extensive circular earth-work, having a trench with- 
out, and a gateway opening to a small stream that passed along its southern 
side. This work inclosed six or seven acres of what is now a central portion 
of the village. A part of the main street, portions of other streets, and the 
village green, all were included within this old inclosure. 

At other points, within the town of Gerry, and in the town of Stockton, 
were remains of similar earth-works, and other evidences of an early occupa- 
tion. In the town of Ellington, at different places along the terrace of low 
hills, that borders either side of the valley of Clear creek, there existed, at 
the first settlement of the county, the remains of many of these circular in- 
closures, in the vicinity of which, stone implements and other relics have 
been plentifully discovered. Along the shore and outlet of Chautauqua 
lake, were numerous mounds and other vestiges. Two of these old tumuli, 
and the traces of an old roadway, are still visible near the eastern shore of 
Chautauqua lake, at Griffith's Point, in the town of Ellery. 

The description thus far given of the aboriginal monuments found in these 
localities, will suffice for a further account of those that were found numer- 
ously distributed in other parts of the county ; for they all bear the same 
general resemblance. They prove this region to have once been a favorite 
resort of an early race. Whence they came, how long they remained, and 
what fortunes attended their existence, we have no record of There can be 
little doubt, however, that here were once rudely cultivated fields, ancient 
and perhaps populous villages, inhabited by a strange and primitive people. 

• '* But they are gone, 

With their old forests wide and deep, 
And we have built our houses upon 
Fields where their generations sleep. 

'Their fountains slake our thirst at noon ; 
Upon their fields our harvest waves ; 

Our lovers woo beneath their moon — 
Then let us spare, at least, their graves ! " 

The Neutral and other Huron-Iroquois Nations. ^ 

What races of people occupied the territory comprising the county of 
Chautauqua, during the many centuries that elapsed after the Mound Build- 
ers had passed away, and until the coming of Europeans to the states of 
this continent, there remains no authentic information ; only such vague and 
unsatisfactory accounts as tradition gives us : and had a reUable record been 
preserved of the exploits of savage warfare, and of the monotonously recur- 
ring revolutions incident to the history of a barbarous people, during so 


long a period of time, it is doubtful whether it would afford us much instruc- 
tionor entertainment. 

When the interior of this continent first became known to Europeans, a 
great family of Indian nations, composed of the most warlike tribes that then 
inhabited North America, possessed all of Upper Canada, nearly all of New 
York, and the greater parts of Ohio and Pennsylvania, and a portion of 
Lower Canada, and of the Carolinas. They were known as the Huron-Iro- 
quois, and spoke in the same generic tongue, sometimes called the Wyandot. 
They were greatly superior in intellect, courage, and military skill to all the 
other Indians of North America. They dwelt in permanent villages, situ- 
ated in defensible positions, rudely fortified with a ditch and rows of pali- 
sades. They practiced agriculture to a limited extent, and frequently, by a 
long and laborious process of burning and hacking with axes of stone, 
cleared extensive tracts of land, which they rudely cultivated with hoes of 
wood and bone. By reason of their native superiority, and by their having 
fixed places of abode, they became more advanced in the arts of life, than 
the other wandering tribes of North America. Entirely surrounding this 
family of warlike nations, but always shrinking before their fierce valor, was 
a great number of independent tribes ; all speaking languages radically 
different from that of the Wyandot. The general resemblance that has 
been found to exist among these numerous tribes, has caused them to be 
classed under the general name Algonquin. Beyond the territory of the 
Algonquin, and in the western and southern portions of the United States, 
were other tribes of Indians speaking still other languages.* 

The Huron-Iroquois family of tribes were sub-divided into several formid- 
able nations ; of these the Hurons dwelt in many villages, upon the small 
peninsula lying between the Georgian Bay of Lake Huron, and Lake Simcoe 
in Upper Canada.! Near to and south of the Hurons, among the Blue 
Mountains of Canada, dwelt the Tionnontates, or Tobacco nation J South 
of the Huron and Tobacco nations, was the country of the Attiwandarons, 
Neutral nation or called the Kahkwas by the Senecas. Their territory 
extended one hundred and twenty miles along the northern shore of 
Lake Erie, and across the Niagara river into the state of New York, as 
far east as the western limits of the Iroquois. They dwelt in forty villages ; 
three or four of which were east of the Niagara river and Lake Erie.§ One 
of their villages was located, it is believed, on a branch of the Eighteen 
Mile creek, near White's Comers, in Erie county, in this State. || Their 
territory extended west over Chautauqua county, along the southern shore 
of Lake Erie, it is believed, some distance into the state of Ohio. The 
Kahkwas, or Neutrals, were the first occupants of the soil of Chautauqua 

* 3 Bancroft, Chap. xxii. Quackenbos, Chap. ii. Parker's Jesuits in North America, xi.x. 

t Jesuits in North America, xxv. J Jesuits in North America, xliii. 

§ Lalemant Relation des Hurons, 1648. According to Hennepin, their territory extended 
along the south side of Lake Erie into the state of Ohio, as far west as the middle point in 
the south shore of Lake Erie. 

II O. H. Marshall. 


county of whom we have any account. They were a singular race ot 
people ; were great hunters, and were extremely superstitious, and ferocious 
in their manners- They waged fierce wars against the Nation of Fire and 
other western Indians. A letter from Father Lalemant to the Provincial of 
Jesuits in France, dated at St. Mary's Mission, May 19,, 1641, contains many 
interesting facts concerning them. He says : 

"Jean De Brebeuf, and Joseph Marie Chaumonot, two Fathers of our 
company which have charge of the 'mission to the Neutral nation, set out 
from Si. Marie on the 2d day of November, 1640, to visit this people. Father 
Brebeuf is peculiarly fitted for such an expedition, God having in an eminent 
degree endowed him with a capacity for learning languages. His compan- 
ion was also considered a proper person for the enterprise. 

" Although many of our French in that quarter have visited this people to 
profit by their furs and other commodities, we have no knowledge of any 
who have been there to preach the gospel, except Father De La Roche 
Dallion a Recollect, who passed the winter there in the year 1626. 

" The nation is very populous, there being estimated about forty villages. 
After leaving the Hurons, it is four or five days' journey, or about forty 
leagues, to the nearest of their villages ; the course being nearly due south. 
If, as indicated by the latest and most exact observations we can make, our 
new station, St. Marie, in the interor of the Huron country, is in north 
latitude about 44 degrees, 25 minutes, then the entrance of the Neuter 
nation fi-om the Huron side is about 42 J^ degrees. More exact surveys 
and observations cannot now be made, for the sight of a single instrument 
would bring to extremes those who cannot resist the temptation of an ink 

" From the first village of the Neuter nation that we met with in travel- 
ing from this place, as we proceeded south or south-east, it is about four days' 
travel to the place where the celebrated river of the nation empties into Lake 
Ontario, or St. Loui?. On the west side of that river, and not on the east, 
are the most numerous of the villages of the Neuter nation. There are 
three or four on the east side, extending from east to west towards the Eries, 
or Cat nation. 

" This river is that by which our great lake of the Hurons, or fresh sea, is 
discharged; which first empties into the lake of Erie, or of the nation 
of the Cat; from thence it enters the territory of the Neuter nation and takes 
the name of Onguiaahra [Niagara], until it empties into Ontario or St. Louis 
lake, from which latter, flows the river which passes Quebec, called the St. 
Lawrence ; so that if we once had control of the side of the lake nearest the 
residence of the Iroquois, we could ascend by the river St. Lawrence with- 
out danger, even to the Neuter nation and much beyond, with great saving 
of time and trouble. 

"According to the estimate of these illustrious Fathers who have been there, 
the Neuter nation comprises about 12,000 souls; which enables them to 
furnish 4,000 warriors, notwithstanding war, pestilence and famine have pre- 
vailed among them for three years in an extraordinary manner. 

" After all, I think that those who have heretofore ascribed such an extent 
and population to this nation, have understood by the Neuter nation, all who 
live south and south-west of our Hurons, and who are truly in great number 
being at first only partially known, and all being comprised under the same 
name. The most perfect knowledge of their language and country which has 


since been obtained, has resulted in a clear distinction between the tribes. 
Our, French, who first discovered this people, named them the 'Neuter 
natfon;' and not without reason; for their country being the ordinary passage 
by land between some of the Iroquois nations and the Hurons, who are 
sworn enemies, they remained at peace with both; so that in times past, the 
Hurons and Iroquois, meeting in the same wigwam or village of that nation, 
were both in safety while they remained. Recently their enmity against each 
other is so great, that there is no safety for either party in any place, particu- 
larly for the Hurons, for whom the Neuter nation entertains the least good 

" There is every reason for believing, that not long since, the Hurons, 
Iroquois, and Neuter nation, formed one people, and originally came from 
the same family, but have, in the lapse of time, become separated from each 
other, more or less, in distance, interest and affection, so that some are now 
enemies, others neutral, and others still live in intimate friendship and inter- 

" The food and clothing of the Neuter nation seem little different from 
that of our Hurons. They have Indian corn, beans and gourds in equal 
abundance. Also plenty of fish, some kinds of which abound in particular 
places only. 

" They are much employed in hunting deer, buffalo, wild cats, wolves, 
wUd boars, beaver and other animals. Meat is very abundant this year, on 
account of the heavy snow which has aided the hunters. It is rare to see 
snow in this country more than half a foot deep. But this year it is more 
than three feet. There is also abundance of wild turkeys, which go in flocks 
in the fields and woods. 

" Their fruits are the same as with the Hurons, except chestnuts, which 
are more abundant, and crab apples, which are somewhat larger. 

" The men, like all savages, cover their naked flesh with skins, but are less 
particular than the Hurons in concealing what should not appear. The 
squaws are ordinarily clothed, at least from the waist to the knees, but are 
more free and shameless in their immodesty than the Hurons. As for their 
remaining customs and manners, they are almost entirely similar to the other 
savage tribes of the country. 

"There are some things in which they differ from our Hurons. They 
are larger, stronger, and better formed. They also entertain a great affection 
for the dead, and have a greater number of fools and jugglers. 

" The Sonontonhemonos [Senecas], one of the Iroquois nations, the near- 
est to, and most dreaded by the Hurons, are not more than a dajr's journey 
distant from the eastemiost village of the Neuter nation, named Onguia- 
ahra [Niagara], of the same name as the river. 

" Our Fathers returned from the mission in safety, not having found in all 
the eighteen villages which they visited but one, named Klee-o-e-to-a, or St. 
Michael, which gave them the reception which their embassy deserved. In 
this village, a certain foreign nation, which lived beyond Lake Erie, or the 
nation of the Cat, named A-onen-re-ro-nfti, has taken refuge for many years 
for fear of their enemies ; and they seem to have been brought here by a 
good Providence to hear the word of God." 

The Andastes dwelt upon the lower Susquehanna.* To the south of Lake 
Erie, and west of the Neuter nation, dwelt a warlike nation of the Huron- 

* Shea. See Hist. Mag. ii. 294. 


Iroquois family, named the Eries or Nation of the Cat, so called from the 
great number of wild cats infesting their country.* They are referred to in 
the foregoing letter of Father L'AUemant. The Eries were valiant warriors, 
and for a long time were a terror to the Iroquois ; they had no fire-arms, but 
fought with poisoned arrows, which they discharged, it is said, with surpris- 
ing rapidity.! 

The most intelligent and advanced of this great Wyandot family of nations, 
and likewise the most terrible and ferocious, were the Five Nations, or Iro- 
quois proper. About 1539, they became bound together by an extraordi- 
nary league, and resided in the middle and eastern part of the state of New 
York, where, dwelling in numerous villages, they remained during the long 
and terrible wars that they subsequently waged against both savages and 
Europeans. The tribes composing this nation extended through the state 
of New York, from east to west, in the following order, viz. : Mohawk, 
Oneida, Onondaga, Cayugi, and Seneca. The fiercest and most numerous 
of these tribes was the Seneca ; it occupied as far west as the Genesee river. 

The first knowledge had by Europeans of the regions about Lake Erie, 
and of the people who inhabited them, was obtained by the French in Can- 
ada. French enterprise outstripped the English, in effecting a permanent 
settlement of this continent north of the state of Virginia. James Cartier, 
a French navigator, as early as the year 1534, sailed up the river St. Law- 
rence, as far as Montreal, then the site of the ancient Indian village of 
Hochelaga. Here he learned from the Indians, for the first time, of the exist- 
ence of the great lakes and the Mississippi river. He erected a cross and a 
shield, and named the country New France, and returned. Afterwards the 
French made repeated attempts to settle Canada. In the year 1 608, Quebec 
was founded by Champlain. In 161 5, Champlain, who was fond of adven- 
turous exploits, with a party of his countrymen, ascended the upper waters 
of the Ottawa river in Canada, crossed over, and discovered Lake Huron. 
Here he was joined by large bands of Hurons who dwelt there, and with 
these allies he traversed the wilderness of Upper Canada, crossed Lake 
Ontario, entered the territory of the Iroquois, who were the mortal foes of 
the Hurons, and fought a battle with the Senecas, which is supposed to have 
occurred in Onondaga county in this state. 

The Jesuits. 

In 161 5, five years before the May Flower left Plymouth, in England, 
there came over with Champlain from France, to bear the cross through 
pathless wilds, and among the savage tribes of America, missionaries of the 
order of St. Francis; and previous to the year 1625, three of their number, 
Le Caron, Viel, and Sagard, had reached the Neutral nation. These 
perhaps were the first Europeans who visited Western New York ; and the 
winter of 1626 was passed by De La Roche Dallion, a Franciscan, among 
this people. In 1625, the Franciscans were followed by the Jesuits, who 

•LeMercier Relation, 1654, 10. + Jesuits in North America, xlvi. 


soon commenced instructing the tribes of the North and West, and who, for 
one hundred and fifty years thereafter, labored among them with unbounded 
zeal and self devotion. The most of the knowledge that we have concerning 
these remote regions, and the events transpiring here in that early day, was 
obtained from the very full and careful reports that these ancient mission- 
aries annually transmitted to their superiors in France, which have been pre- 
served in Paris, and which are Called the Relations of the Jesuits. Two of 
these missionaries, Jean De Brebeuf and Joseph Marie Chaumonot, as 
appears by the letter of Father L'AUemant, in November, 1640, visited the 
Neutral nation, to preach to them the gospel, but it is not certain that they 
crossed the Niagara river. At this time, no Englishman of whom we have 
any account, had reached the basin of the St. Lawrence. Before this time, 
besides these priests, many Frenchmen had visited the Neutral nation, to 
purchase of them furs and other commodities. These constituted the near- 
est approaches that at that time any Europeans had made to Chautauqua 
county that we have any account of. Bancroft says: "Previous to 1640, 
by continued warfare with the Mohawks, the French had been excluded 
from the navigation of Lake Ontario, and had never launched a canoe upoif* 
Lake Erie ; their avenue to the West was by the way of the Ottawa and 
French rivers, so. that the whole coast of Ohio and South Michigan remained 
unknown, except as seen by missionaries from their stations in Canada.'' 

Wars of the Huron-Iroquois Nations. 

When, in 1634, the first mission was established by the Jesuits among the 
Hurons, they found them and their kinsmen, the Iroquois, implacable foes, 
and engaged in a fierce war that had then been waged between them for 
many years. This war continued during the residence of the Jesuits among 
the Hurons, with success oftenest, but not always, in favor of the Iroquois, 
until the year 1 648, when a war party of the Iroquois surprised and burned 
two fortified Huron towns, taking prisoners or massacring all their inhabi- 
tants. The next year, one thousand Iroquois warriors entered the heart of 
the Huron country undiscovered, and inflicted a terrible blow upon their 
enemies. They burned two more fortified towns of the Hurons, massacred 
their inhabitants, and the French missionaries residing there. They were, 
however, finally driven back by the fierce valor of the Hurons, but not until 
they had inflicted a fatal blow upon them. The Hurons, fearing other 
attacks, now abandoned their villages, scattered themselves in many direc- 
tions, and thereafter ceased to exist as a nation.* 

Although the Neutral nation waged a fierce war against the Nation of 
Fire, who dwelt in Michigan in thirty villages, it maintained a strict neutrality 
between the Hurons and Iroquois during these wars.t This did not save 

•Jesuits in North America, 361 to 402. 

+ "Last summer two thousand warriors of the Neutral nation attacked a town of the 
Nation of Fire well fortified with a palisade, and defended by goo warriors. They took it 
after a siege of ten days ; killed many on the spot, and made.800 prisoners, men, women, 


it, however, from the fierce Iroquois. In the year 1650, the latter commenced 
a savage war upon them ; and in the autumn of that year, they assaulted and 
took one of their chief towns, in which were sixteen hundred men, besides 
women and children. In the spring of 1651, they captured another of these 
towns, butchering and leading into captivity great numbers of the Neutrals, 
and driving the remainder from their villages and corn fields into the forests, 
where thousands of them perished. The destruction of the Neutrals was so 
great, in this cruel war, as to wholly wipe them out as a nation ; and now no 
trace remains of this warlike and powerful tribe who once possessed the 
territory of this county but their name.* The scene of their final overthrow 
is believed to have occurred near the city of Buffalo. 

With the destruction of their kinsmen of the Huron and Neutral nations, 
the Iroquois did not rest. The Eries, whose dominions extended along the 
south shore of Lake Erie, next fell victims to their savage fury. In 1655, 
from one thousand two hundred to one thousand eight hundred Iroquois 
warriors moved into the territory of the Eries, who withdrew at their 
approach with their women and children. The whole force of the Iroquois 
embarked in canoes upon Lake Erie ; and it is probable that this fierce 
horde coasted along the shores of Chautauqua county ; and a more wild and 
savage scene cannot well be imagined than this ferocious gathering of bar- 
barians presented, when on this bloody expedition of revenge. They found 
the Eries gathered in a position, the location of which is not now known. 
An assault was made with such savage fury by the Iroquois, as to enable 
them to carry the fort ; and a slaughter so terrible ensued, as to wholly 
destroy the Eries. t The Iroquois next made war upon the Andastes, who 
resided upon the Susquehanna, and who were the last of the Huron- Iroquois 
or Wyandot family that remained unconquered. The Andastes made a brave 
and stubborn resistance, but were obliged to yield, in 1675, '^o the superior 
numbers of the Iroquois. J 

The accounts of the destruction of these ancient Indian nations, we have 
mostly from the written riarratives of the Jesuits residing at that time with 
the Indians of Canada and New York ; and various traditions are extant 
respecting these occurrences. From the extirpation of the Neutral nation 
to its settlement by the pioneers of the Holland Purchase, the territory com- 
prising Chautauqua county continued to be the home of the Senecas, the 
fiercest and most numerous of the Iroquois nation. 

La Salle. 

The missionaries who came fi:om France were most excellent and able 
men. In their zeal to christianize the Indian, they became the pioneers of 
the North-west. One of their number, AUouez, in 1665, explored the 

and children. After burning 70 of the best warriors, they put out the eyes of the old men, 
and cut away their lips, and left them to drag out a miserable existence. Behold the 
scourge that is depopulating all this country." — Rdation des Hurons, 1644, 98. 
•Jesuits in North America, 436. f Jesuits in North America, 438. J Relation, 1676, 2. 


country about Lake Superior, and taught the Indians there. He first discov- 
ered the Pictured Rocks, and learned of the copper mines.* Robert Cave- 
lier de La Salle, a resolute and talented young Frenchman, who afterwards 
became the proprietor of Fort Frontenac in Canada, and the wilderness 
around about it, resolved to explore these regions and the vast prairies of the 
West, and to reach the Ohio and Mississippi, of which the Indians had informed 
him. July 6, 1669, he left La Chine in Canada, ascended the St. Lawrence, 
coasted along the southern shore of Lake Ontario to the Irondequoit Bay, 
and thence penetrated into the state of New York, to the Indian villages of 
the Senecas, near the Genesee river, with a view of traveling farther in that 
direction, until he should reach the head waters of the Allegany and Ohio. 
After remaining here awhile, he abandoned this design, and with his com- 
panions from thence traveled west, crossed the Niagara river into Upper 
Canada, and passed the winter of 1669 and 1670 on Grand river, near to 
the shore of Lake Erie. In the spring following, he coasted along the 
northern shore of the lake, west, to the east side of Long Point ; and thence 
he returned to Montreal by the circuitous route of the Sault de St. Marie and 
the Ontario river, where he arrived June 18, 1670.! 

In 1673, "Marquette, a missionary, and Joliet, a French citizen of Quebec, 
with a few companions, explored the Mississippi, between the mouths of 
the Wisconsin and Arkansas ; but before that year La Salle, it is said, made 
other wonderful journeys in the West; that he reached the Ohio, and visited 
the falls at Louisville, and had even descended the Illinois to its confluence 
with the Mississippi. He possessed a most adventurous and enterprising 
spirit ; and these journeys aroused in him a desire to make new discoveries 
and more extended explorations. He first conceived the design of uniting 
the French possessions in Canada with the valley of the Mississippi, by a line 
of military posts, to secure its commerce to his country, and at the same time 
completely encircle the British colonies in North America. Having obtained 
the sanction of Louis XIV. to his projects, in the fall of the year 1678, 
he, with a party of Frenchmen, in a large canoe, entered the Niagara river, 
and established at its mouth, on its eastern bank, a trading post, which he 
inclosed with palisades. This constituted the first occupation of Western 
New York by civilized men, and the founding of Fort Niagara — a fortress 
which, for nearly a century and a half, filled an important place in the history 
of Canada, the northern portion of the United States, and of the Indian 
tribes dwelling in that region. 

* 2 Hildreth, 110. 

t O. H. Marshall, Esq., to whom the author is indebted for the facts respecting this 
expedition of La Salle, on a recent visit to France, examined the valuable collections of 
unpublished manuscripts relating to early French explorations in America, now in the 
possession of M. Pierre Margry, of Paris, and was permitted to make copious extracts 
from a. copy of the journal of this expedition of La Salle. An appropriation of $10,000 
has been made by Congress for the publication of these recently discovered manuscripts 
and maps in M. Margry's possession, which, when issued, will contain many volumes of 
great interest to students of American history. 


In January, 1679, La Salle commenced building a vessel at the mouth of 
the Cayuga creek, a stream that empties into the Niagara river, at the village of 
La Salle, in Niagara county, in the state of New York, a few miles above the 
falls. By August it was finished, and completely equipped with sails, masts, 
and everything needful, and launched upon the waters of the upper Niagara 
river, it was a bark of sixty tons burthen, and was armed with seven small 
cannon, and named the Griffin. It was the first vessel that ever spread its 
sails to the breezes of Lake Erie. 

On the 7th day of August, 1679, La Salle, Tonti, his Italian lieutenant, 
and Father Louis Hennepin, and twenty-nine others, in the presence of many 
Iroquois warriors, fired all their cannon and arquebuses, and set sail for the 
foot of Lake Erie, steering west-south-west ; on that day they made many 
leagues, passing Chautauqua county. Hennepin, in his narrative, states that 
he saw, on this voyage, the two distant shores of the lake, fifteen or sixteen 
leagues apart. They were the first Europeans of whom we have any 
account, that beheld the rugged and forest covered hills of Chautauqua. 
La Salle continued his voyage until the Griffin cast anchor in Green Bay, 
on the north-western coast of Lake Michigan. She was loaded with a cargo 
of furs, and sent upon her return voyage, but was never heard of more. 
After the departure of the Griffin, La Salle for awhile awaited her return 
with a portion of his party, at the mouth of the St. Joseph's river. Cruelly 
disappointed, but undismayed, he pushed on into the state of Illinois, where 
he built a fort which he called Creve Coeur, in token of his grief. He sent 
Hennepin, with two companions, to the Mississippi, which they ascended to 
the Falls of St. Anthony. In March, 1680, La Salle, with three campanions, 
set out fi'om his fort in Illinois for Fort Frontenac, at the foot of LakeOnta- 
rio. Depending upon his gun alone for his supplies, he chose for his route 
the ridge of high lands which divide the basin of the Ohio firom that of the 

This long journey of nearly one thousand miles through the wildemesf, 
he and his companions accomplished on foot. La Salle returned to his fort 
in Illinois from Fort Frontenac, with recruits and supphes.. He then 
descended the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, and again journeyed back 
to Canada, and crossed the sea to France, where his government furnished 
him with four vessels, with which he again crossed the ooean, and landed at 
the Bay of Matagorda, in the state of Texas. With a, few companions he 
traversed Texas, and penetrated as far as New Mexico, where he spent much 
of the year 1686, with twenty others. While on his way frorn New 
Mexico to Canada, he was assassinated by a treacherous companion. Thus 
perished this bold pioneer, who will long be remembered as one of the most 
remarkable explorers that ever visited the American continent. To follow 
La Salle in his wanderings at this day, with all the modern facilities of 
travel, would be regarded as no small achievement.* 

* History of the Holland Purchase, 116. 


Baron La Hontan. 

In 1687, Denonville, governor of Canada, with a large party of French 
and Indians, landed upon the shore of Lake Ontario, and penetrated into 
the territory of the Senecas. He fought a battle with them near the site of 
the village of Victor, in the county of Ontario. He afterwards, in the same 
year, arrived at Niagara, which, from a trading post, he changed to a sanitary 
station, by erecting there a fort of four bastions. But the French were 
compelled, the following year, to abandon Niagara, by the hostile Iroquois, 
who were then waging a terrible and successful war against them.* Among 
the French officers who accompanied Denonville on this expedition, was 
Baron La Hontan. This officer, with some Frenchmen, and the returning 
western Indian allies of Denonville, departed from Fort Niagara, coasted 
along the northern shore of Lake Erie, and arrived at the French post of St. 
Joseph. He afterwards joined a party of the western Indians, and invaded 
the territory of the Iroquois, south of Lake Erie ; but did not come within 
the limits of Chautauqua county. He, however, in his travels obtained 
sufficient information to give a very interesting description of Lake Erie and 
the country around it, which he saw in 1688. In the course of this account 
of the lake, he says : 

" Lake Erie is justly dignified with the illustrious name of Conti ; for 
assuredly it is the finest upon earth. You may judge of the goodness of the 
climate from the latitude of the countries which surround it. Its circum- 
ference extends 230 leagues, but it affords everywhere a charming prospect ; 
and its shores are decked with oak trees, elms, chestnuts, walnut, apple, 
plum trees, and vines which bear their fine clusters up to the very tops of 
the trees, upon a sort of ground that lies as smooth as one's hand. Such 
ornaments as these are sufficient to give rise to the most agreeable idea of a 
landscape in the world. I can not express what quantities of deer and 
turkeys are to be found in these woods, and in the vast meadows that lie 
upon the south side of the lake. At the foot of the lake we find wild beeves 
[buffaloes], on the banks of two pleasant streams that disembogue into it, 
without cataracts or rapid currents. It abounds with sturgeon and whitefish, 
but trouts are very scarce in it, as well as the other fish that we take in the 
Lakes Hurons [Huron] and Illinese [Michigan]. It is clear of shelves, 
rocks, and banks of sand, and has fourteen or fifteen fathoms water. The 
savages assure us that it is never disturbed by high winds except in the 
months of December, January, and February, and even then but seldom, 
which I am very apt to believe, for we had very few storms when I wintered 
in my fort, in 1688, though the fort lay open to the Lake of Hurons." 

There is no doubt, as appears from this extract, that the American bison, 
or buffalo, once inhabited these regions. They once ranged in some parts 
of the United States, nearly to the Atlantic seaboard. Charlevoix, the 
French traveler, says, that in 1720, "there were on the south side of Lake 
Erie, a prodigious quantity of buffaloes. "t But we at this day must seek 

' I Doc. History of New York. 

1 1 Irving's Life of Washington, 335. The River Aux Boeuf, a tributary of French 
creek, was so named from the great number of buffaloes there found. — Pa. Hist. Collections. 


the buffalo two thousand miles away in the Far West ! They and their red 
brother, the Indian, are fast disappearing. Surely and rapidly are these 
lords of the forest and the plain yielding up their once wide domain to the 
advance of the encroaching white man, and making their home each year 
nearer, and still nearer, to the setting sun. 

Indian Occupation. 

At first, the Allegany and Ohio were regarded by the French and Indians 
as one stream ; Belle Riviere being the name given to it in French ; Alle- 
gany in the Delaware tongue ; and Oheeo in the Seneca ; all meaning, when 
translated, " fair or beautiful water." The territory lying west of the Alle- 
gany mountains, traversed by this river from the southern boundary of New 
York to the eastern limits of Ohio, after the destruction of the Neutrals and 
the Andastes, fell into the possession of the conquerors, the Iroquois ; and 
the Seneca tribe of that nation thereafter planted many colonies there. As 
early as 1724, the Monsey or Wolf tribe of the Delawares, who had previ- 
ously dwelt in the north-eastern part of Pennsylvania, but had been crowded 
out by the encroachments of the whites, were allowed by the Iroquois to 
settle along the Allegany. Between the years 1724 and 1728, by their per- 
mission, the Shawnees, a restless and warlike people, also located along the 
lower Allegany and upper Ohio. 

When the first white man reached those wild regions, numerous Indian 
villages were found along the Allegany river and its tributaries. At Kittan- 
ning was an old Indian town called Cattanyan, which, in September, 1756, at 
day break, was surprised by Col. John Armstrong, and burned. The Dela- 
ware Indians who occupied it, made a desperate resistance, and thirty or 
forty of their number were slain, including their resolute chief, Capt. Jacobs. 
Hugh Mercer, who became afterwards a distinguished American general, 
and who fell at the battle of Princeton, accompanied Col. Armstrong on this 

At the mouth of the Mahoning was another Indian village. Where 
Franklin is situated, at the mouth of French creek, was the Indian town of 
Venango. It was here that the French built a fort which they called 
Machault; and where afterwards Washington, when on his journey to La 
Boeuf, had the interview with the celebrated Frenchman, Capt. Joncaire. 
Near the mouth of the Tionesta were three Monsey villages, called Gosh- 
gosh-unk [Cuscusing], where, in 1767, Rev. David Zeisberger, a Moravian 
missionary, commenced preaching the gospel to the Indians. He and his 
coadjutor, Br. Gotlob Senseman, daily preached to their wild hearers, who 
came in great numbers to listen, with faces painted black and vermillion, and 
heads decorated with fox tails and feathers. Zeisberger afterwards retired 
fifteen miles further up the river, to a place called Lawanakana, near where 
Hickory town in Venango county now stands. Here he gathered around 
him a little settlement, and built a chapel, and placed in it a bell, the first ever 
heard in Venango county, and for two years prosecuted his pious efforts. 


Near Irvinton, in Warren county, at the mouth of the Broken Straw,* 
was the Indian village of Buckaloons. About five miles above Kinjua,t 
extending several miles along the Allegany river, was a large Seneca town, 
called Yah-roon-wa-go. Near where once was the centre of this town, 
Cornplanter made his residence. 

Mrs. Mary Jemison, before her faculties were impaired, imparted much 
information to the white men respecting the Indians and some of their settle- 
ments in Western New York, She was known by the early settlers as the 
"White Woman." She was captured by the Indians in her youth during the 
French and Indian wars, and lived with them the remainder of her days. 
She died in Buffalo, September 19th, 1833, at a very advanced age, much 
esteemed for her goodness and intelligence, by both whites and Indians. 
She was so kindly treated by the Indians after her captivity, that she adopted 
their customs, and married an Indian husband. In 1759, with her little son 
on her back and with her three adopted Indian brothers, she journeyed 
through the wilderness from Ohio to Little Beardstown, on the Genesee. 
In her account of their journey, she says : 

" When we arrived at the mouth of French creek, we hunted two days, 
and thence came on to Connewango creek, where we staid eight or ten days, 
in consequence of our horses having left us and strayed into the woods. 
The horses, however, were found, and we again prepared to resume our 
journey. During our stay at that place, the rain fell fast, and had raised the 
creek to such a height, that it was seemingly impossible for us to cross it. 
A number of times we ventured in, but were compelled to return, barely 
escaping with our lives. At length we succeeded in swimming our horses, 
and reached the opposite shore, though I and my little boy but just 
escaped from being drowned. From Sandusky the path we traveled was 
crooked and obscure, but /was tolerably well understood by my oldest 
brother, who had traveled it a number of times when going and returning 
from the Cherokee wars. The fall by this time was considerably advanced, 
and the rains, attended with cold winds, continued daily to increase the 
difficulties of traveling. From Connewango we came to a place called by 
the Indians Che-na-shun-ga-tan, on the Allegany river, at the mouth of 
what is now called Cold Spring creek in the town of Napoli [now Cold 
Spring], Cattaraugus county, and from that to Twa-wan-ne-gwan, or 
Tu-ne-un-gwan, [which means an eddy not strong], where the early frosts 
had destroyed the com, so that the Indians were in danger of starving for 
want of bread. Having rested ourselves two days at that place, we came to 

The Indian village of Tu-ne-un-gwan mentioned by Mrs. Jemison, was 
situated 18 miles further up the river than Che-na-shun-ga-tan in the town 
of Carrollton, Cattaraugus county. The Senecas also settled, at an early 
day, near the mouth of the Cattaraugus creek. 

At the close of the last century, there were along the Allegan/ and French 

* Its Indian name was Hosh-e-nuk-wa-gunk, signifying the place where much broken 
straw and other drift stuff are accumulated together. — Alden's Missions, 156. 
t Signifying, in the Indian tongue, the place of many fishes. 


creek, scattered through north-western Pennsylvania and south-western New 
York, other Indian towns ; but none were then known to have certainly 
existed in Chautauqua county. The evidences remained, however, at the 
first settlement of the county, of its having not long previously been occu- 
-pied at various points by Indians. In 1795, when Col. James McMahan 
passed through this county, upon the Judge Prendergast tract on Conne- 
wango creek, in the town of Kiantone, there was an Indian camping 
ground. There were also to be seen, at the first settlement of the county, 
near the mouth of the Kiantone, the forms of com hills, upon lands that 
appeared to have once been cleared, and had since grown up to small shrub- 
bery of thorns and red plum.* 

In November, 1805, when William Bemus first came to the town of Ellery, 
at Bemus Point, unmistakable evidences remained, that an Indian settle- 
ment had formerly existed there. Where the cemetery is situated, were the 
decayed remains and traces of some Indian dwellings, and the evidences 
that a large tract of land in the vicinity had formerly been improved. On 
Bemus creek were two clearings, each about ten acres in extent, a quarter 
of a mile apart. Where these improvements were, wild plum trees grew ; 
and there were the remains of brush inclosures, which Wm. Bemus had 
repaired, enabling him to secure a crop of grass the first years of his settle- 
ment there. Corn hills also were visible, and even potatoes of the lady 
finger variety, th^at had been perpetuated from year to year were there still 
growing ; some of which were gathered and planted by Wm. Bemus. Be- 
low Bemus', at Griffith's Point, were similar signs of Indian occupation. f 

After the close of the Revolutionary war, that numerous portion or clan 
of the Seneca nation residing along the Allegany and its tributaries, were 
under the control of the very able and just war chief Complanter, sometimes 
called John O'Beel. The domain of this branch of the Senecas' property 
included Chautauqua county; and the rude improvements found here were 
the results, probably, of the occupation by these Indians, who undoubtedly, 
at some time during the last century, had at least temporary homes within 
the county. This clan were often referred to as the Seneca- Abeel; and in 
a map published by Reading Howell, 1792, the country of the upper waters 
of the Connewango, and of Chautauqua lake, is designated as " O'Beel's 
Cayentona." This map is among the Pennsylvania Historical Collections. 
In James Ross Snowden's Historical Sketch of Complanter, prepared for the 
occasion of the Complanter monument, is the following : 

"A solitary traveler, after the close of the Revolutionary war, in 1783, 
wandering near the shores of Chautauqua lake, found himself benighted; and 
ignorant of the path which should lead him to his place of destination, he 
feared he would be compelled to pass the night in the forest, and without 
shelter. Btt when the darkness of the night gathered around him, he saw 
the light of a distant fire in the woods, to which he bent his steps. Then he 

* Judge E. T. Foote. Warren's History of Chautauqua County, 
t J. L. Bugbee. See also his sketch of Wm. Bemus, 


found an Indian wigwam, the habitation of a chief with his family. He was 
kindly received and hospitably entertained. After a supper of corn and 
venison, the traveler returned thanks to God, whose kind Providence had 
directed his way, and preserved him in the wilderness. He slept comfort- 
ably on the ample bear skins provided by his host. 

" In the morning, the Indian invited the traveler to sit beside him on a 
large log in front of his cabin. They were seated, side by side. Presently 
the Indian told the traveler to move on a little, which he did; and, keeping 
by his side, again requested him to move. This was repeated several times. 
At length, when near the end of the log, the chief gave an energetic 
push, and requested his companion to move further. The traveler remon- 
strated, and said, 'I can go no further; if I do, I shall fall off the log.' 
' That is the way' said the Indian in reply, 'you white people treat us. When 
the United People, the Six Nations, owned the whole land from the lakes to 
the great waters, they gave to Corlaer a seat on the Hudson, and to Ouas a 
town and land on the Delaware. We have been driven from our lands on 
the Mohawk, the Genesee, the Chemung, and the Unadilla. And from our 
western door, we have been pushed from the Susquehanna; then over the 
great mountains; then beyond the Ohio, the Allegany, and Connewango; 
and now we are here on the borders of the great lakes, and a further push 
will throw me and my people off the log.' * * * The chief, in conclu- 
sion, with a sad and anxious countenance asked the question, ' Where are 
we to go?' The only response that was made, was the sighing of the wind 
through the leaves of tlie forest ; the traveler was silent." 

The traveler above referred to was the Rev. Samuel Kirkland, who, for 
many years previous to the Revolutionary war, was a missionary among the 
Six Nations, and whose name and services are, during and after the Revolu- 
tion, recorded in connection with Indian history. 

The Indian villages of North-western Pennsylvania and Western New 
York often contained houses sufficiently large to accommodate three or four 
families. Adjacent to them were frequently extensive cornfields. Between 
these villages, or leading from them to their favorite hunting grounds and 
fishing places, were well trodden pathways, several of which passed through 
the county of Chautauqua. A broad and well worn Indian trail led from 
the Cattaraugus creek, through the lake towns, to the Pennsylvania line. 
Another commenced near to the mouth of the Cattaraugus creek, and passed 
over the -ridge in Arkwright and Charlotte, at the point of its lowest eleva- 
tion ; and through Charlotte Center and Sinclairville, and southerly in the 
direction of the Indian towns on the Allegany river. This trail had the 
appearance of much use ; the roots of the trees along its margin were marred, 
and calloused ; and at certain points it was worn deeply into the ground.. 
It was used by the early settlers as a highway or bridle path, in going from the 
center to the north-eastern part of the county, and also by the Indians sub- 
sequently to the settlement of the county. Still another Indian path com- 
menced at the Indian settlement, near the mouth of the Cattaraugus creek, 
and passed down the Connewango valley, through the eastern parts of the 
to^vns of Hanover, Villenova, Cherry Creek, and Ellington. This path was 


used by white men in the settlement of these towns, and by the Indians 
subsequently to the settlement of the county. 

AH the region lying west of Blue Ridge, and east of the Wabash, which 
included within its limits Chautauqua county, remained unexplored and 
almost unknown to Europeans, until nearly as late as the year 1750 ; for the 
outermost Hmits of the back settlements of the English colonies of Virginia 
and Pennsylvania only extended as far west as the Blue Ridge. Either the 
French had been excluded from here by the fierce and warlike Senecas, who 
were their implacable foes, or their enterprise had not yet led them in this 
direction ; and prior to this time, the points occupied by civilized men in the 
West were mostly mere trading posts, and the forests were only traversed 
by traders and missionaries. Chautauqua county, and the adjacent regions, 
not being in the route of their travel, were barely known, and were untrav- 
ersed except by bands of Indians in their hostile excursions. The French 
officer La Hontan says : 

" The banks of this lake [Erie] are commonly frequented by none but 
warriors, whether the Iroquois, the Illinese, the Oumiamies, etc. ; and it is 
very dangerous to stop there. By this means it comes to pass, that the stags, 
roebucks, and turkeys run in great bodies up and down the shore, all around 
the lake. In former times the Errionons and the Andastogueronons lived 
upon the confines of the lake ; but they were extirpated by the Iroquois, as 
well as the other nations marked on the map."* 

Events leading to the French and Indian Wars. 

The boundary line between the French and English possessions in 
America had long been a cause for earnest contention. The French 
claimed dominion to all the country lying west of the Allegany mountains. 
The English also claimed the territory westward of their colonies to the 
Pacific Ocean. The territory of Chautauqua county was included in these 
disputed regions ; and as a consequence of this controversy, it was soon 
brought nearer to the scene of prominent military operations, and in close 
proximity to important lines of communication, or rough military highways 
leading firom distant military posts in this then interminable western wilder- 
ness. Communications between the French posts on the Mississippi river, 
and the French forts and settlements in Canada, were at first maintained by 
the long and circuitous route of the Mississippi, Green Bay, and the Ottawa^ 
and afterwards by Lake Michigan and the lUinois ; and at a still later period 
by the way of the Maumee and the Wabash. The direct and easy commu- 
nication that could be had between Canada and the Mississippi, by the way 
of Lake Erie and the short portage of Chautauqua lake, or over that from 
Presque Isle [Erie] to French creek, and the upper waters of the Ohio, seems 
for a long time to have been unknown to the French ; but events of an 
important character as affecting this part of the world, and also the history 
of that of the two most powerful nations of Europe, were destined soon to 

* La Hontan's Voyages. 


introduce this region to the notice both of the French and the English. 
The latter, in 1722, established a trading post at Oswego, and, a little later, 
built there a fort. The French, to enable them to command communication 
•with the West, thereupon, in 1725, reoccupied and reconstructed Fort Niag- 
ara, which had been deserted for over thirty-five years, and made it a strong 
fortress, and which thereafter became the scene of exciting military events. 

In 1749, the two rival countries proceeded stiU more directly to assert 
their rights to the territory l)fing west of the Alleganies. The English gov- 
ernment granted five hundred thousand acres of land on the Ohio to the 
Ohio CoRipany, which included persons in London, Maryland and Virginia 
as its members, among whom were Lawrence and Augustine Washington. 
The objects of this company were the settlement of this territory, and to 
establish a trade with the Indians. The French, the same year, sent from 
Detroit Capt. De Celeron, with three hundred men to march east to the 
Allegany mountains, to take formal possession of this territory, and to warn 
the .English traders out of the country. He performed the task, and de- 
posited at important points leaden plates, with the arms of France engraved. 
Three of these have been found, we are told ; one at Marietta, one at the 
mouth of the Big Kanawha, and one at the mouth of French creek. The 
following is a translation of the inscription upon one of these plates, which 
was obtained by artifice from Joncaire, the French interpreter, by the Sene- 
cas, and delivered to Sir William Johnson, who forwarded it to Governor 
Clinton : 

"In the year 1749, during the reign of Louis XV., King of France, we, 
Celoron, commander of a detachment sent by Monsieur the Marquis De la 
Galissonire, commander in chief of Ne# France, for the restoration of tran- 
quillity in some villages of Indians of these districts, have buried this plate 
at the confluence of the Ohio and Tchadakoin, this 29th day of July, near 
the river Ohio, otherwise Beautiful River, as a monument of the renewal of 
possession which we have taken of the said river Ohio, and of all those that 
therein fall, and all the lands on both sides as far as the sources of the said 
rivers, as enjoyed or ought to be enjoyed by the preceding Kings of France, 
and as they therein have maintained themselves by arms, and by treaties, 
especially by those of Riswick, of Utrecht, and of Aix-la-Chapelle."* 

Origin of the Name Chautauqua. 

The name Ohio, or La Belle Riviere, was applied by the French to that 
portion of the Allegany, extending up from Pittsburgh as far, at least, as 
Franklin, as well as to the Ohio proper. It is probable that the Connewango, 
Chautauqua lake and outlet, and perhaps that part of the Allegany below the 
mouth of the Connewango to Franklin, were called by the French the Tchad- 
akoin, as inscribed upon this leaden plate, and that, in process of time, this 
appellation was retained only by the lake. The word underwent various 
changes in its orthography also, until it came to be spelled Chautauqua. On 
a manuscript map of 1 749, made by a Jesuit in the Department de la Marine 

*9 Doc. Colonial Hist, of N. Y., pp. 610-11. 


in Paris, it is spelled "Tjadakoin,'' and the Chautauqua creek that empties 
into Lake Erie in the town of Westfield, is called the Riviere Aux Pomes, or 
Apple river. In the translations of the letters of Du Quesne, [pronounced 
Du Kane\, governor-general of Canada, to the French government in 1753, 
found in vol. 10 of Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the 
State of New York, it is spelled " Chataconit." In Stephen Coffin's affidavit, 
sworn to before Sir William Johnson in 1754, " Chadakoin." In the French 
of Capt. Pouchot, in his history of the French and English war in North 
America, written before the American Revolution, and in the map accom- 
panying it, the name of the lake is spelled ^^Shatacoin." On Pownell's map 
of 1776, and Lewis Evans' of 1755, it is written " Jadaxque." Gen. Wm. 
Irvine, who visited Chautauqua prior to 1788, writes it ''■ Jadaqua." On the 
map made by the Holland Land Company in 1804, it is " Chataughque." 
After the settlement of the county, until the year 1859, it was spelled 
" Chautauque," when, by a resolution of the Board of Supervisors, passed 
October nth of that year, at the suggestion of Hon. E. T. Foote, it was 
changed to "Chautauqua," that its pronunciation might conform to the pro- 
nunciation of the word by the Indians, at the time of the first settlement 
of the county.* 

Various significations have been attributed to the word Chautauqua. 
Among others, it is said to mean, " the place where one was lost," or the 
"place of easy death,'' in allusion to a tradition of the Senecas. Com- 
planter, in his celebrated speech against the title, of the Phelps and Gorham . 
tract, alluding to this tradition, says : " In this case one chief has said he 
would ask you to put him out of pain : another who will not think of dying 
by the hand of his father or his brbther, has said he will retire to ' Chaud- 
dauk-wa,' eat of the fatal root, and sleep with his fathers in peace."t 

Dr. Peter WUson, an educated Cayuga chief, communicated to O. H. 
Marshall, Esq., the following Seneca tradition : " A party of Senecas 
returning from the Ohio in the spring of the year, ascended the outlet of 
Chautauqua lake, passed into the lake, and while paddling through it, caught 
a fish of a kind with which they were not familiar, and they threw it into the 
bottom of their canoe. Reaching the head of the lake, they made a portage 
across to the Chautauqua creek, then swollen with the spring freshets. 
Descending the creek into Lake Erie, they found, to their astonishment, the 
fish still alive. They threw it into the lake, and it disappeared. In process 
of time the same fish appeared abundantly in the lake, having never been 
caught in it before. They concluded they all sprang from the Chautauqua 
lake progenitor, and hence they named that Lake, " G^a-ja-dah'-gwah, com- 
pounded of two Seneca words Ga-iaJi, " fish," and Ga-dah'-gwah " taken 

* No one now living has been longer or more prominently identified with this county 
during its early years, and consequently none more familiar with its early settlers and its 
history, than Judge Foote ; and no one has contributed so much in time and money, or 
has been more solicitous to preserve the facts connected with its early history than he. 

+ See Alden's Missions, p. 169. Also Morgan's League of the Iroquois. 


out." In process of time the word became contracted into Jah-dah-gwah ; 
the prefix Ga being dropped, as is often the case."* 

Other meanings have been assigned to the word. Chautauqua has been 
said to signify " foggy place," in allusion to the mist arising from the lake ; 
also to mean " high up," referring to the elevated situation of the lake ; 
while it is said that Horatio Jones and Jasper Parrish, early Indian interpre- 
ters, well versed in the Seneca tongue^ gave its meaning to be "a pack tied 
in the middle '' or " two moccasins fastened together," from the resemblance 
of the lake to those objects. 

The following lines and note are from the pen of Col. Wm. H. C. Hosmer, 

of Avon : 

" Famous in the days of yore, But the music of her tread 

Bright Ja-da-qua ! was thy shore, Made the prophet shake his head, 

And the stranger treasures yet For the mark of early doom 

Pebbles that thy waves have wet ; He had seen through beauty bloom. 
For they catch an added glow 

From a tale of long ago. " When a fragrant wreath was made, 

Ere the settler's flashing steel Round her brow she clasped the braid ; 

Rang the greenwood's funeral peal, When her roving eye, alas ! 

Or the plow-share in the vale Flowering in the summer grass. 

Blotted out the red man's trail. Did the fatal plant behold, 

And she plucked it from the mould ; 

" Deadly was the plant that grew ^^ ''if ^""^'f '°°^/^^ ^'^' 

Near thy sheet of glimmering blue, ^nd her peril leame-1 too late. 

But the mystic leaves were known Flymg fast her thirst to slake 

To our wandering tribe alone. ^^"^ '^y «'»^^> «"=hantmg lake. 

Sweeter far than honeyed fruit << Then was gained the treacherous brink. 

Of the wild plum was its root ; Stooped O-wa-na dawn to drink ; 

But the smallest morsel cursed xhen the waters, calm before. 

Those who tasted, wuh a thirst Waking, burst upon the shore ; 

That impelled them to leap down And the maid was seen no more. 

In thy cooling depth, and drown. Azure glass ! in emeralds framed. 

Since that hour Ja-da-qua named, 

" On thy banks, in other hours. Or 'the place of easy death,' 

Sat O-VVA-NA wreathing flowers. When I pant with failing breath. 

And, with whortleberries sweet, I will eat the root that grows 

Filled were baskets at her feet. On thy banks, and find repose 

Nature to a form of grace With the loveliest of our daughters 

Had allied a faultless face ; In thy blue engulfing waters. " 

"These lines allude to a beautiful Seneca tradition that lends an added charm to Chau- 
tauqua lake, in the state of New York. A young squaw is said to have eaten of =1 root 
growing on its banks, which created tormenting thirst. To slake it she stooped down to 
drink of its clear waters, and disappeared for ever. Hence the name of the lake Ja-da- 
QUA, or the place of easy death, where one disappears and is seen no more." [See I vol. 
Hosmer's Poems, 225, 373.] 

• The Portage Road. 

The Marquis Dii Quesne, having been appointed governor-general of 
Canada, arrived there in 1752. The measures taken by him in behalf of 

* Dr. Wilson (now deceased) is regarded as good authority upon this subject. Of him 
Mr. Marshall says : " He had a great love for the traditional annals of his people, a very 
critical knowledge of the Seneca language, now reduced to a written system. Besides, he 
enjoyed the advantage of an English education, having graduated with honor at the Gene- 
see Medical College, and practiced medicine with success among the Indians. 

" The word ' Shatacoin,' if properly pronounced in French would give the identical word 
given by Dr. Wilson in the tradition." 


the French to obtain possession of the disputed territory, were of a more 
open and decisive character than those of any officer who had preceded him. 
Soon after his arrival, he commenced preparations to construct the long line 
of frontier forts, which had been first suggested by La Salle, and which the 
French, for so many years, had in contemplation, that were to unite Canada 
with Louisiana, by the way of the Ohio. The first step taken towards this 
bold project, may be regarded as leading directly to one of the most 
memorable wars of modern times, known in this country as the French and 
Indian war ; which resulted in divesting the French of Canada, and of the 
greater part of their possessions in America. This war also extended, with 
great results, over continental Europe, and even to Asia and Africa. 

The first act of Du Quesne was to open a portage road from Erie to 
La Boeuf, on French creek ; and also the same season to open another road 
from the mouth of the Chautauqua creek, near Barcelona, to the head of 
Chautauqua lake, at Mayville ; and thus open communication between Lake 
Erie and the head-waters of the Ohio. Du Quesne, in the fall of 1752, 
rendered an account of the arrangements that he had made, in a letter to the 
French Minister of the Marine and Colonies, in Paris, in which he stated 
that he would begin his posts at a point near Barcelona in this county, and 
at the mouth of the Chautauqua creek, which he called Chat-a-co-nit. It is 
evident from this correspondence, that Du Quesne fully believed, from the 
information that he had, that the carrying place between this point and the 
head of Chautauqua lake, was the shortest and most practicable that could 
be found between the waters of the lakes and the Ohio, and that the carrying 
place between Erie and La Boeuf was discovered afterwards. The import- 
ance that Du Quesne attached to the selection of the best carrying place 
between these waters, is evident from the language used by him in his 
communications to the French government. 

Du Quesne, during the winter, completed his preparations, which were 
hastened by false reports received from Joncaire, that the English had 
actually settled upon French creek, and at the junction of the Connewango 
with the Allegany, where Warren is now situated ; which the French and 
Indians then called Chinengue. He in the early spring dispatched, firom 
Montreal, an advance force of two hundred and fifty men, under Monsieur 
Barbeer, for Chautauqfta, with orders to fell and prepare timber for the build- 
ing of a fort there.* Barbeer and his command pursued their winter march 
over land and ice to Fort Niagara, pausing on their way to refresh thftn- 
selves at Cadaraqua fort and at Toronto. They remained at Fort Niagara 

* The following account of the operations of the French during the spring and summer 
of 1 753, we have mainly from an affidavit made before Sir William Johnson by Stephen 
Coifen, who was taken prisoner by the French and Indians in 1 747, and detained in Lower 
Canada until January, 1752, when he was allowed to join the command of Barbeer in this 
expedition to the Ohio river. On the return of the French forces in the fall of that year, 
the troops became fatigued from rowing all night upon Lake Ontario, and were ordered to 
put ashore within a mile of the mouth of the Oswego river for breakfast, when Coffen and 
a Frenchman escaped to the English fort of Oswego. 


until the warmth of the early spring had sufficiently removed the ice from 
Lake Erie, and then pursued their way by water along the shore of the lake, 
arriving at the mouth of the Chautauqua creek in the month of April, 1753. 

What progress Barbeer made in complying with the instructions given him 
by Du Quesne, to fell and prepare timber for a fort there, we are not in- 
formed. Sieur Marin, to whom was assigned the chief command of all the 
forces of France, operating in the country of the Ohio, having arrived with a 
larger force, consisting of five hundred soldiers and twenty Indians, put a 
stop to the building of the fort, as he did not like the situation, believing 
the river of Chadekoins, as the outlet of Chautauqua lake was called, too 
shallow to carry craft with provisions to the Ohio river. An altercation 
ensued; Barbeer insisting either upon building the fort according to his in- 
structions, or that Marin should give him a writing that would justify him in 
the eyes of the governor. Marin finally complied with Barbeer's demand, 
and gave him such a writing, and then dispatched Chevalier Le Mercier, a 
captain of artillery, and an able officer, to whom was assigned the duties of 
engineer for the expedition, to explore the shore for a better point of depart- 
ure from the lake. After an absence of three days, Le Mercier returned to 
Chautauqua, and reported that about fifteen leagues to the south-west he 
had discovered a harbor where boats could enter with perfect safety, and 
that it was a most favorable point for their purpose. 

The French immediately repaired thither, and upon their arrival found 
twenty Indians fishing in the lake, who fled on their approach. Here the 
French built a fort one hundred and twenty feet square, and fifteen feet 
high, of chestnut logs. It had a gate on the north and south sides, but 
no port holes. The French called it Fort Presque Isle. It stood where 
now is situated the city of Erie, Pennsylvania. Upon the completion of this 
fort, Marin left there Captain Derpontcy, with one hundred men to garrison 
it, and immediately cut a wagon road to the southward, through a fine level 
country, twenty-one miles to a point on the river La Boeuf, the present site 
of Waterford, Erie county. Pa. Faint traces of this wagon road are still visible 
not far from the city of Erie. They built at Waterford, of wood, a tri- 
angular stockaded fort, within which two log houses were erected. While 
building this fort, Marin sent Monsieur Bite with fifty men to the Allegany 
river, where French creek empties into it, and Marin built ninety boats or 
batteaux, to carry down the baggage and provisions. Bite returned and 
reported the situation good, but the river too low at that time for boats ; and 
also that the Indians had forbid the building of the fort. When the fort 
Aux Boeufs was completed, Marin ordered all his forces to return to Canada, 
to remain there through the winter, excepting three hundred men, which 
were retained to garrison the two forts he had built, and to prepare materials 
for the building of other forts in the next spring. He also sent Coeur, an 
officer and interpreter, to stay during the winter among the Indians on the 
Ohio, and to persuade them not only to permit the building of forts, but to 
join the French against the English. 


About eight days before the French took their departure from Presque Isle, 
ChevaUer Le Crake arrived express from Canada, in a birch canoe, propelled 
by ten men, with orders from Du Quesne to make all preparations to build, 
the succeeding spring, two forts in Chautauqua ; one at Lake Erie, and one at 
the end of the carrying place on Chautauqua lake. On the 28th of October, 
about four hundred and forty French, under Captain Ueneman, set out from 
Presque Isle for Canada, in twenty-two batteaux ; followed in a few days by 
seven hundred and sixty men, being all the remainder of the French that 
were not left to garriion the forts they had built in Pennsylvania. On the 
30th of October, 1753, they arrived at Chautauqua, probably at or near 
Barcelona. Here, within this county, this army remained encamped for four 
days, during which time two hundred of their number, under Monsieur Pdan, 
cut the wagon road over the carrying place, from Lake Erie to Chautauqua 

The French pronounced themselves satisfied with this route, and on the 
3d of November set out for Canada, arriving at Niagara on the 6th. f 

Besides the two hundred and fifty men composing the advance force under 
Barbeer, and the five hundred that soon afterwards came up under Marin, 
there came afterwards, during the season, other bodies of troops from Can- 
ada, \\ith stores ; making the whole number of French engaged in this 
expedition, 1,500 men. Nine pieces of artillery were brought with them, 
all of which were left in Fort Le Boeuf, where Marin commanded. These 
constitute the operations of the French in the year 1753, in this remote 
wilderness ; and they were deemed of great importance, even in Paris, as 
sufficiently appears in the correspondence between the French officials 
respecting them. To furnish an army of 1,500 men with supplies and 
munitions, and send them from Montreal, itself but a fortress in the depths 
of the forest, still farther to the west, through an untraversed wilderness, 
over inland seas, a distance of 500 miles, to these wild and almost unknown 
regions, was an enterprise then regarded as of no small magnitude, even by 
a government as powerful as France. 

The difficulties experienced by the French in pushing forward this expe- 
dition, as well as many other interesting particulars respecting it, are set 

* " Hugues Pean was a native of Canada ; his father had been adjutant, or town major 
of Quebec ; a situation to which the son succeeded, on the arrival of M. de Jonquire. His 
wife was young, spiritual, mild, and obliging, and her conversation amusing ; she succeeded 
in obtaining considerable influence over the intendant M. Bigot, who went regularly to 
spend his evenings with her. She became at length the channel through which the public 
patronage Bowed. P&n in a short time saw himself worth fifty thousand crowns. Bigot, 
the intendant, requiring a large supply of wheat, gave Pean the contract, and even advanced 
him money from the treasury, with which the wheat was bought. The intendant next 
issued an ordinance, fixing the price of wheat much higher than Pean purchased it. The 
latter delivered it to the government, at the price fixed by the ordinance, whereby he real- 
ized immense profit, obtained a seigniory, and became very wealthy." — Collections of 
Quebec Literary and historical Society, 1838, page 68. " He was afterwards created a 
Knight of St. Louis." — Smith's Canada, I., page 221. 

1 10 Colonial Hist, of N. Y. 


forth in a letter bearing date August 20, 1753, from Du Quesne to M. de 
Rouille, the French Minister of Marine and Colonies, in which he says :* 

" My Lord : 

" I have the honor to inform you that I have been obliged to alter the 
arrangement I had made, whereof I rendered you an account last fall. 

" You will see, my Lord, by the extract of the journal hereto annexed, 
the reasons which compelled me to reduce to almost one half, the vanguard 
that I informed you consisted of 400 men, and those that determined me to 
prefer landing the troops at the harbor of Presque Isle on Lake Erie, which 
I very fortunately discovered, instead of Chataconit, where, I informed you, 
I would begin my posts. 

" This discovery is so much more propitious, as it is a harbor which the 
largest barks can enter loaded, and be in perfect safety. I am informed that 
the beach, the soil, and the resources of all sorts, were the same as repre- 
sented to me. 

" The plan I send you of this place is only a rough sketch until it is 
corrected. I have given orders that this be proceeded with. 

"The letter I received on the 12th of January last from M. de Joncaire, 
has obliged me to force to obtain provisions from the farmers, to enable me 
to oppose the projects of the English, who, he advised me, had sent smiths 
to Chinenguef and the river Aux Boeuf, where they were even settled ; and 
that there was a terrible excitement among the Indians, who looked upon it 
as certain that the English would be firmly settled there in the course of this 
year, not imagining that my forces were capable of opposing them. This 
fear, which made me attempt the impossible, has had hitherto the most com- 
plete success. All the provisions have arrived from without, after a delay of 
fifteen days, and I had them transported with all imaginable diligence, into 
a country so full of difficulties, in consequence of the great number of 
voyageurs which I required to ascend the rapids, the race of which is getting 

" I was not long in perceiving that this movement made a considerable 
impression on the Indians ; and what has thrown more consternation among 
them is, that I had no recourse to them ; for I contented myself with telling 
our domiciliated tribes, that if there were eight or ten from each village who 
had the curiosity to witness my operations, I would permit them to follow 
Sieur Marin, the commander of the detachment, whom they were well 
acquainted with, and in whom they have confidence. Of 200 whom I pro- 
posed to send forward, only 70 are sufficient for scouts and hunters. 

" All the natives that came down to sep me from the upper country, and 
who met the multitude of batteaux and canoes which were conveying the 
men and effects belonging to the detachment, presented themselves all 
trembling before me, and told me that they were aware of my power by the 
swarm of men they had passed, and begged me to have pity on them, their 
wives, and their children. I took advantage of their terror to speak to them 
in a firm tone and menacing the first that would falter ; and instead of a 
month or five weeks that they were accustomed to remain here consuming 
the King's provisions, I got rid of them on the fourth day. 

" It appears up to this time, that the execution of the plan of my enter- 

* 10 Doc. relating to Colonial Hist, of N. Y. 

t Chinengue, or Shenango, is laid down in Mitchelfs map at the junction of the Conne- 
wango and Allegany, where Warren is now situated. 


prise makes so strong an impression on the natives, that all the vagabonds 
who had taken refuge on the Beautiful River, have returned to their village. 

" I keep the five nations much embarrassed because they have not come 
down to Montreal, and the only step they have taken has been to send the 
ladies (dames) of their council to Sieur Marin to inquire of him by a belt, 
whether he was marching with the hatchet uplifted. He told them that he 
bore it aloft, in order that no person should be ignorant of the fact ; but 
as for the present, his orders were to use it only in case he encountered op- 
position to my will ; that my intention was to support and assist them in 
their necessities, and tO drive away the evil spirits that encompassed them, 
and that disturbed the earth. 

" I was aware that the English of Philadelphia had invited them to general 
council, and that they had refused to attend to it. Further, I knew from 
a man worthy of crecfit, who happened to be among these Indians when the 
English arrived, that they had rejected the belts which had been offered to 
oppose the entrance of the King's troops into the river Ohio, since they had 
sold it to the English. They answered that they would not meddle with my 
afiairs, and that they would look quietly on, from their mats, persuaded as 
they were, that my proceedings had no other object than to give a clear sky 
to a country which served as a refuge for assassins who had reddened the 
ground with their blood. 

" This nation, which possesses a superior government to all others, allowed 
itself to be dazzled by continued presents, and did not perceive that the 
English are hemming it in, so that if it do not shake off their yoke 'twill 
soon be enslaved. I shall lead them to make this reflection, in order to in- 
duce them to pull down Choneganen, which is destroying them and will be 
the ruin of the colony. 

" Should we have had to use reprisals, I would soon have taken that post. 
I have already forwarded to Fort Frontenac, the artillery and everything 
necessary to this coup de main. 

" Sieur Marin writes me on the 3d instant, that the fort at Presque.Isle is 
entirely finished ; that the Portage road, which is six leagues in length, is also 
ready for carriages ; that the store which was necessary to be built half way 
across this Portage, is in a condition to receive the supplies, and that the 
second fort, which is located at the mouth of the river Aux Boeuf, will soon 
be completed. 

"This commandant informs me, moreover, that he is having some 
pirogues constructed ; whilst men are actually employed in transporting his 
stores; and he tells me that all t^e Delawares, Chauonanons [Shawnees] 
and Senecas, on the Beautiful River, had come to meet him, and that he had 
so well received them, that they were very zealously assisting with their 
horses that they have brought along with them in making the portage. 

" There has not been, up to the present time, the least impediment to the 
considerable movements I have caused to be made ; everything arrived at its 
destination with greater celerity than I anticipated; and among the prodigi- 
ous number of batteaux or canoes that have passed the rapids, only one has 
upset, drowning seven men. 

"As it is impossible in a movement as vast as it was precipitous for this 
country, that some of the provisions should be spoiled in open craft, despite 
all the precautions that could be taken, I have sent on as much as was 
necessary to repair the loss. 


" Everything announces, ray Lord, the successful execution of my project, 
unless some unforeseen accident has occurred ; and the only anxiety I feel is, 
that the River Aux Boeuf portage will delay the entrance of our troops into 
the Beautiful River, as it is long, and there is considerable to carry, and the 
horses I have sent thither have arrived there exhausted by fatigue. But I 
hope this will be obviated by those the Indians have brought thither, and 
that the mildness of the 'climate will admit of the completion of the posts. 
The extreme boldness with which I have executed a project of so much 
importance, has caused me the Uveliest inquietude ; the famine which met 
me on my arrival at Quebec having reduced me, forwarding only 900 barrels 
of flour as the whole supply. 

"From the knowledge I have acquired this winter, I would have composed 
my vanguard of 700 men, had I had an entrepot of provisions at Niagara, 
because that body of men would have assuredly advanced to the portage, 
which I was desirous of occupying ; having to fear some opposition on the 
part of the Indians of the Beautiful River at the instigation of the English, 
my plan having been discovered, and bruited abroad since M. de la Jonquire's 
death, in consequence of the explorations that I caused to be made by some 
bark canoes, notwithstanding the color I wished to give these movements. 

" I leave you to judge, my Lord, the trouble of mind I felt at the reduc- 
tion of this vangimrd to 250 men, which I was obliged to send like what is 
called in the army a forlorn hope, when dispatched to explore a work. On 
the other hand, I should proceed at a snail's pace could I continue my 
operations only with the assistance derived from the sea, the inconveniences 
of which I understood. In fine, my Lord, if there be any merit in doing 
anything contrary to the prudence of a person of my age, who has not the 
reputation of being devoid of that virtue, the enterprise in question would 
be entitled to very great credit ; but necessity having constrained me to it, I 
do not adopt it, and attribute its success to singular good fortune which I 
would not for all the world attempt again. 

" The discovery I have made of the harbor of Presque Isle, which is 
regarded as the finest spot in Nature, has determined me to send a royal 
assistant pilot to search around the Niagara rapids for some place where a 
bark could remain to take in its load. Nothing would be of greater advan- 
tage in the saving of transport, and the security of the property of the new 
posts and of Detroit ; but it is necessary to find a good bottom, so that the 
anchors may hold ; for it could safely winter at Presque Isle, where it would 
be as it were in a box. I impatiently await the return of this pilot, and I 
would be much flattered could I be able to announce to you in my latest 
dispatches, that I have ordered the construction of this vessel. 

" I must not leave you ignorant, my Lord, how much I am pleased with 
Sieur Marin, the commander of the detachmentj and Major P^an. The 
former, who has an experienced capacity, manages the Indians as he pleases ; 
and he has, at his age, the same zeal and activity as any young officer that may 
enter the service. The second is endowed with all the talent imaginable 
for detail and resources, and knows no other occupation than that of accom- 
plishing the object he is intrusted with. He alone had charge of dispatch- 
ing all the canoes and batteaux, and acquitted himself of that duty with 
great order. Chevalier Le Mercier, to whom I assigned the duties of engi- 
neer, and who is also intrusted with the distribution of the provisions, is an 
officer possessing the rarest talent. Sieur Marin expresses himself to me in 


the highest terms of all those who are under his orders, and who vie with 
each other in diligence. 

" I am, with the most profound respect, my Lord, 

" Your most humble and most obedient servant, 


This Portage road was cut by the French from Lake Erie to Chautauqua 
lake more than twenty years before the battle of Lexington, and was the 
first work performed by civilized hands within the limits of Chautauqua 
county, of which we are informed. It was known by the early settlers of the 
county, as the Old Portage or French road, and was one of the first highways 
of the county over which, in early days, much merchandise, including large 
amounts of salt from Onondaga county, were annually transported to 
Pittsburgh, and places on the river below. 

The Portage road commenced on the west bank of Chautauqua creek, a 
little distance from its mouth, in the town of Westfield. Thence it passed 
up, on the west side of the creek, crossing the present Erie road at the Old 
McHeniy tavern, where the historical monument stands, to a point above the 
woolen factory, about a mile from Westfield. Here the road crossed the 
creek ; still further on it crossed the present road leadin^from Mayville to 
Westfield, and continued most of the distance fey the remainder of the way, 
on the east side of the present road, and terminated at the foot of Main 
street in Mayville. The original track and remains of the old log bridges 
were plainly to be seen as late as the year 1817 ; and even traces of this 
road remain to this day. Judge William Peacock, of Mayville, passed over 
this Portage road as early as July, 1800. He followed it from the mouth of 
Chautauqua creek, three miles up its west bank, and thence over the hills to 
Chautauqua lake. The road then had the appearance of having been used 
in former times. The underbrush had been cut out ; and where this road 
crossed the Chautauqua creek, about three miles from its mouth, the banks 
upon each side had been dug away, to admit a passage across the stream. 
Towards Mayville, and near the summit of the hills, at a low wet place, a 
causeway had been constructed of logs. Over this point the present high- 
way from Mayville to Westfield now passes. At the foot of Main street in 
Mayville, where the Portage terminated, was a circular piece of mason work 
of stone laid in sand and mortar, three or four feet high, and three or four 
feet in diameter. It was constructed, as Judge Peacock conjectured, for the 
purpose of cooking food. A piece of mason work, precisely like this in 
every respect, he saw standing at the other end of the Portage, at the mouth 
of the Chautauqua creek, opposite Barcelona. This mason work was seen 
as late as 1802 by William Bell, who, for over seventy years, resided in 

The operations of the French in the West, during the spring and summer 
of 1753, were watched with interest and indignation by the English. Capt. 
Stodart wrote a letter to Col. William Johnson on the 15th of May, 1753, firom 

* See the Extract from Sir William Johnson's Journal, fast. 


Oswego, informing him that over thirty French canoes, carrying a part of the 
French army, had passed them the day before for the Ohio ; also that he was 
informed by a Frenchman, who was on his way to Cajocka [probably Chau- 
tauqua], that the French under Marin were about" to build forts at places 
convenient for them; "that one fort was to be built at Ka-sa-no-tia-yo-go " 
[a carrying place], and another at Diontarogo.* A copy of this letter was 
forwarded by Col. Johnson to Governor Clinton. 

Washington's Journey to French Creek.* 

When information reached Governor Dinwiddie, of Virginia, of these 
proceedings by the French, he determined to ascertain their purpose, and to 
induce them to abandon their claim upon the valley of the Ohio. He ac- 
cordingly dispatched George Washington, then but twenty-two years of age, 
who set out from Williamsburgh, in Virginia, on the 30th day of October, 
1753, and arrived at the place where Pittsburgh now stands, about three 
weeks afterwards. He then proceeded to Venango, where he arrived on the 
4th of December, and had an interview with the celebrated Capt. Joncaire, 
but obtained no satisfaction. From Venango he pushed on up the French 
creek, to the post the French had established at Le Boeuf, now Waterford, 
where he arrived the nth of December, 1753. The fort he found situated 
on the island on the west fork of French creek. It consisted of four houses, 
forming a square, defended by bastions made of palisades twelve feet high, 
pierced for cannon and small arms. Within the bastions were a guard-house 
and other buildings. Outside were stables, a smith forge, and a log house 
for soldiers. Washington found that the French were preparing at this place 
many pine boats and bark canoes to be ready in the spring, to descend and 
destroy the English posts on the Ohio river. Here Washington, over one 
hundred and twenty years ago, spent five anxious days, within but fourteen 
miles from the town of French Creek, in Chautauqua county, negotiating 
with the French commandant, St. Pierre. Having finished his business with 
the French, Washington set out on the i6th of December to return. His 
long journey through the wilderness was beset by many difficulties and dan- 
gers. French creek and the Allegany river were swollen and full of floating 
ice ; the snows were deep, and the cold intense. He arrived at Williams- 
burgh, January i6th, 1754; having performed a toilsome and perilous jour- 
ney of eight hundred miles, in two and one half months. 

The French War. 

Immediately after Washington's return, the Ohio Company sent Captain 
Trent and a small body of men, to the junction of the Allegany with the 
Monongahela, where Pittsburgh is now situated. He arrived there in Feb- 
ruary, 1754, and commenced laying the foundations of a fort, which was 
completed prior to April 17th, 1754. This was the first occupation of the 
territory where Pittsburgh now stands. Against this post the French imme- 

*7 Doc. relating to the Col. Hist, of N. Y., 779. 


diately dispatched a formidable expedition, which was in fact the first war- 
like demonstration made in the French war. Monsieur Contrecoeur, then 
the commander in chief of the French on the Beautiful River, at the head of 
i,ooo French and Indians, with 18 pieces of cannon, in 60 batteaux and 
200 canoes, descended the Allegany, and arrived at Pittsburgh on the 16th 
of April, 1754, and summoned the English commandant Ward to surrender. 
He having but forty men to defend his unfinished stockade, was obliged to 
comply with the demand.* This affair is memorable, from the fact that it 
was the first blow struck in the great wars that followed in Europe and 

The Portage road from Barcelona to Mayville, it has been seen, was cut 
late in the preceding fall, with a distinct view to its future use. This expe- 
dition was the first movement made by the French in the spring following ; 
and it is probable, as but few French remained at Le Boeuf and Presque 
Isle during the winter, that a large part of this force had to be drawn that 
season from Canada ; and that a portion of it may have passed over Chau- 
tauqua lake. This portage may have been used by the French and Indians 
in other warlike expeditions. Pouchot, the officer who commanded the 
French at Fort Niagara when it surrendered to Sir William Johnson, wrote a 
history of the French and Indian war in North America, in which he says : 
" The river of Chatacoin is the first that communicates from Lake Erie to 
the Ohio ; and it was by this that they [the FrencK\ went in early times when 
they made a journey to that part. The navigation is always made in a canoe, 
on account of the small amount of water in this river. It is only, in fact, 
when there is a freshet, that they can pass, and then with difficulty, which 
makes them prefer the navigation of the river Aux Boeuf, of which the 
entrepot is the fort of Presque Isle."+ 

Sir William Johnson, in 1761, journeyed to Detroit by the command of 
Gen. Amherst, to establish a treaty with the Ottawa confederacy, to regulate 
the trade at the several posts in the Indian country. On his return, he 
coasted along the south shore of Lake Erie. In his journal of this journey 
is the following reference to this portage, with other interesting particulars : 

"Wednesday, October ist [1761], embarked [at Presque Isle], at 7 o'clock, 
with the wind strong ahead — continued so all the day, notwithstanding it 
improved all day, and got to Jadaghque creek and carryifig place, which is a 
fine harbor and encampment It is very dangerous from Presque Isle here, 
being a prodigious steep, rocky bank all the way, except two or three creeks 
and small beaches, where are very beautiful streams of water or springs which 
tumble down the rocks. We came about forty miles this day. The fire was 
burning where Captain Cochran [the officer who commanded at Presoue Isle] 
I suppose encamped last night. Here the French had a baking place, and here 
they had meetings, and assembled the Indians when first going to Ohio, and 

•Craig's Hist, of Pittsburgh, 23. 6 Col. Doc. Hist, of New York, 840. 2 Doc. Hist, 
of New York. 

t Pouchot French and English Wars in North America, Vol. II., 160 (Hough's trans- 


bought this place of them. Toonadawanusky, the river we stopped yesterday 
at, is so called. 

" Friday, 2d. A very stormy morning, wind not fair ; however, sent off my 
two baggage boats, and ordered them to stop about thirty miles off in a river 
[probably Cattaraugus creek]. The Seneca Indian tells me we may get this 
day to the end of the lake. I embarked at eight o'clock with all the rest, 
and got about thirty miles, when a very great storm of wind and rain arose, 
and obliged us to put into a little creek [probably Eighteen Mile creek], 
between the high rocky banks. The wind turned north-west, and it rained 
very hard. We passed the Mohawks in a bay about four miles from here. 
Some of our boats are put into other places as well as they can. My bedding 
is on board the birch canoe of mine, with the Indian somewhere ahead. 
The lake turns very greatly to the north-east, and looks like low land. From 
Presque Isle here is all high land, except a very few spots where boats may 
land. In the evening, sent Oneida to the Mohawk encampment, to learn 
what news here."* 

Although the French may have very early used this route by Chautauqua 
lake to some extent, when passing from Lake Erie to the Allegany and Ohio, 
it is clear that the route by Presque Isle and French creek was finally 
adopted and principally used by them. The French were masters in wood 
craft, and wonderfully familiar with the geography of this remote wilderness : 
yet it is not strange that they should be in doubt as to which was the better 
route, for it would be difficult for us, even at this day, familiar as we are with 
the premises, to determine which would have been the better communication 
for them. 

In 1754, and soon after the fall of Pittsburgh, Washington being in com- 
mand of a force of English colonists, fought with the French, in the forests 
of Pennsylvania, his two first battles ; in one of which he defeated Mon- 
sieur Jummonville, and in the other [the battle of Fort Necessity], the French 
having been reinforced from Canada, he himself was defeated. July 9th, 
175s, Braddock's large and well disciplined army was defeated by a small 
force of Indians and a little band of gallant Frenchmen, who had the year 
before passed along this county. The train of artillery taken from Braddock 
was transported back, and used in August of the succeeding year, by Mont- 
calm, in the siege of Oswego. Fort Du Quesne was taken from the French 
on the 25th of November, 1758, by an army of about 6,000 men under 
Gen. Forbes ; the French in possession there, upon their approach, having 
fled, some up the Allegany and some down the Ohio. The English under 
Prideaux, in July of the succeeding year, invested Fort Niagara. Prideaux 
having been killed, the siege was continued by the English under Sir William 
JohnsQjf. The Indians from the West, and from along the Allegany, were 
collected together by the French. They, with French soldiers from the 
posts of Venango and Presque Isle, formed a large force. This army was 
conducted along Lake Erie to its oudet, led by D'Aubry, a French officer, 
for the purpose of reinforcing Niagara. They were met by the English in 

* Stone's Life and Times of Sir William Johnson. 


the town of Lewiston, in this state, on the 24th of July, 1759, where a 
bloodj' battle was fought, and the French and Indians defeated, and 500 of 
their number slain. Niagara immediately after surrendered to the English. 
Gen. Charles Lee, who became afterwards one of the most distinguished 
officers of the American Revolution, was present at the siege of Niagara, 
and after its surrender passed by Chautauqua county, on a military errand 
do^vn the Allegany, to Fort Du Quesne.* Quebec having been taken by 
the English ^nder Wolf, the French, in November, 1760, surrendered all 
their posts in this part of the continent to the crown of England ; and the 
French, who had for so many years known these western regions, thereafter 
ceased to be seen in company with their red allies along the borders of 
this county. 

The first military expedition of the English over Lake Erie, was made 
immediately after the surrender, by the French, of their possessions in Amer- 
ica. It was dispatched to take possession of Detroit, Michillimackinack, 
and other French posts that had been surrendered. Major Rogers, long 
celebrated for his skill in border war, led the expedition. He embarked in 
November, 1760, at the foot of Lake Erie, with 200 rangers in fifteen whale 
boats, and coasted along the southern shore of the lake. On arriving at Erie 
Rogers set out for Pittsburgh. He descended French creek and the Allegany 
river in a canoe. Having obtained reinforcements, he proceeded on his way 
to Detroit, which was surrendered to him immediately on his arrival.t 

PoNTiAc's War. 
The English having become possessed of the chain of forts extending 
from Lake Erie to the Monongahela, now occupied them as outposts. They 
had, howeyer, never purchased the lands upon which they stood of the Indi- 
ans. Pontiac, an Ottawa chief of great abilities, resolved to rescue them 
and all the forts in the West, from English possession. He effected a union 
of the Western tribes for that purpose. The posts were all to be attacked in 
a single day, their garrisons massacred, and also all the people of the bor- 
der settlements. So well planned was the attack, that nine English posts in 
the West were surprised and captured in a single day, in the month of May, 
1763. Most of the officers and men of these garrisons were tomahawked 
and scalped. Among the posts taken were Presque Isle, Le Boeuf, and 
Venango. Various accounts have been given of the capture of Presque Isle ; 
one, that it was taken through an ingenious stratagem of the Indians ; and 
another, that it was taken after a vigorous assault and firm defense. Nearly 
all the accounts agree that the garrison was destroyed. A few onl^of the 
garrison at Le Boeuf escaped, through an underground passage h^ng its 
outlet in the swamp adjoining Le Boeuf lake. Only one, it is said, of those 
who escaped survived to reach a civilized settlement. J The scattered 

* Irving's Washington, 377, 378. 

t See Pontiac, or the Siege of Detroit ; also Rogers' Journal. 

JPenn. Hist. Coll. 


settlers in Western Pennsylvania were either murdered or obliged to flee 
to the nearest forts. Pontiac, with great energy, led the attack upon Detroit 
in person, and for more than a year it was besieged, during which time 
the garrison greatly suffered. 

During the siege of Detroit, the Indians prosecuted the war at other 
points. There is no doubt that the Seneca Indians cooperated with Pontiac. 
They, on the 14th of September, 1763, attacked a party of over fifty Eng- 
lish soldiers at Devil's Hole, near Niagara Falls, and all were killed, except- 
ing two or three. They also, on the 19th of October of the same year, 
somewhere near the foot of Lake Erie, attacked 160 English soldiers under 
Major Wilkins, on their way to relieve Detroit, who were there in their 
boats. A battle ensued, in which nearly thirty English were killed and 
wounded. Other calamities befel Major Wilkins. A storm overtook him 
on Lake Erie ; his boats were wrecked ; his ammunition was lost ; and 
seventy of his men perished. 

On the loth of August, 1764, Gen. Bradstreet, at the head of 3,000 men, 
departed from Fort Erie for Detroit. He passed along the southern shore 
of Lake Erie. At Sandusky and along the Maumee he burned the Indian 
cornfields and villages ; and when he arrived at Detroit, raised the siege, and 
compelled the Indians to lay down their arms. Israel Putnam accompanied 
Bradstreet as colonel of a Connecticut regiment, and passed with him along 
the shore of this county. On the i8th of October, Gen. Bradstreet, with 
1,100 men and several cannon, set out for Fort Niagara. No detailed 
account of his return march has been preserved. A portion of his batteaux 
are supposed to have been wrecked west of Cleveland. Muskets, swords, 
wrecks of boats and oth^ relics have been found for several miles along the 
coast ; a mound also, filled with human skeletons, supposed to have been of 
his party. As there remained an insufficient number of boats to carry his 
men, the volunteers are said to have marched by land along the south shore 
of the lake, passing Chautauqua county, sustaining themselves on their way 
by hunting. They did not arrive at Fort Niagara until winter, and came 
very near perishing by hunger on the way.* 

Pontiac's war was the last great attempt made by the Indians to redeem 
this country from the dominion of the white man ; and at its close, compara- 
tive peace for many years prevailed ; and no event of importance occurred 
in these regions until the Revolutionary war. 

In liovember, 1768, a boundary line was established between the whites 
and Indians, at a treaty held at Fort Stanwix, on the Mohawk river. This 
line ascen(|ed the Ohio and Allegany rivers to Kittanning ; it then extended 
in an easterly direction to the Susquehanna ; thence northerly to Lake 
Ontario. North-'«iesterly of this line were the lands of the Indians, which 
included Chautauqua county. South-east of this line was the territory of the 
whites. Chautauqua lake was delineated upon the map executed at the 

* Am. Hist. Record, Vol. III., p. 155. Whittlesey's Hist. Account of Ohio, p. zo. 


time of this treaty. Its outlet into the Allegany river was spelled " Cana- 
wagan;" and one of the streams from our county emptying into Lake Erie 
was spelled "Jadahque."* 

Col. Broadhead's Expedition. 

At the breaking out of the Revolution, the limits of settlement and civili- 
zation had extended somewhat nearer to Chautauqua county ; but no event 
of great importance affecting these regions transpired until near the close of 
the war. Long prior to 1779, the hostile Indians and tories had desolated 
the frontier settlements of New York and Pennsylvania; to punish them, 
Washington planned two expeditions. One was to march by the north 
branch of the Susquehanna, against the Indian villages of the Six Nations in 
New York ; the other was, at the same time, to proceed up the Allegany, 
under the command of Col. Daniel Broadhead, a gallant and enterprising 
officer, who then commanded at Pittsburgh, and to destroy the villages of the 
Seneca and Munsey Indians, who dwelt along that river and its tributaries, 
and afterwards to unite with the army of Gen. Sullivan in a combined attack 
upon Fort Niagara. On account of the difficulty of providing Col. Broad- 
head with supplies in time, and the want of satisfactory information concern- 
ing the country along the Allegany, the idea of the two expeditions cooper- 
rating with each other was abandoned by Gen. Washington-^ Col. Broadhead, 
however, on the nth of August, 1779, at the head of 605 militia and 
volunteers, and with one month's provisions, set out from Pittsburgh, and 
advanced up the Allegany river to the mouth of the Mahoning. Here then- 
provisions were transferred from the boats to pack-horses ; and the army 
proceeded on to Brad/s Bend, in Clarion count)j, Pennsylvania. Here an 
advanced party of Col. Broadhead's force, consisting of fifteen white men 
and eight Delaware Indians, under the command of Lieut. Harding, fell in 
with thirty or forty Indian warriors coming down the river in seven canoes. 
The Indians landed and stripped off their shirts ; a sharp contest ensued ; 
the Indians were defeated, and five of their number were killed and several 
wounded; and all their canoes and contents fell into the hands of Col. 
Broadhead. Lieut. Harding had three men wounded, including one of the 
Delaware Indians. 

Capt Samuel Brady, who was in this encounter, and whose name has 
been given to this locaUty, was bom at Shippensburgh, Penn., 1758. He 
was at the siege of Boston, and a lieutenant at the massacre of Paoli. 
Having lost both his father and brother by the hands of Indians, he took an 
oath of vengeance against the race. Having been ordered to FjKt Pitt with 
the rest of his regiment under General Broadhead, it gave him an oppor- 
timity to fulfill his vow. He was generally placed in cofimand of scouting 
parties sent into the Indian country from Fort Pitt ; and being an athletic, 
active and courageous man, familiar with the woods and Indian warfare, he 

*Doc. Hist. N. Y., pp. 587-91. 

t Letter from Washington to Col. Broadhead, April 21, 1779. 


became the hero of many bold exploits in the north-east part of the valley 
of the Ohio, and a serious trouble to his Indian foes in those parts. An 
account of his daring adventures and hair-breadth escapes would fill a book. 
They gave his name permanently to many localities in Western Pennsylvania . 
and Ohio. Jonathan Zane was also in this engagement, and was wounded. 
He was a celebrated scout and great hunter, and piloted many expeditions 
against the Indians.* 

Colonel Broadhead's command continued to march up the river, as far as 
the Indian village of Buckaloons, on the flats near Irvineton, at the mouth 
of the Broken Straw, in Warren county. The Indians were driven from their 
village, and retreated to the hills in the rear. The town was destroyed, and 
a breastwork of trees thrown up.f A garrison of forty men was left to 
guard the provisions ; and the remainder of the force proceeded to the 
Indian town of Conawago, which was found to have been deserted eighteen 
months before. Conawago was burnt, and the troops marched still further 
up the river, past Kinjua to Yohroonwago, a place about four miles below 
the southern boundary of the state of New York. Here they found a painted 
image, or war post, clothed in dog skin. The troops remained there three 
days, burning this and other towns in the vicinity and destroying the exten- 
sive cornfields that they found there. Col. Broadhead believed, from the 
great quantity of corn found, and from the number of new houses which 
were built, and being built of square and round logs and of framed timbers, 
that the whole Seneca and Munsey nations intended to collect there. Yoh- 
roonwago was situated where, some years afterwards, Complanter made 
his residence, and where an Indian village grew up, called De-o-no-sa-da-ga, 
meaning, in English, burned houses. According to Mrs. Jemison, Colonel 
Broadhead's troops ascended the Allegany as far as Olean Point, and burnt 
other Indian towns on French creek, including Maghinquechahocking, a 
village of thirty-five large houses. Col. Broadhead arrived at Fort Pitt, on 
his return, September 14th, 1779; having burned ten Indian villages, con- 
taining one hundred and sixty-five houses, having destroyed more than five 
hundred acres of Indian corn, and taken three thousand dollar^ worth of furs 
and other plunder, and having himself lost neither man nor beast. J 

British and Indian Expedition over Chautauqua Lake in 1782. 

The expedition of Sullivan and Broadhead, and the destruction of the In- 
dian towns and cornfields, had the effect to throw the Indians upon the 

* Butterfiaki's Hist, of Crawford's Expedition, 128, 129. 

t Sometime afterwards, Major Morrison, who became a distinguished citizen of Lexing- 
ton, Ky., returned to the mouth of the Broken Straw to reconnoiter, and narrowly escaped 
with his life. He had stooped to drink from the creek, when a rifle ball from an Indian's 
gun splashed the water into his face. — Pa. Hist. Collection, 653. The remains of this 
stockade were very plainly to be seen a few years ago. They were situate about half a mile 
above the crossing of the Broken Straw, on the road to Warren, on a high bluff on the Alle- 
gany river, and commanded an extensive view up and down the river. — Dr. Wm. A. Irvine. 

J Broadhead's Rep. to T. Pickering, Sept. 16, 1799. 


hands of their British employes for support. During the succeeding winter, 
want and disease followed, and swept many of them away; yet it did not 
put a stop to their inroads. Exasperated by their misfortunes, maurauding 
. parties of Indians, led by Brant and Cornplanter* and other chiefs, supported 
by their allies, the tories, during the remainder of the war, visited the front- 
ier settlements of New York and Pennsylvania, from the Mohawk to the 
Wyoming Valley ; burning the houses of the settlers, killing many, and car- 
rying others into captivity. Fort Niagara had usually been the winter 

* Gy-ant-wa-chia, the Cornplanter, who exercised his rude authority in these regions, 
was a celebrated Seneca warrior and chieftain, and the rival of the Indian orator Red 
Jacket. His sagacity, eloquence and courage, for a long time justly gave him great influ- 
ence with his tribe. He was born about the year 1732, at Conawaugus, on the Genesee 
river. His father was a white man named John O'Bail, or Abeel ; his mother was a 
Seneca woman. Ga-ne-odi-yo, or Handsome Lake, the Prophet, and Ta-wan-ne-ars, or 
Blacksnake, were his half-brothers. When about twenty-three years of age, he first 
appeared as a warrior with the army of French and Indians whicli defeated Braddock in 
1755 ; and he probably afterwards participated in the principal Indian engagements during 
the Revolution, fighting against the colonies. He is said to have been present at Wyoming 
and Cherry Valley, and was with Brant at the head of his tribe in opposing Sullivan's 
expedition. He also afterwards led the Senecas in the invasion of the Mohawk Valley, 
when, it is said, he made his father, John O'Bail, a prisoner, and after marching him 
several miles with the usual Indian stoicism, without disclosing himself, he abruptly, and 
in the sententious manner of the Indian, announced his relationship, and gave O'Bail his 
choice, to live with him and his red followers, where he would support him at ease in his 
old age, or to return to his home on the Mohawk. He chose the latter, and Cornplanter 
sent his young men who conducted him Ifeck in safety. Cornplanter was an able man, 
and also honest and truthful ; he acted a most conspicuous part in the treaties and transac- 
tions between the Indians and the United States, subsequent to the Revolutionary war, 
and he saw, at its close, that the true policy of the Indian was to recognize the growing 
power of the United States, and bury the hatchet. He advised his tribe to this course, 
in opposition to the counsels of Brant and Red Jacket, and during the Indian wars that 
followed, he remained the true and steadfast friend of the United States. In the last war 
with England, when about eighty-four years old, accompanied by 200 warriors of his 
nation, he called upon Col. Samuel Drake, at Franklin, and offered his services to the 
United States, which were declined for the want of authority to muster Indians into the 
service. A considerable number of his tribe, however, led by his son Henry Abeel, who 
held a commission as major, acted during the war as scouts, and did good service to the 
United States. Cornplanter, in his life-time, often visited Chautauqua county ; and years 
before its settlement by the first white man, he thoroughly understood the geography of its 
lakes and streams. After the Revolution he resided principally at Jen-nes-a-da-ga, his 
viU^e, on the Allegany river, in Warren county, and, for the remainder of his life, a 
period of fifty years; became thoroughly identified with this region of country. Corn- 
planter died at Jennesadaga, aged about 105 years. A monument was erected in 1866, 
with appropriate ceremonies, under the superintendence of Judge SamueljpE Johnson, of 
Warren, Pa., and at the expense of the state of Pennsylvania, over his remains ; upon 
which the following inscriptions were lettered : "John O'Bail, alias Cornplanter, died at 
Cornplanter town, February 18, 1836, aged about 100 years, chief of the Seneca tribe, and 
principal chief of the Six Nations, from the period of the Revolutionary war to the time of 
his death. Distinguished for talents, courage, eloquence, sobriety and love of his tribe and 
race, to whose welfare he devoted his time, his energies and his means, during a long and 
eventful life." 


quarters of Brant, Guy Johnson and the Butlers and other tories who had 
taken refuge in Canada. It now became the headquarters of the Indians 
also, who had been driven from the Genesee and Allegany, and the point at 
which all of these maurauding parties of Indians and tories were accustomed 
to assemble, and from which they took their departure upon these hostile 
incursions ; and to which they returned, laden with spoil and scalps, and 
with such men, women and children as they had made prisoners, compelling 
them in some instances to run the gauntlet, and subjecting them to other 

In the fall of 1781, Col. Broadhead was superseded in the command at 
Pittsburgh by Col. William Irvine, who continued to be the commanding 
officer there until the close of the Revolution. 

Col. Irvine demands more than a passing notice. He was born in Ireland. 
Having studied medicine and surgery, he received the appointment of surgeon 
of a British ship of war. During his service in the French and Quebec wars, 
having acquired a knowledge of this country, he resolved to remove hither. 
After the close of the war, in 1764, he became a citizen of Carlisle, Pennsyl- 
vania. At the breaking out of the Revolutionary war, he was appointed 
colonel of the sixth Pennsylvania regiment, and soqji after was made a pris- 
oner while serving with the American forces in Canada, and was not exchanged 
until about two years afterwards. In 1779, he was commissioned a brigadier- 
general. After having distinguished himself at the battle of Monmouth, he 
was appointed commander of the Western Department, with his headquarters 
at Fort Pitt. He continued in this command until the close of the Revolu- 
tion ; and during the time he strengthened and repaired Fort Pitt, and placed 
this exposed frontier in a state of defense ; and, by his vigilance and abihty, 
preserved it, in a great measure, from the ravages of the Indians. His name 
is inseparably connected with all the important military events occurring 
in the North-west. After his appointment, he acquired much knowledge of 
the country drained by the Allegany and its tributaries, and also of the whole 
North-west. He stood high in the esteem of Gen. Washington, and was 
greatly respected for his integrity, ability, and his faithful performance of the 
public trusts confided to him. After the Revolution, he held many positions 
of importance and honor. It was through his advice and influence that the 
state of Pennsylvania acquired dominion of the tract of land known as the 
Triangle, which gave to that state a considerable lake coast, including the 
harbor of Erie. The legislature of that state, as an acknowledgment of the 
many valuable services rendered by Gen. Irvine, presented him with a tract 
of land in v|he county of Warren, at the mouth of the Broken Straw, where 
Irvineton is now situated, and where his esteemed grandson, Dr. Wm. A. 
Irvine, now resides. Gen. Irvine died in Philadelphia the 29th of July, 1804. 

There is reason to believe that, while Gen. Irvine was in command at 
Pittsburgh, an expedition was organized at Fort Niagara for an attack on 
Fort Pitt; and that, in 1782, a large party of British and Indians proceeded 
so far as to actually embark in canoes upon Chautauqua lake, where the 


expedition was abandoned on account of the supposed strength of Fort Pitt, 
and was resolved into small war parties, one of which burned Hannastown. 
The party which burned this place, and which may have constituted a part 
of the force assembled around Chautauqua lake, consisted of about 60 white 
refugees and 300 Indians, led by the celebrated Seneca Chief Guzasuttea, 
sometimes called Kiasola.* Hannastown was situated in Westmoreland 
county, in Pennsylvania, and was the first place where courts were held west 
of the Allegany mountains. During the Revolutionary war it was an impor- 
tant post in Western Pennsylvania. It was entirely destroyed by this party 
of whites and Indians in July, 1782. A considerable number of people 
residing in Hannastown and vicinity were either killed or carried prisoners 
to Canada. After the close of the war the captives were delivered up, and 
they returned to their homes.t 

Washington's Correspondence with Gen. Irvine. 

Col. Irvine was subsequently promoted to the rank of general ; and he 
afterwards, in the course of a correspondence with Gen. Washington, alludes 
to this expedition, giving many other interesting particulars respecting Chau- 
tauqua county, which h^d before that time been visited by him. Commu- 
nication between the waters of Lake Erie and the Ohio river had been a 
subject of inquiry with certain distinguished gentlemen ; and Gen. Wash- 
ington, for information upon that subject, addressed a letter to Gen. Irvine, 
dated January 10, 1788, inquiring of him : — i. As to the face of the country 
between the sources of canoe navigation of the Cuyahoga, which empties 
itself into Lake Erie, and the Big Beaver, and between the Cuyahoga and the 
Muskingum. 2. As to the distance between the waters of the Cuyahoga 
and each of the two rivers above mentioned. 3. Whether it would be prac- 
ticable, and not expensive, to cut a canal between the Cuyahoga and either 
of the above rivers, so as to open a communication between the waters of 
Lake Erie and the Ohio. 4. Whether there is any more direct, practicable 
and easy communication than these between the waters of Lake Erie and 
the Ohio, by which the fur and peltry of the upper country can be trans- 
ferred. J In answer to this letter, Gen. Irvine replied as follows : 

"New York, Jan. 27, 1788. 

"Sir: I have been honored by your letter of the nth instant I need 
not tell you how much pleasure it would give me to answer your queries to 
your satisfaction ; but I am persuaded that no observation short of an actual 
survey will enable you to gratify your correspondents abroad (particularly in 
relation to your third query), with such accuracy as to state anything posi- 
tively. I will, however, relate to you such facts as have comJUwithin my 
own knowledge, as well as accounts of persons whom I think are to be con- 
fided in. 

" From a place called Mahoning, on the Big Beaver, to the head of the 
Falls of Cuyahoga, it is about thirty miles. Although the country is hilly, 

* Craig's Hist, of Pittsburgh. + Penn. Hist. Coll., title Cumberland Co., 633. 

t Sparks' Washington's Writings, Vol. IX., 303. 


it is not mountainous. The principal elevation is called Beech Ridge, which 
is not high, though extensive, being several miles over, with a flat and moist 
country on the summit, and some places inclining to b"e marshy. The diffi- 
culty of traveling is much increased by the beech roots with which the tim- 
ber is heavily incumbered. The Cuyahoga above the Great Falls is rapid 
and rocky, and is interrupted by several lesser falls on the branch which 
heads towards that part of the Big Beaver called the Mahoning. This infor- 
mation I had from an intelligent person then loading a sloop at the mouth 
of the Cuyahoga for Detroit. He added, that an old Indian assured him 
that it was only fifteen miles across from the Mahoning to a navigable creek 
a few miles east of the Cuyahoga ; that he had employed the Indian to clear 
a road, and when that was done he intended to explore the country himself. 
I presume this service was not performed, as this gentleman, man and his 
horses, were all destroyed, and his store-house burned, by the Indians. 
Captain Bady, a partisan officer, informed me that the sources of the Big 
Beaver, Muskingum, and a large deep creek which empties into Lake Erie, 
fifteen or twenty miles above Cuyahoga, are within a few miles of each other 
(perhaps four or five), and the country level. Several other persons of cred- 
ibility and information have assured me that the portage between Muskingum 
and the waters falling into the lake, in wet seasons, does not exceed fifteen 
miles ; some say two, but I believe the first-named distance is the safest to 

" At Mahoning, and for many miles above and below, I found the course 
of the Big Beaver to be east and west, from which I conclude this stream to 
be nearest to the main branch of the Cuyahoga ; and on comparing the 
several accounts, I am led to think that the shortest communication between 
the waters of Beaver, Muskingum and Lake Erie, will be east and west of 
Cuyahoga. • 

" I have also been informed by a gentleman, that the sources of Grand 
river, and a branch of the Beaver called Shenango, are not twelve miles 
apart, the country hilly. I know the Shenango to be a beatable stream at 
its confluence with the Beaver, twenty miles from the Ohio. 

" I dropped down the Beaver fi-om Mahoning to the Great Falls (about 
seven miles from the Ohio) in a canoe, on the first of July, 1784, without the 
least difficulty. At this season all the western waters are remarkably low ; 
and although some ripples appear, there is nothing to cause any material 
obstruction. The falls, at first view, appear impracticable at low water ; 
indeed, too difficult at any season ; nevertheless, they have been passed at 
all seasons. I met two men in a flat-bottomed boat a few miles above the 
falls, who had carried their cargo half a mile on shore, and then warped up 
their empty boat. They set with poles the rest of the way to Mahoning. 
The boat carried one and a half tons ; but in some seasons there will be 
water enough for loads of five tons. Canoes, it is said, have ascended 
twenty-five miles higher than the Mahoning, which certainly must be near 
one branch of Muskingum, as it continues in a westerly course ; and the 
most easterly branch of that river, it is agreed by all who have been in that 
quarter, approaches very near to the waters falling into the lake ; all agree, 
likewise, that the rivers north of the dividing ridge are deep and smooth, the 
country being level. 

" Following the Indian path, which generally keeps in the low ground 
along the river, the distance from the mouth of the Big Beaver to Mahoning 
is about fifty miles; which, from the computed distance thence to Cuyahoga, 


gives eighty miles in all. But I am certain a much better road will be found 
by keeping along the_ ground which divides the waters of the Big and Little 

" But this digression I must beg your pardon for. To your further query 
I think I shall be able to afford you more satisfaction, as I can point out a 
more practicable and easy communication, by which the articles of trade you 
mention can be transported from Lake Erie, than by any other hitherto 
mentioned route; at least' until canals are cut. This is by a branch of the 
Allegany, which is navigable by boats of considerable burthen, to within 
eight miles of Lake Erie. I examined the greater part of the communica- 
tion myself, and such parts as I did not, was done by persons before and 
subsequent to my being there, whose accounts can scarce be doubted. 

" From Fort Pitt to Venango by land, on the Indian and French path, is 
computed to be ninety miles ; by water it is said to be one-third more. But as 
you know the country so far, I will forbear giving a more particular account 
of it ; but proceed to inform you that I set out and traveled by land from 
Venango, though frequently on the beach or within high-water mark, (the 
country being in many places impassable for a horse,) to a confluence of a 
branch of the river called Coniwango, which is about sixty-five miles from 
French creek. The general course of the Allegany between these two 
creeks is north-east. The course of the Coniwango is very near due north; 

it is about yards wide. It is upwards of yards, thirty miles from 

its confluence with the Allegany at a fork. It is deep and not very rapid. 
To the Coniwango fork of the Allegany, the navigation is rather better than 
firom Venango to Fort Pitt. I traveled about twenty-five miles a day. Two 
Indians pushed a loaded canoe, and encamped with me every night. As the 
Coniwango is crooked, I think it must be forty miles from the Allegany to 
its for* by water. One of the forks continues in a northern direction about 
seven miles to a beautiful lake. The lake is noticed on Hutchins' map, by 
the name of Lake Jadaque. The map is badly executed. It extends, from 
the best information I could obtain, to within nine miles of Lake Erie ; it is 
from one to two miles broad, and deep enough for navigation. I was taken 
sick, which prevented my journey over to Lake Erie. 

" The following account I had from a chief of the Seneca tribe, as well as 
from a white man named Mathews, a Virginian, who says that he was taken 
prisoner by the Indians at Kanawha, in 1777. He has lived with the 
Indians since that time. As far as I could judge, he appeared to be well 
acquainted with this part of the country. I employed him as interpreter. 
He stated that from the upper end of Jadaqua lake, it is not more than nine 
miles along the path or road to Lake Erie, and that there was formerly a 
wagon road between the two lakes. 

"The Indian related, that he was about fourteen years old when the 
French went first to establish a post at Fort Pitt ; that he accompanied an 
uncle who was a chief warrior, on that occasion, who attended the French ; 
that the head of Lake Jadaque was the spot where the detachment em- 
barked ; that they fell down to Fort Duquesne without any obstruction, in 
large canoes, with all the artillery, stores, provisions, etc.* He added that 

*The first expedition sent by the French against Fort Pitt, was that commanded by 
Captain Contrecoeur, in the spring succeeding the cutting out of the Portage road, and 
which compelled the capitulation of Pittsburgh, in April, 1754, an account of which is in 
the foregoing pages. 


French creek was made the medium of communication afterwards ; why, he 
could not tell, but always wondered at it, as he expressed himself, knowing 
the other to be so much better. The Seneca related many things to corrobo- 
rate and convince me of its truth. He stated that he was constantly em- 
ployed by the British during the late war, and had the rank of captain; and 
that he commanded the party which was defeated on the Allegany by Colonel 
Broadhead ; that in the year 1782, a detachment composed of 300 British 
and 500 Indians, was formed, and actually embarked in canoes on Lake 
Jadaque, with twelve pieces of artillery, with an avowed intention of attack- 
ing Fort Pitt. This expedition, he says, was laid aside, in consequence of 
the reported repairs and strength of Fort Pitt, carried by a spy from the 
neighborhood of the fort. They then contented themselves with the usual 
mode of warfare, by sending small parties on the frontier, one of which 
burned Hannastown. I remember very well that, in August, 1782, we 
picked up at Fort Pitt a number of canoes, which had drifted down the 
river; and I received repeated accounts, in June and July, from a Canadian 
who deserted to me, as well as from some friendly Indians, of this arma- 
ment ; but I never knew before then where they had assembled.* 

" Both Mathews and the Seneca desired to conduct me, as a further proof 
ot their veracity, to the spot, on the shore of Lake Jadaque, where lies one 
of the four-pounders left by the French. Major Finley, who has been in 
that country since I was, informed me that he had seen the gun. Mathews 
was very desirous that I should explore the east fork of the Coniwango ; but 
my sickness prevented me. His account is, that it is navigable about thirty 
miles up from the junction of the north and west branch, to a swamp which 
is about half a mile wide; that on the north side of this swamp a large creek 
has its source, called " Catterauque " [Cattaraugus], which falls into Lake 
Erie, forty miles from the foot of this lake; that he has several times been 
of parties who crossed over, carrying the canoes across the swamps. He 
added, that the Catterauque watered much the finest country between 
Buffalo and Presque Isle. 

" A letter has been published lately in a Philadelphia newspaper, written 
by one of the gentlemen employed in running the boundary line between 
New York and Pennsylvania, which fully supports these accounts. As well as 
I can remember, his words are: 'We pushed up a large branch of the 
Allegany, called Chataghque (so he spells the name), which is from one 
half mile to two or three wide, and near twenty long. The country is level, 
and the land good, to a great extent, on both sides. We ascended the 
dividing ridge between the two lakes. From this place a most delightful 
prospect was open before us.' He then dwells on the scene before him and 
future prospects, not to the present purpose; but concludes by saying that 
the waters of Lake Erie cannot be brought to the Ohio, as the summit of 
the dividing ridge is 700 feet higher than Lake Erie. 'We traveled,' he con- 

*In 1822, William Bemus, in making an attempt to deepen the channel of the outlet of 
Chautauqua lake, in that village, discovered a row of piles averaging four inches in diame- 
ter, and from two and one-half to three and one-half feet in length, driven firmly into the 
earth across the bed of the stream. Axe marks were plainly visible on each of the four sides 
of those piles, the wood of which was sound. The tops of these piles were worn smooth, 
and did not appear, when discovered, to reach above the bed of the stream. — Hon. E. T. 
Foote. Warrens History of Chautauqua County. Other evidences existed indicating the 
presence of armed forces within the county anterior to its settlement. 


tinues, 'along the Indian path to the lake, which is only nine miles, though 
very crooked. A good wagon road may be made, which will not exceed 
seven miles, as the hill is not steep.' 

" I regret that this detail has been extended to so great a length, for I fear 
that it will rather weary than afford you satisfaction. Being obliged to 
blend the information of others, with that which came within my own 
observation, in some degree renders it unavoidable. 

" I have the honor to be, with great respect, 

" Your most obedient servant, 

"William Irvine." 

This letter was copied by Dr. William A. Irvine, from the original lent to 
his father, Callender Irvine, by Judge Washington; and it contains perhaps 
the first written description extant of Chautauqua lake and outlet. Chau- 
tauqua lake was then rarely visited, except by the Seneca, who came there 
to hunt, and to capture the excellent fish, for which it is now so justly cele- 
brated, and which its pure waters yielded in great abundance. The few 
white men that wandered as far as its shores, found it a secluded lake, 
buried in the heart of the wilderness, where the wild fowl gachered unmo- 
lested, and where the howl of the wolf could be heard nightly among its 
neighboring hills, and the lonely cry of the loon across its waters. Although 
the lake was rarely seen by those who could appreciate its beauties, yet it 
was perhaps then more beautiful than now. In spring, the margin of every 
inlet and cove, and its whole shore, lay concealed beneath a mass of green 
foliage, that rolled back in leafy billows on every side, to the summit of the 
surrounding hills, and which the frosts in autumn changed to those bright 
and varied hues that belong only to an American forest. Even the rough 
French and English voyagers that sometimes may have traversed it when it 
was a deep solitude, could not have beheld, without admiration, its clear 
waters and beautiful shores. 

General Washington answered this letter from General Irvine, as follows : 

"Mount Vernon, i8th February, 1788. 

" Sir : I have to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 27th ult., and 
to thank you for the information contained in it. As a communication be- 
tween the waters of Lake Erie and those of Ohio is a matter which promises 
great public utility, and as every step towards the investigation of it may be 
considered as promoting the general interest of our country, I need make 
no apology to you for any trouble that I have given upon the subject. 

" I am fuUy sensible that no account can be sufficiently accurate to hazard 
any operations upon, without an actual survey. My object in wishing a solu- 
tion of the queries proposed to you, was, that I might be enabled to return 
answers, in some degree satisfactory, to several gentlemen of distinction in 
foreign countries, who have appealed to me for information on the subject, in 
behalf of others who wish to engage in the fur trade, and at the same time 
gratify my own curiosity, and assist me in forming a judgment of the prac- 
ticability of opening communication, should it ever be seriously in con- 

" I. Could a channel once be opened to convey the fur and peltry from 
the lakes into the Eastern country, its advantages would be so obvious as to 


induce an opinion, that it would in a short time become the channel of con- 
veyance for much the greatest part of the commodities brought from thence. 

" 2. The trade which has been carried on between New York and that 
quarter, is subject to great inconvenience from the length of the communica- 
tion, number of portages, and, at seasons, from ice ; yet it has, notwithstand- 
ing, been prosecuted with success. 

" I shall feel myself much obliged by any further information that you may 
find time and inclination to communicate to me on this head. I am, sir, 
with great esteem, your most obedient, &c., 

" George Washington." 

General Irvine afterwards wrote to Gen. Washington upon the subject, as 
follows : 

"New York, Oct. 6th, 1788. 

" Sir : I do myself the honor to enclose a sketch of the waters of the 
Allegany, which approach near to Lake Erie. It is taken from an actual 
survey made by the persons who ran the line between the states of New York 
and Pennsylvania. These gentlemen say that the main branch of the Alle- 
gany falls in Pennsylvania, and that there is only seven or eight miles land 
carriage between it and the head of a branch of Susquehanna, called Tioga, 
which is navigable for large boats at most seasons. The navigation of 
Caniwago, I know, is much preferable to French creek. 

" I have the honor to be with the highest respect, sir, your excellency's 
most obedient and humble servant, Wu. Irvine." 

This letter was never before published. It is found bound in a volume of 
the Washington Papers, and is entered in an index of those papers made by 
Rev. Jared Sparks. It was probably written to Gen. Washington by the 
direction of Gen. Irvine. Accompanying this letter was an accurate map of 
" Chautaugh" lake, and " Canewango river;" also the Chautauqua Creek 
portage, from Lake Erie to Chautauqua lake, and also the portage to Le 
Boeuf, and other localities. Washington replied to Gen. Irvine, as follows : 

Mount Vernon, 31st October, 1788. 

" Dear Sir : The letter with which you favored me, dated the 6th instant, 
enclosing a sketch of waters near the line which separates your state from 
New York, came duly to hand, for which I offer you my acknowledgments 
and thanks. 

" The extensive inland navigation with which this country abounds, and 
the easy communication which many of the rivers afford, with the amazing 
territory to the westward of us, will certainly be productive of infinite advan- 
tage to the Atlantic states, if the legislatures of those through which they pass 
have liberality and public spirit enough to improve them. For my part, I 
wish sincerely that every door to that country may be set wide open, that the 
commercial intercourse with it may be rendered as free and easy as possible. 
This, in my judgment, is the best, if not the only cement that can bind those 
people to us for any length of time, and we shall, I think, be deficient in 
foresight and wisdom if we neglect the means to effect it. Our interest is so 
much in unison with the policy of the measure, that nothing but that ill-aimed 
and misapplied parsimony and contracted way of thinking, which intermingles 
so much in all our public councils, can counteract it. 

" If the Chautauqua lake, at the head of the Connewango river, approx- 


imates Lake Erie as nearly as it is laid down in the draft you sent me, it 
presents a very short portage indeed between the two, and access to all those 
above the latter. I am, etc., George Washington." 

It will be seen by this correspondence, that Washington, at that early day, 
clearly foresaw the great importance of obtaining a ready communication 
between the waters of the East and the West, which was then required only 
to transport the few furs and peltries collected by the Indians and trappers 
in the uncivilized western regions ; but which, forty-five years later, was 
needed to bear a tide of emigration that has constantly since then been pour- 
ing into the valley of the Mississippi, and to carry back to the East from that 
fruitful territory surplus products so vast as to require the building of the 
Erie Canal. 

Survey of the State Boundary Line. 

The original boundary line between New York and Pennsylvania extended 
from the north-west comer of New Jersey, along the center of the Delaware 
river, to the 42d degree of north latitude, and thence west to Lake Erie. 
This line gave to the state of Pennsylvania only four or five miles of coast 
on Lake Erie, and no harbor. Samuel Holland, on the part of New York, 
and David Rittenhouse, on the part of Pennsylvania, were appointed com- 
missioners, November 8, 1774, to run this boundary; and in December of 
that year they erected a stone monument on the 42d parallel of latitude, upon 
a small island in the Delaware river, as the north-east corner of the state of 
Pennsylvania. The severity of the season prevented the further prosecution 
of the survey that year. The Revolution soon after commenced, and the 
work was postponed. In 1781, New York released to the general govern- 
ment the lands to which it had claim, lying west of a meridian extending 
through the west extremity of Lake Ontario. This line became the western 
boundary of Chautauqua county ; and these lands constituted the tract since 
known as the Triangle. They were sold by the government of the United 
States, in 1792, to the state of Pennsylvania, and gave to that state 202,180 
acres of land, thirty miles of coast on Lake Erie, and an excellent harbor at 
Erie. The southern boundary of New York was run by David Rittenhouse, 
Andrew Ellicott and others, commissioners, in 1785, 1786 and 1787. The 
meridian line which forms the western boundary of our county and state, was 
run in 1788 and 1 789, by Andrew Ellicott, the surveyor-general of the United 
States. An initial monument was erected by him near the shore of Lake 
Erie, on which was placed the following inscription : On the east side — 
"Meridian of the west end of Lake Ontario, state of New York, 18 miles 
and 525 chains from the northern boundary of Pennsylvania, August 23, 
1 790." On the west side — " Territory annexed to the state of Pennsylvania. 
North latitude 42° 16' 32". Variation, 25' west." This monument having 
been partially destroyed, and what remained of it endangered by the encroach- 
ments of Lake Erie, it was replaced in pursuance of an act of the legislature, 
with appropriate ceremonies, September 15, 1869, by a new monument. 


placed 440 feet south of the original monument, composed of Quincy 
granite, two feet wide and about eight inches thick. It has on its east and 
west faces a copy of the inscription on the corresponding faces of the original 
monument, and on its north and south faces the following inscription : North 
face — "1869, latitude of this state, 42 deg., 15 min., 56 sec. 9; longitude, 
79 deg., 45 min., 54 sec. 4. Variation, 2 deg. 35 sec. west. South face — 
" 1869. Erected by the states of New York and Pennsylvania, 440 feet 
south of a monument now dilapidated, on which were the inscriptions on the 
east and west faces of this monument." William Evans represented the state 
of Pennsylvania, and John V. L. Pruyn, George R. Perkins, S. B. Woolworth 
and George W. Patterson, represented the state of New York. 

The state of Pennsylvania held treaties with the Indians : one at Fort 
Stanwix, in 1784, and another at Fort Harmer, in 1789, at which last place 
the chiefs present agreed that the said state of Pennsylvania shall, and may 
at any time they may think proper, survey, dispose of, and settle all that part 
of the aforesaid country, lying and being west of a line running along the 
middle of the Connew^ango river, from its confluence with the Allegany river 
into " Chadochque Lake ;'' thence along the middle of said lake, to the 
north end of the same ; thence a meridian line from the north end of the 
said lake, to the margin or shore of Lake Erie. These treaties, it was thought, 
secured the title to the Triangle. Complanter sustained the title thus 
acquired, but a majority of the Iroquois, and their master spirit the Mohawk 
Chief Brant, were bitterly opposed, as he was in favor of restricting the whites 
to the territory lying east of the Allegany and Ohio, and the settlement of 
the Triangle was never fully acquiesced in by the Indians. 

Indian Wars, and the Conclusion. 

The disasters that attended the celebrated expedition of Gen. Hanmer 
against the Indians in 1790, encouraged them to renewed acts of hostility; 
and in the spring of 1791, the settlements along the Allegany river above 
Pittsburgh were repeatedly visited by them, and women and children often 
massacred; even the Triangle suffered from their hostile incursions. The 
defeat of St. Clair by the Indians, which occurred in November, 1791, 
rendered them still more bold and ferocious ; and for a year thereafter great 
alarm extended along the frontiers of New York and Pennsylvania; and not 
until the successful termination of Wayne's expedition into the Indian 
country, were the frontier settlements entirely freed from danger of Indian 
hostility. On the 20th of August, 1794, Gen. Wayne completely defeated, 
the Indians in a general battle on the Maumee river. This decisive victory 
entirely put an end to their power for fiirther harm to the border settlers. 
By a treaty made at Greenville with the different tribes of Western Indians, 
on the 30th of July, 1795, the greater part of the territory of Ohio was 
ceded to the United States, and a long period of border war ended, and 
peace for the first time established in these Western wilds which had never 
known any other condition than that of continued savage and relendess strife. 


Chautauqua county, before this treaty, had been a deep solitude, far dis- 
tant from the most advanced outposts of permanent settlement; yet often 
the scene of warlike demonstration. Fleets filled with armed and veteran 
Frenchmen had passed along its shores; Beaujen, the gallant Frenchman, 
who led the handful of his countrymen that defeated Braddock; St. Pierre, 
La Force, and Joncaire — names that have become celebrated in the history 
of the French occupation in America, were once familiar with this county ; 
and the war-path of veritable savage warriors armed with tomahawk and 
scalping-knife, may have led through its forests ; and later, during the Amer- 
ican Revolution, it is probable that an armed force of British and Indians 
had been borne upon the waters of our beautiful lake. But this treaty 
suddenly opened the West to receive the tide of emigration that has not, 
from that time to this day, ceased to flow. 

The state of Ohio, September 5th, 1795, conveyed to the "Connecticut 
Land Company" the Western Reserve, and on the 4th of July, 1796, the 
first permanent settlement of Northern Ohio was made at Conneaut, in Ash- 
tabula county. The fall following, a settlement was commenced at Cleve- 
land, where it was designed by the proprietors of the Western Reserve to 
establish the capital of a new state, to be called " New Connecticut," under 
the mistaken idea, that by the Constitution of the United States, the rights 
they had acquired by the purchase of the soil gave them political jurisdiction 
also, and authority to found a state. Emigration from the east at first pressed 
towards the Western Reserve, passing by the Holland Purchase, the lands of 
which had not yet been put into market. When these lands were offered 
for sale (as the Holland Land Company sold theirs for $2.50 and $3.00 per 
acre on a credit, while Western lands were sold at a less price for cash), those 
who possessed the ready means, and were able to pay at once for their farms, 
sought more attractive homes in the fertile prairies and flowery openings of 
Ohio and the West ; consequently the first settlers of the Holland Purchase, 
and those particularly of the county of Chautauqua, were the poorest class 
of people — men who often expended their last dollar to procure the article 
for their land. Chautauqua county then was densely covered with a majes- 
tic forest of the largest growth, which cast its dark shadows everywhere — 
over hills and valleys, and along the streams and borders of the lakes. No- 
where in northern latitudes could be found trees so tall and large ; and while 
none could behold, without awe and pleasure, the grandeur and grace of these 
mighty woods, yet a home here, to cope with and subdue them, promised a 
life-time of toil and privation ; and no one felt invited hither but strong and 
hardy pioneers — men of the frontier who were accustomed to wield the axe 
and handle the rifle ; who could grapple with the forest, and rough it in the 
wilderness, and think it ease ; who could reap the thin harvest, and live upon 
the coarse and often scanty fare of the woods, and call it plenty ; conse- 
quently the first settlers of this county were mostly from the backwoods 
region, at the western verge of settlement. They brought with them strong 
arms, stout hearts, and a thorough knowledge of the rude expedients of life 


in the woods. They were a body of picked young men, possessing vigorous 
bodies and practical minds. Among their number were often men of marked 
abihty, whose talents would honor any station. Although the most of them 
possessed but little of the learning of books and schools, not a few were 
cultivated and accomplished---men and women of refinement and education, 
whose attainments were such as to prepare them to adorn any society. The 
most of the early settlers were, however, educated in a true sense : they 
possessed that learning which, in the situation in which it was their fortune 
to be cast, best fitted thep for a life of usefulness, and enabled them to con- 
tribute their full share in the great work of progress and improvement allotted 
to them. They were skillful adepts in their calling ; accomplished masters 
in wood craft, and in all that pertained to the formidable task of preparing the 
way for the westward expansion of civilization and population. Where and 
when they performed this labor will be told in the succeeding pages of this 
history. How quickly, and how well it was done, the green hillsides and 
blooming valleys of our county fully attest. 



America was discovered by Columbus in 1492. In 1497, John Cabot, a 
Venetian, and his son Sebastian, under the auspices of Henry VII., king of 
England, discovered North America. He sailed along the coast 300 leagues, 
and planted on the soil the bailners of England and of Venice. He saw no 
person, though he believed the country not uninhabited. 

Efforts were early made by Spain, France and England, to establish colo- 
nies in North America. More, however, than a century elapsed before 
many permanent settlements were made. In 1568, the Spaniards established 
a small colony in Florida. The French, in 1605, planted a small colony in 
Nova Scotia, and in 1608, founded the city of Quebec. In 1607, the 
English made a settlement at Jamestown, in Virginia. New York was set- 
tled by the Dutch in 161 4. In 1620, the "Pilgrim Fathers'' landed on 
Plymouth Rock, and commenced the settlement of New England. 

The tract of country called New England, granted by James I., king of 
England, to the Plymouth Company, extended from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific Ocean. In 1628, a part of this tract, alsp extending to the Pacific, 
was granted by the Plymouth Company to Sir Henry Roswell and his asso- 
ciates, called the Massachusetts Bay Company. The province of New York 
was granted in 1663, by Charles II., to the Duke of York and Albany 
[afterwards King James II.], who subsequently granted to Berkeley and 
Cartaret the province of New Jersey. The remainder of the country granted 
by Charles II. constituted the province of New York, which extended 
north to the Canada line; but its extent westward was not definitely stated. 


The first charter of Massachusetts, granted by King Charles I., in 1628, 
appears to have been vacated by quo warranto in 1684; and a second 
charter was granted by Wilham and Mary, in 1691, in which the territorial 
limits of the province, although differently bounded, are also made to extend 
to the Pacific Ocean. Under these conflicting grants, disputes arose between 
some of the states as to the extent of their respective territorial rights and 

Those who are familiar with the political history of this country, will 
remember that, near and soon after the close of the Revolutionary war, 
several of the states ceded their western lands to the general government as a 
fund to aid in the payment of the war debt. New York ceded hers by 
deed dated March i, 1781, two years before the peace. In 1783, Congress 
requested those states which had not already done so, to cede portions of 
their territory for that purpose. Virginia ceded March i, 1784; Massachu- 
setts, April 19, 1785 ; and Connecticut, September 13, 1786, transferred her 
claim, reserving about 3,000,000 acres in the north-east part of the present 
state of Ohio. This tract was called the " Western Reserve of Connecticut." 
On the 30th of May, 1800, the jurisdictional claims of that state to this 
Reserve were surrendered to the United States. 

The dispute, however, between the states of New York and Massachusetts 
was not yet settled. Of the territory which, by the treaty of peace of 1783, 
was ceded to the United States, each of the individual states claimed such 
portions as were comprehended within their original grants or charters. Mas- 
sachusetts consequently claimed a strip of land extending to the westerly 
bounds of the United States, thus dividing the state of New York into two 
parts. Both New York and Massachusetts had ceded all their lands westerly 
of the same meridian line, namely, a line running from the most westerly 
bend of Lake Ontario, south to the northern line of Pennsylvania, and form- 
ing the present western boundary of the state of New York. But Massa- 
chusetts still claimed nearly 20,000 square miles -east of that line. The 
controversy was finally settled by commissioners on the part of each of the 
two states, who met at Hartford, December 16, 1786. In accordance with 
this decision, Massachusetts ceded to New York all claim to the government, 
sovereignty, and jurisdiction of all the lands in controversy; and New York 
ceded to Massachusetts and to her grantees the preemption right or fee of 
the land, subject to the title of the natives, of all that part of the state of 
New York lying west of a line beginning on the north boundary line of 
Pennsylvania, on the parallel of 42 degrees of north latitude, 82 miles west 
of the north-east corner of said state, and running thence due north through 
Seneca lake to Lake Ontario, excepting a mile's breadth along the east bank 
of the Niagara river. The land, the preemption right of which was thus 
ceded, was about six million acres. 

In April, 1788, Massachusetts contracted to sell to Oliver Phelps and 
Nathaniel Gorham the right of preemption in all the lands ceded by the 
convention of the i6th of December, 1786, at Hartford. In July, 1788, 


Gorham and Phelps purchased the Indian title to about 2,600,000 acres of 
the eastern part of their purchase from Massachusetts. The western bound- 
ary of these lands was a line running from the north line of Pennsylvania 
north to the junction of the Shanahasgwaikon (now called Canascraga) creek 
and the Genesee river ; thence northwardly along the Genesee river to a point 
two miles north of Canawaugus village; thence due west 12 miles; thence 
in a direction northwardly, so as to be 1 2 miles distant from the most west- 
ward bend of the Genesee river to Lake Ontario. This tract, the Indian 
title to which had been extinguished by Phelps and Gorham, was confirmed 
to them by an act of the legislature of Massachusetts, November 21, 1788, 
and is that which has been designated as the " Phelps and Gorham Purchase." 

The survey of this tract into townships and lots was immediately com- 
menced ; and, within the space of two years, about fifty townships had been 
disposed of, principally by whole townships or large portions of townships, 
to individuals and companies. 

Phelps and Gorham, having paid about one-third of the purchase money 
of the entire tract purchased of Massachusetts, were unable to make further 
payments. They had stipulated to pay in a kind of scrip, or " consolidated 
stock,'' issued by that state. This scrip they could buy at 70 or 80 per cent, 
below par. But this stock having risen to par, they were unable, at this rate, 
to fulfill their engagements. On the isth of February, 1790, they proposed 
to the legislature of Massachusetts to surrender to the state two-thirds in 
quantity and value of the whole of the contracted lands ; two of their three 
bonds for ^100,000 each, given for the purchase money, to be canceled. The 
tract released by the Indians was to be retained by Gorham and Phelps ; but 
if the contents should exceed one-third of the whole, the surplus was to be 
paid for in money at the average price of the whole. 

Two other proposals, made a few days later, were accepted by the legisla- 
ture, but reserving to themselves the right of accepting, in preference, at any 
time within one year, the proposal of the 15th of February, 1790; and on 
the 19th of February, 17 91, notice was given to Gorham and Phelps that 
the legislature had elected, that the two third parts of the lands should 
remain the property of the commonwealth ; and the unpaid bonds were 
relinquished to Phelps and Gorham. The tract released by the Indians was 
found to exceed in quantity one-third of the whole territory ; and the excess 
was subsequently [April 6, 18 13] paid by Phelps and Gorham. That tract, 
with the exception of the parts sold, and of two townships reserved by Gor- 
ham and Phelps, was sold by them to Robert Morris, and is described in the 
conveyance, dated i8th November, 1790, as containing 2,100,000 acres. 

In March, 1791, Massachusetts agreed to sell to Samuel Ogden, agent for 
Robert Morris, all the lands ceded to that state by New York, except that 
part which had been conveyed to Phelps and Gorham, the state reserving 
one equal undivided sixtieth part of the unexcepted lands. This reservation 
in the original sale to Morris, was caused by a contract made by Gorhami 
and Phelps, prior to the surrender of their claim to Massachusetts, for the 


sale of one-sixtieth of the entire territory to John Butler. Butler subse- 
quently assigned his right to this one-sixtieth to Morris, who was thus enabled 
to acquire a title from Massachusetts. 

In pursuance of this contract, Massachusetts, on the nth of May, 1791, 
conveyed to Robert Morris, as the assignee under Samuel Ogden, a tract of 
land containing about 500,000 acres, bounded on the west by a line drawn from 
a point in the north line of Pennsylvania, twelve miles west from the south- 
west corner of the land confirmed to Gorham and Phelps, to Lake Ontario. 
This tract forms no part of the lands subsequently sold by Morris to the 
Holland Land Company, and is still known as the " Morris Reserve.'' 

The lands of the Holland Land Company are embraced in four deeds from 
Massachusetts to Robert Morris, all dated May 11, 1791, Samuel Ogden 
concurring in these conveyances. Each deed conveyed a distinct tract of 
land, supposed to contain 800,000 acres. The ^rst tract is sixteen miles 
wide, from the Pennsylvania north line to the northern boundary of the state, 
and comprehends ranges r, 2 and 3, as laid down in the map of Ellicotts 
survey. The second tract is of the same breadth, and comprehends ranges 4, 
5 and 6. The third tract is of the same breadth, and comprehends ranges 7 
and 8, and 263 chains and 76 links off the easterly side of range 9. The fourt/i 
tract embraces all the land in the state west of the third tract, and compre- 
hends the remaining westerly part of range 9, and the whole of ranges 10, 
II, 12, 13, 14 and 15. The consideration of the first three tracts was 
;^i5,ooo each; for the fourth, ;^io,ooo. By these conveyances, Robert 
Morris became seized of the preemptive title to all the lands in the state west 
of the eastern boundary of the Holland Purchase, excepting only the 
reserved strip of land, one mile in width, along the Niagara river. 

Aliens being legally incompetent to hold and convey real estate, the lands 
of the Dutch proprietors within the state of New York were purchased for 
their account from Robert Morris, and conveyed, for their benefit, to 
trustees. On the nth of April, 1796, a special act was passed for the relief 
of Wilhem Willink, Nicholas Van Staphorst, Christian Van Eeghen, Hen- 
drick VoUenhoven, Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck, and Pieter Stadnitski ; 
and on the Z4th of February, 1797, a supplementary act was passed, includ- 
ing the names of Jan Willink, Jacob Van Staphorst, Nicholas Hubbard, 
Pieter Van Eeghen, Isaac Ten Cate, Jan Stadnitski, and Aernout Van Beef- 
tingh. By these two acts, the trustees were authorized to hold the lands 
contracted and paid for by all or any of these individuals, and for the period 
of seven years to sell the same to citizens of the United States. Under the 
general alien act of April 2d, 1798, the titles were afterwards vested in the 
names of the Dutch proprietors by new conveyances. By this general act, 
which was to continue for three years, all conveyances to aUens, not being 
.the subjects of powers or states at war with the United States, were declared 
to be valid, so as to vest the estate in such aliens, their heirs and assigns for- 
ever. The construction of this was settled by an act passed March 5th, 18 19, 
which declared and enacted that all conveyances made to aliens under the 


act of April, 1798, should be deemed valid, and vest the lands thereby con- 
veyed in the several grantees, so as to authorize them and their heirs and 
assigns, although aliens, to devise or convey the same to any other alien or 
aliens, not being the subjects of a power or state at war with the United 

The lands purchased by the Holland Land Company embraced an area 
of about 3,600,000 acres, and were originally conveyed in several tracts or 
parcels, and at different times, by Robert Morris, to trustees for the benefit 
of the Dutch proprietors. The first tract thus conveyed, called the " Million 
and a half Acre Tract," embracing 422 chains and 56 links off the west part 
of range 7, and all the land west thereof to the Pennsylvania line, was con- 
veyed, December 24, 1792, in two parcels. The first of these, containing 
one million acres, embraced the eastern part of the tract ; the second parcel, 
the western part, comprehending ranges 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15, as laid down 
on EUicott's map. 

The second tract, called the "One Million Acre Tract," was conveyed 
February 27, 1793, and embraced townships 5 to 16, inclusive, in range i ; 
4 to 1 6 in ranges 2 and 3 ; and i to 4 in ranges 4, 5 and 6. 

The third tract, called the " Eight Hundred Thousand Acre Tract," was 
conveyed July 20, 1793. 

The fourth tract, called the " Three Hundred Thousand Acre Tract,'' was 
conveyed July 20, 1793. Though named as being a single tract, it embraced 
three different parcels, neither two of them consisting of contiguous territory. 
The first of these parcels comprehended townships i, 2, 3, and the east half 
of 4, of range i, and i, 2 and 3, of ranges 2 and 3, intended tcr contain 
200,000 acres." The second and third parcels comprehended 113 chains 
and 68 links of the east part of range 7, which was not included in the 
million and a half acres before described. The portion of this strip lying 
south of the Buffalo creek reservation, was intended to contain 54,000 acres, 
and the part north of the reservation, 46,000 acres. 

The names of the trustees to whom the conveyances were made by 
Morris, were not in all cases the same, as will appear from the following 
statement of the chain of title to each tract : 

Deed of first tract [1,500,000 acres], i. Robert Morris to Herman Le 
Roy and John Lincklaen, December 31, 1792. 2. Le Roy and Lincklaen 
to William Bayard, May 30, 1795. 3. Wm. Bayard to Le Roy, Lincklaen, 
and Gerrit Boon, June i, 1795. 4. Le Roy, Lincklaen and Boon to Paul 
Busti, July 9, 1798. 5. Busti to Le Roy, Bayard, James McEvers, Linck- 
laen, and Boon, upon trust for the benefit of Wilhem Willink and others, 
with covenant to convey the same according to their direction and appoint- 
ment — deed dated July 10, 1798. 6. Le Roy, Bayard, McEvers, Linck- 
laen, and Boon, to Wilhem Willink, Nicholas Van Staphorst, Pieter Van 
Eeghen, Hendrick Vollenhoven, and Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck, Dec. 
31, 1798. 7. The title of the last named grantees was confirmed to them 
by Thomas L. Ogden ahd Gouverneur Morris, by deed, February 18, 1801. 


Deed of second tract [1,000,000 acres], i. Robert Morris to Le Roy, 
Lincklaen, and Boon, Feb. 27, 1793, confirmed after the extinguishment of 
the Indian tide, by deed between the same parties, June i, 1798. 2. Le 
Roy, Lincklaen, and Boon to Paul Busti, July 9, 1798. 3. Busti to Le Roy, 
Bayard, McEvers, Lincklaen, and Boon, in trust for the benefit of Wilhem 
Willink and others, July 10, 1798. 4. Le Roy, Bayard, McEvers, Linck- 
laen, and Boon, to Wilhem Willink and others, December 31, 1798. 5. 
The title of the last named grantees was confirmed to them by Thomas L. 
Ogden, February 13, 1801. 

Deed of the third tract [800,000 acres], i. Robert Morris to Le Roy, 
Lincklaen, and Boon, July 20, 1793, confirmed after the extinguishment of 
the Indian title, by deed between the same parties, June i, 1798. 2. Le 
Roy, Lincklaen, and Boon, to Paul Busti, July 9, 1798. 3. Busti to Le Roy, 
Bayard, McEvers, Lincklaen, and Boon, in trust for Wilhem Willink and 
others, July 10, 1798. 4. Le Roy, Bayard, McEvers, Lincklaen, and Boon, 
to Wilhelm Willink and others, July 10, 1798. 5. The title of the last 
named grantees was confirmed by Thomas L. Ogden, Feb. 13, 1801. 

Deed of the fourth tract [300,000 acres], i. Robert Morris to Le Roy, 
Bayard, and Thomas Clarkson, July 20, 1793, confirmed after the extin- 
guishment of the Indian title, by deed between the same parties, June i, 
1798. 2. Le Roy, Bayard, and Clarkson, to Paul Busti, July 9, 1798. 3. 
Busti to Le Roy, Bayard, and Clarkson, in trust for Wilhem Willink and 
Jan Willink, July 10, 1798. 4. Le Roy, Bayard, and Clarkson, to Wilhem 
Willink, Jan Willink, Wilhem Willink, Jr., and Jan Willink, Jr., as joint 
tenants, Jan. 3r, 1799. 5. Title of last named grantees confirmed by T. L. 
Ogden, Feb. 27, 1801. 

It appears from the foregoing that all the lands of the Company were con- 
veyed by the trustees to Paul Busti, of Philadelphia, an alien. The design 
of this conveyance, it is presumed, was merely to change the title of the 
trust estate to the hands of Busti, who was general agent of the proprietors 
in Holland. 

The necessity of the confirmatory deeds of Thomas L. Ogden and Gouver- 
neur Morris will appear from the following facts : Two judgments against 
Robert Morris had been docketed in the supreme court of the state of New 
York, which were found to overreach the titles of several of the purchasers 
under him. The first was in favor of Wm. Talbot and Wm. Allum, docketed 
June 8, 1797 ; the second, in favor of Solomon Townsend, docketed August 
10, 1798. Previously to the year 1800, an execution was issued on the last 
judgment ; and all the lands conveyed to Morris by Massachusetts were sold, 
and conveyed by the sheriff of Ontario county to Thomas Mather, in whose 
name actions of ejectment founded upon this conveyance were prosecuted 
in the court In the spring of 1800, during the pendency of these ejectments, 
an execution was issued on the earlier judgment ; and the whole tract of 
country was again levied upon and advertised for sale by the sheriff. 

Under these circumstance, Mr. Busti, the general agent of the Holland 


Land Company, entered into an arrangement with Gouvemeur Morris, -the 
assignee of the earher judgment, to put an end to the claims set up under 
both judgments. It was agreed that both judgments, and also a release of 
Mather's interest under the sheriff's deed to him, should be purchased by the 
Land Company, which was done ; and the judgments were assigned to the 
Company, April 22, 1800 ; that of Townsend by his attorney, Aaron Burr ; 
that of Talbot and AUum, by Gouvemeur Morris, the assignee of Robert 
Morris. Articles of agreement were at the same time entered into between 
Thomas L. Ogden of the first part, the individuals of the Holland Company 
of the second part, and Gouvemeur Morris of the third part, by which it was 
agreed that the release from Mather should be taken in the name of Thomas 
L. Ogden ; that he should also become the purchaser at the approaching sale 
under the judgment of Talbot and Allum ; and that the title thus derived 
under both judgments should be held by him in trust for the purposes 
expressed in the agreement. 

It was provided in that instrument, that the million and a half acre tract 
should be held subject to the issue of amicable suit, to be instituted on the 
equity side of the circuit of the United States for the district of New York, 
to determine the operation and effect of the conveyance of this tract by 
Robert Morris, so that if, by a decree of that court, or of the supreme court 
of the United States, in case of an appeal, such conveyance should be 
adjudged to be absolute and indefeasible, then the tract should be released 
and confirmed by Gouvemeur Morris to the Holland LandCompany. It 
was further provided by this agreement, that the residue of the entire tract 
of country should be released and confirmed by Thomas L. Ogden to the 
several proprietors under Robert Morris, according to the award and appoint- 
ment of Alexander Hamilton, David A. Ogden and Thomas Cooper. 

In pursuance of this agreement, Mather's rights under the sale on Town- 
send's judgment, were conveyed to Thomas L. Ogden, April 22, 1800; and 
a sale having been made under the execution issued upon the judgment of 
Talbot and Allum, the entire tract of country, as to all the interest which 
Robert Morris had therein on the 8th of June, 1797, was conveyed by Roger 
Sprague, sheriff of Ontario county, by deed dated May 13, 1800. Hamilton, 
D. A. Ogden and Cooper made an award or appointment, January 22, 1801, 
directing conveyances by Thomas L. Ogden, of the whole of the lands to the 
several grantees under Robert Morris, the parcels to be conveyed to each to 
be defined by appropriate descriptions and boundaries. In conformity with 
this appointment, the several confirmations were executed by Thomas L. 



The first inquiry suggested to the reader of a history of any country or 
territory, is : "Where, when, and by whom was its settlement commenced?" 
Amongst the diverse and conflicting statements respecting the earliest settle- 
ment in Chautauqua county, it is difficult, if not impossible, to answer the 
question. It was the purpose of the writer not to become a party in this 
controversy, but to present sketches of the several early settlements, without 
any allusion to the discussion which has so long agitated the public mind. 
It has, however, been repeatedly intimated that this would not be satisfactory 
to the people generally. And as many are known to be looking for the 
result of the author's investigation of this question, he deems it proper to 
present such facts and statements as have come to his knowledge, for the 
consideration of those who think the subject worthy of investigation. 

The late Hon. Samuel A. Brown, in a course of lectures at the Academy 
in Jamestown, in 1843, said in his second lecture: "Col. McMahan and Mc- 
Henry, both from Pennsylvania, may, with propriety, I think, be styled the 
pioneers of Chautauqua county, as they were the first who purchased and set- 
tled with the intention of making this county their permanent residence ; 
though one Amos Settle had resided from 1796 to 1800 on the Cattaraugus 
bottoms in Hanover ; was then absent two or three years ; but afterwards 
returned and became a permanent resident." 

This statement was probably made on the authority of Heiuy H. Hawkins, 
of Silver Creek, who, in a letter to Mr. Brown, dated Hanover, Feb. 2, 1843, 
wrote as follows : 

" Sir : Amos Sottle came on to the Cattaraugus bottoms, and settled in 
the year 1796, being then about twenty-one years old, and has resided here 
ever since that time, with the exception of between two and three years, 
from about 1800 or 1801, which he spent in what was then called the North- 
western Territory. He is one who helped make the survey of the whole 
country in 1798 and 1799, under Joseph EUicOtt, surveyor of the Holland 
Land Company." 

Judge Warren, in his History of Chautauqua County, published in 1846, 
says : 

" The first purchase of lands for the purpose of settlement within the 
present limits of this county, was made by Gen. McMahan, in i8oi. 
* * * The first attempt to subdue the dense forest was made in 1802, 
by CoL James McMahan, near where the village of Westfield is now 
located. On this spot ten acres weK cleared, and the first dwelling of the 
white man erected. Edward McHeriry settled on an adjoining tract during 
the same year. These jwere tKe first locations of proprietors within the 
county, with the intention of making it a permanent residence. It should be 
mentioned, however, that for nearly four years previously to 1800, Amos 
Sottle had resided near Cattaraugus creek, in the present town of Hanover. 
After which he was absent for several years, and finally returned and became 
a permanent citizen." 


Another says: "In 1796, one Amos Sottle located in Hanover, but 
removed in 1800 from the county, and did not return for several years." 

Turner, in his History of the Holland Purchase, says : " The first white 
resident of Chautauqua was Amos Sottle. He had resided near the mouth 
of Cattaraugus creek for three years before the sale of the Holland Com- 
pany's lands commenced." ^ 

The State Gazetteer says : " The first settlement in the county was made 
at the mouth of Cattaraugus creek, in 1797, by Amos Sottle. Soon after 
making the first improvements, Sottle left, and returned in 1801, with Mr. 
Sydney and Capt. Rosecrantz." 

Judge Foote, in a communication in the Mayville Sentinel, of July 20, 
1859, gives the result of his investigation of the subject, as follows : 

" Editor Sentinel : I thank you for your efforts to preserve the early 
history of our county; and I trust the people will gratefully appreciate your 
efforts. In your article in the Sentinel, oi hyA 20 [1859], are some mistakes 
that should be corrected, lest they become conceded as facts, and copied as 
such by future historians. Amos Sottle was not the first white settler in the 
county, although I know he claimed to be, and to have settled in the east part 
of the town of Hanover, in 1796. 

" By a reference to the surveyors' minutes of the meridian and township 
line surveys, made in 1798-9, copies of which are in the County Clerk's office, 
it will be seen that Sottle was an axeman under Amzi Atwater, one of the 
principal surveyors, although his name does not appear in the list of surveyors 
in Turner's History of the Holland Purchase. The surveyors, as required, 
returned a list of their assistants and their places of residence, and the 
capacity in which they served. Sottle was reported as a resident of Chenango 
county, N. Y. ; and I presume the first time he ever saw the land where he 
subsequently settled, was when Atwater surveyed the 9th meridian, or present 
line between the counties of Chautauqua and Cattaraugus, in 1798. He was 
also an axeman in 1799. After he left the surveyors he went into the North- 
west Territory, and was there some years, but finally returned and settled in 
the present town of Hanover, about 1804, and resided there with his squaw, 
or colored wife, until his death, about 1848 or '49. His statements were not 
very reliable. I do not find his name on any land records for several years 
after his actual residence in the county. Col. James McMahan was unques- 
tionably the first bona fide white settler in the county ; he and his elder 
brother. Gen. John McMahan, having been early and conspicuous pioneers, 
and the first purchasers of land in the county." 

It is difficult to determine, from these statements, who was the first actual 
settler. Mr. Brown thinks McMahan and McHenry are properly styled the 
pioneers of Chautauqua ; yet he says Sottle had resided on the Cattaraugus 
from 1796 to 1800, and then was absent two or three years, and afterwards 
became a permanent resident. This would seem to indicate that Mr. B. did 
not consider Sottle a settler until after his second residence, which, if he had 
been absent two or three years, must have commenced in about 1802 or 
1803. Judge Warren's statement naturally leads to the same conclusion. 
Turner gives Sottle a residence at Cattaraugus, and probably considered him 
a settler. The State Gazetteer states that he made a settlement there in 
1797 ; and on the same page refers to Judge Foote to prove that the first 


settlement in the county was made in 1794, which nobody here beHeves, nor 
has the Judge ever authorized such statement. From such contradictory 
statements, who can decide the question ? The first inquiry then should be 
respecting the credibility of authors. These authors probably made no thorough 
investigation. Messrs. Brown and Warren both state that Joh7i McMahan 
bought the town of Ripley, ^.nA. James McMahan bought 4,000 acres in West- 
field. Mr. B. could not have made close inquiry, or he would not have 
committed so palpable an error ; and Judge Warren probably copied it, pre- 
suming it to be correct. But a worse error is that of the State Gazetteer. 
And so numerous are the mistakes of Mr. Turner in regard to the settlement 
of this county, that his authority is not reliable. He, too, makes James 
McMahan the purchaser of Westfield, and the builder of mills at the mouth 
of Chautauqua creek. And he also calls Sottle the first white resident of 
Chautauqua, and McMahan " the pioneer settler." 

This exposure of the errors of these writers is not intended to invalidate 
the claim of either party to priority of settlement ; but only to show that 
their several publications are not reliable authority. A hasty canvass for 
the material of a history has been made, and the statements have been pub- 
lished without seeking confirmation from any other source. Presuming them 
to be correct, later authors have copied them, and thus have aided in trans- 
mitting them to succeeding generations. Hence we are still left to form 
opinions, in a great measure, from oral testimony from early settlers, long 
since deceased, through those of a later generation ; especially so in the 
case of the Cattaraugus settlement, which shows no record of a purchase ot 
land prior to that of Charles Avery, in 1804. It is, however, generally con- 
ceded that Sottle (or rather, Sawtel, as hig name appears in the list of sur- 
veyors) was there at an earlier date ; and we have his word that he was a 
settler before there was one at Westfield. It is urged by. the other party, 
that his word is not reliable, his veracity having been impeached in court by 
a score or more of witnesses. Several others, however, have certified their 
belief in his credibility. 

The foregoing is a summary of the testimony on which the parties in this 
controversy have based their respective claims. Other facts, however, have 
come to the knowledge of the writer, which, as a faithful historian, he deems 
it his duty to add to what has been given. 

An early resident of the county says Sottle, long before his death, told 
him that he lived, at first, for a time with the Indians. Another old settler 
confirms this statement, and adds, that Sottle gave as a reason for leaving the 
Indians, and settling on the south side of the creek, that he might accumu- 
late property for his individual use and benefit. 

Some concede Sottle's claim to having an earlier home or residence at 
Cattaraugns, than that of James McMahan at Westfield ; but question the 
propriety of calling the place a settlement. No clearings of consequence 
were made, nor was grain raised. Wm. Sydney, who came with Sottle from 
Ohio, to ferry emigrants across the creek, built a log house for their enter- 


tainrnent; but it is known that, as late as 1804, travelers were unable to 
procure forage for their teams, except from Indians in the vicinity. In cor- 
roboration of this statement, John Mack, son of John Mack who, in 1806, 
bought the Sydney tavern and ferry, wrote to this county, in 1873, as follows: 

"There were then [1806] but three white men on Cattaraugus Flats — 
Amos Sottle, Ezekiel Lane, and Charles Avery. Settle and Lane had buUt 
cabins, made small improvements, and resided in them. Common report 
says Amos Sottle came to Cattaraugus in 1797, located ij4 miles from the 
mouth of the creek, and made improvements as above stated, and where he 
lived in 1806. There was no land cleared for grain raising; and no grain to 
be had, except that bought of the Indians to supply our own wants or those 
of the traveler. These wants were soon remedied by the energy and perse- 
verance of early settlers. 

" The ferrying of the creek was very unsafe. A small scow only, sufficient 
to float a wagon placed therein by hand. Horses and oxen were taken over 
separately, or caused to swim the river by the side of a canoe, guided by a 
line. My father soon provided a safe conveyance, by building a scow suffi- 
ciently large to transport teams of all kinds. The tavern was kept by widow 
Sydney in a small log cabin with leantoes attached, which served for lodging 
rooms and stowaways, and a plank addition serving as parlor and dining 
room. Her husband had died a short time previous." 

Whatever difference of opinion may exist respecting the claims of the 
respective parties to priority of settlement, it will not be disputed that 
the first settlement of any considerable extent was commenced at what 
was long known as Cross Roads, in the present town of Westfield, by 
persons from the state of Pennsylvania. Among the first of these immi- 
grants were John and James McMahan. After an examination of the lands 
along the lake, they made contracts for large tractsin 1801. John's purchase 
embraced the whole of township 4, in range 14, containing 22,014 acres, 
which, at $2.50 per acre, amounted to $55,035. He paid down $1,035 J ^^ 
remainder to be paid in eight annual installments with annual interest. 
James contracted for a tract in township 3, range 15. This tract extended 
from the lake shore about 2 miles south, and from the east line of the 
township [now Ripley], about 3j{ miles westward to within about half a 
mile of the village of Quincy, containing 4,074 acres ; the terms of payment 
similar to those expressed in the contract made with his brother John. These 
contracts, though considered as made in 1801, were not perfected, or fully 
executed, until May and July, 1803, after portions of the land had been sold 
by the first contractors. The early settlers on these lands bought o£ the 
McMahans, the Land Company giving title deeds on the payment to them 
of the purchase money, which was credited on the McMahans' contract with 
the company. 

Although James' purchase was in Ripley, he selected and bought for him- 
self, within his brother's tract, a lot on which he settled, about three-fourths 
of a mile west of Chautauqua creek, and which extended east to the old 
" Cross Roads.'' 


The next spring, [1802,] Mr. McMahan commenced clearing his farm, and 
is said to have cleared about ten acres, which he planted and sowed the rirst 
season. This was the first field cleared in the county. Although Mr. 
McMahan had previously built a log house, and was properly the first settler, 
he did not move his family into it, it is said, until late in r8o2. The first 
family was that of Edward McHenry, at the " Cross Roads," so called from 
its being the place where the Buffalo & Erie road crossed the old " Portage 
Road." At the solicitation of McMahan, as is said, McHenry came with 
him, not only to settle, but to keep a house of entertainment for emigrants 
westward, " New' Connecticut," in Ohio, being then rapidly settling from the 
East. A few months after McHenr/s arrival, his son John was bom, the first 
child in the county born of white parents. The death of the father the 
next year, who was drowned in the lake by the capsizing of a small boat, 
while on his way to Erie to obtain a supply of provisions, was the first death 
of a white settler in the county. His two companions were saved by cling- 
ing to the boat. His body, it is said, was never recovered. 

In the discussion of the conflicting claims of different places in the 
county to priority of settlement, it is somewhat strange that Col. McMahan 
should have been so long spoken of as the earliest settler here. On his 
tour of inspection in iSor, with a view to a location, he was accompanied 
by one Andrew Straub, a Pennsylvania German, who selected for himself a 
place a short distance east of where the village of Westfield now is, and 
built on it a house and occupied it the same year. He made clearings and 
resided there many years. The stream on or near which he settled, derived 
its name from him, and was long known as " Straub's Creek.'' Stones from 
his fireplace, and other relics of his house, have been found at a compara- 
tively recent date ; and there are persons now living who have personal 
knowledge of his residence here. He had no family. After the lands were 
surveyed, he contracted for 450 acres. 

After the settlement of Col. McMahan and Mr. McHenry, settlers came 
in rapidly. Most of them settled on the road early opened towards Erie : 
David Kincaid, who bought in November, 1802, north of McMahan's ; in 
1803, Arthur Bell, in January; Christopher Dull, in June; James Mont- 
gomery, in July ; and Andrew Straub, in September ; all of whom are 
believed to have settled on their lands the year of their purchase, except 
Straub, who is known to have settled on his a year or two earlier, and before 

the land was surveyed into lots ; and Culbertson, George and John 

Degeer — all of whom, it is said, came from Pennsylvania. Also Jeremiah 
George, who bought in 1803; Jacob George and Laughlin McNeil, in 1804; 
and George Whitehill, in 1805, are believed to have settled at or near the 
times of their purchases. In 1806 and 1807, came David Eason, Matthew 
McClintock and Low Minigerfrom Canadaway, [Fredonia,] who also were 
from Pennsylvania, and who had resided one or two years at Fredonia. 
Miniger settled on a farm about a mile east from the village of Westfield, in 
1806. McClintock also, before Eason, came to Westfield, having sold his 



land at Canadaway to Judge Gushing, Hezekiah Barker and others. He 
opened a tavern at Westfield, and owned, it is said, the larger portion of the 
site of the village. He afterwards moved to what was since known as the 
Bradley farm, below Westfield ; thence to Ripley, and finally to Illinois, 
where he died in 1838. David Eason, in the winter of 1806-7, sold his farm 
to Hezekiah Turner, and on the 31st of March, 1807, came to Westfield, 
having purchased of John McMahan, on the east side of Chautauqua creek, 
about 150 acres in what is now the south-east part of the village, east of 
South Portage street. [See David Eason in historical sketch of Westfield.] 

In Ripley, Alexander Cochran, a native of Ireland, and the first settler in 
that town, settled in 1804, about a mile west of Quincy. Along the Erie 
road, west of the Westfield line, the following named persons were early pur- 
chasers : Charles Forsyth, William Alexander, Farley Fuller, Basil Burgess, 
Robert Dickson, Thomas Prendergast, Oliver Loomis, Josiah Farnsworth, 
Asa Spear, Israel Goodrich, Wm. Crosgrove, Nathan Wisner, Andrew Spear, 
Perry G. Ellsworth, Noah P. Hayden, Hugh Whitehill, Samuel Harrison, 
and others, bought in Ripley prior to and including the year 1809 ; and most 
of them probably settled on their lands the years of their purchases. 

The settlement at the " Cross Roads " was soon followed by that at Cana- 
daway, which place took its name from the name of the creek, and embraced 
the site of the present village of Fredonia and the surrounding country. The 
first three settlers there were Thomas McClintock, David Eason, and Low 
Miniger, all from Pennsylvania. All, it is believed, settled the same year, 
and so nearly at the same time, as to render it uncertain who was first on the 
ground. The first purchase was undoubtedly made by McClintock, who, as 
appears from the Company's book, entered as early as Dec. 22, 1803, lots 
or parts of lots 8, 14 and 20, township 6, range 12, embracing most of the 
land on which the village of Fredonia stands. In 1804, he made a small 
beginning at clearing, and built a cabin. The land was not yet surveyed 
into lots. It is said that " the lands were afterwards surveyed into lots by 
George Moore, of Erie, under a contract between Mr. EUicott and Mr. 
McClintock," the latter then residing in Erie county. Pa. David Eason, of 
Northumberland county, Pa., also selected land near McClintock's, subse- 
quently owned by Gen. Elijah Risley, in the north part of the village of 
Fredonia, and erected a log cabin. He spent here the summers of 1803 and 
1804, and went back to spend the winters. 

In the spring of 1805 he was married, and in April he set out with Low 
Miniger, Samuel Eason, a cousin of David, and one Covert, and their families, 
for Lake Erie. They ascended the west branch of the Susquehanna and 
the Sinemahoning, through the wilderness to Olean, where Major Adam 
Hoops had just commenced a settlement, having been six weeks on the way, 
and camped out. most of the nights. Here they built canoes ; descended 
the Allegany to Warren ; came up the Connewango creek and Chautauqua 
lake to its head ; and thence over the Portage road to McMahan's settlement. 
Covert left them at Warren, and went down the Allegany. Samuel Eason 


went to North-east, where he soon died. David Eason and Miniger proceeded 
to Canadaway. McClintock arrived there about the same time, and occupied 
his cabin in the south part of the village, near where Judge Gushing subse- 
quently lived and died. Miniger settled a mile or more north-west from the 

None of these men were in better than moderate circumstances ; Mr. Eason 
was quite poor ; and he and his wife entered their cabin with little else than 
their hands. He had but $io in money, which he paid for a barrel of flour 
brought from Canada across the lake. Upon this, with fish and wild game, 
he relied for subsistence until he could raise vegetables, which were their 
principal food during the first year. Seated on lands so desirable in respect 
to fertility and location, it was natural to suppose they would have become 
permanent settlers at Canadaway. Yet but little more than a year elapsed 
before they all sold their lands and removed to the settlement at the Cross 

Canadaway, too, increased rapidly in population. We find on the Land 
Company's books, the names of purchasers in the present town of Pomfret, 
in 1805, Eliphalet Burnham, Zattu Cushing, Samuel Perry, Augustus Burnham. 
In 1806, purchases were made by Philo Orton, Elijah Risley, David Cooley, 
Jr. In 1806 and 1807 came Hezekiah Barker and Richard Williams, who 
built a grist mill. Dr. Squire White came in 1809. Thomas Bull bought in 
1808. Outside of Pomfret, but within a few miles of Fredonia, in the present 
town of Sheridan, early considered as embraced in the Canadaway settlement, 
Francis and Wm. Webber, Hazadiah Stebbins, Abner and Alanson Holmes, 
bought in 1804. In 1805, Gerard Griswdld, Orsamus Holmes, Joel R. Lee, 
John Walker, Wm. Gould, Jonathan Webber, and others. In 1806, Ozias 
Hart, Justus Hinman. In 1807, Abiram Orton, in what is now Arkwright. 

Portland was settled early. James Dunn, from Lycoming county, Pa., 
came to this county in 1803. In May, 1804, he bought a large tract of land, 
before it was surveyed into lots. His purchase amounted to nearly 1,200 
acres. Among those who soon followed him were Benjamin Hutchins, 
David Eaton, Nathan and Elisha Fay and Peter Kane, who purchased in 

In Hanover, the earliest purchases were made in that part of the town 
lying on Cattaraugus creek, and which was surveyed as " Cattataugus Vil- 
lage." Charles Avery and Wm. G. Sydney appear on the Land Company's 
book as purchasers in December, 1804; Amos Settle, in July, 1806; and 
Sylvanus Maybee articled land transferred to him by Charles Avery, who 
bought in i8o6. Abel Cleveland and David Dickinson bought where the 
village of Silver Creek stands. The land was taken up in 1803 or 1804, and 
the greater part of it articled to John E. Howard. The settlement appears 
to have been slow for several years, as Mr. Howard is said to have been, in 
1806, the only settler there. Artemas Clothier came in 1808 or 1809, and 
Norman Spink the same year. Jehial Moore came to Forestville in 1808, 
and built a saw-mill. In 1809, he brought his family in, and erected a grist- 


mill, which he finished the next spring. The same year, Guy Webster and 
Joseph Brownell settled in the south-east part of the town. 

The earliest settlement in the south-east part of the county was made at 
the present village of Kennedy, in the town of Poland, followed by tiie 
settlement of a few' families in the present town of Ellicott Dr. Thomas 
R. Kennedy, of Meadville, Pa., in 1805, commenced the erection of saw- 
mills, chiefly for the manufacture of pine lumber to be run down by water to 
the southern market. To these inills was subsequently added a grist-mill. 
[For a minute description of the building and operation of these mills, see 
historical sketch of Poland.] For several years there were few families 
here, besides those employed in the milling business. Among them was 
that of Edward Shillito, who boarded Kennedy's workmen. Dr. Ken- 
nedy never moved his own family to this place. In the south-west part of 
Poland we find, as original purchasers, in 1808, Gideon Gilson ; in 1809, 
Stephen Hadley, John Owen and John Arthur ; in 1810, John Brown and 
Colt and Marlin ; in 181 1, Abraham Tupper. How many of these became 
actual settlers we have not the means of knowing. ^ 

In the east part of Ellicott, at and near Levant, a settlement was com- 
menced in 1806 by Wm. Willson, followed soon by James Culbertson and 
George W. Fen ton. In 1807, Dr. Kennedy and Edward Work bought some 
1,200 acres on both sides of the outlet below Dexterville ; and mills were 
built and a settlement commenced at Worksburg, in Ellicott, nearly three 
miles north-east from Jamestown, now known as Falconer's, a station on the 
Dunkirk, Allegany "Valley & Pittsburgh railroad. 

In the town of Chautauqua, Alexander Mclntyre appears to have been 
the first purchaser, at the head of the lake, in r8o4. In 1806, the Prender- 
gast families settled on the west side of the lake, where they purchased 
several thousand acres. On the east side of the lake, Filer Sacket and 
Peter Barnhart bought in 1805, and Miles Scofield in 1806. Further north, 
Philo Hopson, William and Darius Dexter, and John W. Winsor, in 1809. 
In EUery, Wm. Bemus settled at Bemus Point in 1806, and later in the same 
year Jeremiah Griffith in the south part of the town, where a number of 
families soon followed. Ii> Harmony, north of Ashville, Thomas Bemus 
commenced a clearing in 1806, and in 1807 Jonathan Cheney settled. At 
Ashville, Reuben Slayton and others settled in 1809. Josiah Carpenter and 
several of his sons settled in 1809 and 18 10, on lands bought by him in 1808. 

South of Jamestown, a settlement was commenced on the Stillwater creek, 
•in Kiantone. Joseph Akin was the first settler there, in 1810. (?) Soon after, 
in the vicinity of Akin's and in other parts of the town, came Solomon 
Jones, Wm. Sears, Ebenezer Davis, Ebenezer Cheney, and William and 
Isaac Martin. About the same time was commenced the settlement at 
Jamestown, where, however, there were few families before the war of 181 2. 
The foregoing are the principal settlements made prior to the organiza- 
tion of the county in 1811. 



Early Dwellings. 

The labors of the pioneer commence with the opening of a place in the 
forest for the erection of a dwelling. A description of those early domiciles, 
familiarly termed log cabins, may be interesting to readers who were bom 
and reared in the " ceiled houses " of their fathers, and especially to their 
descendants, who will never see a structure of this kind. 

Trees of uniform size, as nearly as may be, are selected, cut into pieces of 
the desired length, and carried or hauled to the site of the proposed building. 
There is at each corner an expert hand with an axe to saddle and notch the 
logs. The saddling is done by so hewing the end of the log as to give the 
upper half the shape of the roof of a building. A notch is then cut into 
the next log to fit the saddle,, and of such depth as to bring the logs together. 
The usual height was one story. The gable was laid up with logs gradually 
shortened up to the top eg- peak, giving the shape or pitch of the roof. On 
the logs which formed these gables, were laid stout poles reaching from one 
gable to the other, at suitable distances, to hold the covering, which con- 
sisted of bark peeled from elm or basswood trees. The strips of bark were 
about four feet long, and about two or three feet wide, and laid in tiers, each 
lapping on the preceding one, after the manner of shingling. The bark was 
kept down by a heavy pole laid across each tier, and fastened at the ends. 
Sometimes, instead of bark, a kind of shingles was used, split from straight 
rifted trees, and resembling undressed staves of flour or liquor barrels. These 
were by some called shakes. They were laid about two feet to the weather. 
They were then fastened down* by heavy poles, called weight poles, as in 
the case of bark roofs. 

At one end of the building, a square -about 8 feet in length and 5 or 6 
feet in height is cut out, and the space filled by a stone wall laid in clay or 
mortar for a fire-place. The chimney, resting on props made in various 
ways, was commenced at a proper height above the hearth, very wide, to 
correspond with the broad fire-place beneath it. It was built with split 
sticks of timber, resembling common strip lath, but being much larger. 
They were laid up in the manner of a cob-house, the chimney being gradu- 
ally narrowed upward to the top, where its size was about the same as was 
that of an ordinary brick chimney of a frame house fifty years ago. The 
inside was plastered with clay or mud and chopped straw, the latter answering • 
the same purpose as hair in the mortar used in plastering the inside walls of 
a house. This " stick chimney," or " stick and clay chimney,'' was far from 
being fire-proof. Fire would sometimes be communicated to the sticks from 
burning soot, and alarm the family. A speedy application of water thrown 
up plentifully inside, soon allayed all fears. 

A door-way was cut through one side of the house, and split pieces for 
door posts, sometimes called " door-cheeks," were pinned to the ends of the 


logs with wooden pins. For the want of boards to make doors, a blanket 
was used to close the door entrance until boards could be obtained. The 
hinges and the latch were both made of wood. The latch was raised from 
the outside by a string passing through the door and fastened to the latch 
inside. The safety of the family during the night was effected by drawing in 
the latchstring. Floors were made of split slabs, hewed on one side, and 
were sometimes called puncheons. For a window, a hole was cut in the wall 
large enough to admit a sash of four or ^Lx panes of 7 by 9 glass. 
When glass could not be had, the hole was sometimes closed with paper 
pasted over it. The interstices or cracks between the logs were filled with 
mud or clay. The larger cracks or chinks were -partly closed with split 
pieces of wood before the mortar was applied. 

Immigrants from a great distance brought no bedsteads. A substitute was 
made by boring holes in the walls, in a corner of the house, into which the 
ends of poles were fitted. Three corners of the bedstead being thus fast- 
ened to the walls, it required but a single post. It now wanted only a cord, 
which was sometimes made of elm or basswood bark. 

A view of the internal arrangements of one of these primitive dwellings 
would be interesting to those who are unacquainted with pioneer life. 
On entering, (supposing it to be meal time,) the smaller children are 
seen standing or sitting around a large chest in which some of the more 
valuable articles had been brought, and which now serves as a table ; the 
parents and older children sitting at a table made, perhaps, of a wide 
puncheon plank, partaking of their plain meal cooked by a log-heap fire. 
In one corner of the room are one or two small shelves on wooden pins, 
displaying the table ware, (when not in use,) consisting of a few teacups and 
saucers, a few blue-edged plates, with a goodly number of pewter plates, 
perhaps standing single, on their edges, leaning against the wall to render 
the display of table furniture more conspicuous. Underneath this cupboard 
are seen a few pots, a spider, and perhaps a bake-kettle. Not a sufficient 
number of chairs — perhaps none — having been brought, the deficiency ha-s 
been supplied with three-legged stools made of puncheon boards. Over the 
door-way lies the indispensable rifle on two wooden hooks nailed to a log of 
the cabin. On the walls hang divers garments of female attire made of 
cotton and woolen fabrics, some of which had done long service before their 
removal hither. 

Log cabins were lighted in the night time in different ways. In absence 
of candles and lamps, light was, through the winter season, emitted from the 
fire-place, where huge logs were kept burning. A kind of substitute for 
candles was sometimes prepared by taking a wooden rod ten or twelve 
inches in length, wrapping around it a strip of cotton or linen cloth, and 
covering it with tallow, pressed on with the hand. These " sluts,'' as the\' 
were sometimes called, afforded light for several nights. Lamps were pre- 
pared by dividing a large turnip in the middle, scraping out the inside quite 
down to the rind, and then inserting a stick about three inches in length, in 


the center, so as to stand upright. A strip of linen or cotton cloth was then 
wrapped around it ; and melted lard or deer's tallow was poured in till the 
turnip rind was full, when the lamp was ready for use. [Lamps of this 
description were probably very rare.] By the light of these and other rudely 
constructed lamps, the women spun and sewed, and the men read, when 
books could be obtained. When neither lard nor tallow could be had, the 
large blazing fire supplied the needed light. By these great fire-places many 
skeins of thread have been spun, many a yard of linsey woven, and many a 
frock and pantaloons made. 

Living in houses like those described, was attended with serious discom- 
forts. A single room served the purposes of kitchen, dining-room, sitting- 
room, bed-room and parlor. In many families were six, eight or ten 
children, who were, with their parents, crowded into one room. In one 
comer was the father and mother's bed, and under it the trundle-bed for the 
smaller children. The larger ones lodged in the chamber, which they 
entered by a ladder in another corner, and sometimes made tracks to and 
from their beds in the snow driven through the crevices by the wind. Nor 
did the roofs, made of barks or " shakes," protect them from rains in the 
summer. How visitors who came to spend the night were disposed of, the 
reader may not easily conceive. Some, as their families increased, added to 
their houses an additional room of the same size and manner of construction 
as the former. Such were the dwellings and condition of many of the early 
settlers of the Holland Purchase. A few of these men still linger among us, 
in possession of ample fortunes, and in the enjoyment of the conveniences 
and improvements of the present age — the reward of their early privations 
and toils. 

Clearing Land. 

The lands in the county were covered with a dense and heavy forest. To 
clear the soil of its timber required an amount of hard labor of which many 
of its present occupants have no adequate conception. Many now living on 
the hard-earned fortunes of their pioneer fathers and grandfathers, could not 
be induced to enter upon a similar course of labor. 

The first part of the clearing, process was " underbrushing." The bushes 
and smallest sapplings were cut down near the ground and piled in heaps. 
The trees were then felled, their bodies cut into lengths of 1 2 to 15 feet, and 
the brush and small limbs of the trees were thrown into heaps. After the brush 
heaps had become thoroughly dry, they were burned. As a " good bum " 
was desirable, a dry time was chosen. The old leaves being dry and cover- 
ing the ground, the whole field would be burned over, and an abundant crop 
assured. The next part of the process was " logging," or log-rolling. This 
required the associated labor of a number of men, who would, in turn, assist 
each other. The neighbors, on invitation, would attend with their hand- 
spikes. These were strong poles, about six feet in length, and flattened at 
the larger end, in order to their being more easily forced under or between 


the logs. Logs too heavy to be carried, were drawn to the pile by a team, 
[generally oxen,] and rolled up on the pile on skids, one end lying on the 
ground, the other on the heap. The heaps were then burne^, and the soil 
was ready for the seed. Most of the logging was done by " bees.'' A num- 
ber of the neighbors would come with their teams, attended by a sufficient 
number of extra hands ; and a whole field of several acres would be logged 
in an afternoon. At these logging bees, as at house and barn raisings, was 
generally a 2-gallon bottle — perhaps two — filled with whisky. Most of the 
men were moderate drinkers ; some, however, gave indications, by their 
many witty sayings, that they had overstepped the bounds of moderation. 
But there were also, thus early, a few teetotal temperance men, whose incre- 
dulity as to the magic power of strong drink as an assistant to manual labor, 
had caused them to abandon its use. 

Wild Animals. 

The wild animals inhabiting this region at the time of its settlement, were 
the deer, wolf, bear, wild cat, fox, otter, porcupine or hedge-hog, raccoon, 
woodchuck or ground-hog, skunk, mink, muskrat, opossum, rabbit, weasel 
and squirrel. None were much feared except the bear and the wolf The 
former was the most dangerous ; the latter most destructive to property. 
The bear is generally ready to attack a person ; the wolf seldom does so 
unless impelled by hunger, or in defense. For many years it was difficult to 
protect sheep from the ravages of the wolves. They had to be penned every 
night. Many were destroyed, even in the day time, near the house. It is 
the nature of the wolf to seize a sheep by the throat and suck its blood, and 
leave the carcass as food for other carniverous animals ; provided the number 
of sheep is sufficient thus to satisfy the hunger of their destroyers. Pigs and 
calves also were sometimes victims to these pests of the early settlers. Per- 
sons were followed by them to the doors of their dwellings ; and the sleep 
of families was often disturbed during a great portion of the night by their 
bowlings. " The noise made by these animals," as described by a citizen of 
Stockton, " was not, as some imagine, a coarse bass growl, but a strong 
crakely tenor. Seemingly a leader began the concert by a solo of a firm, 
prolonged sound, when the rest would pitch in with a grand chorus of the 
most terrible jargon of sounds, dying away at the place of beginning, as the 
reverberations sounded over the far off hills." 

To effect the destruction of these animals, bounties for their scalps were' 
offered by the public authorities. The state offered a bounty of $20 for the 
destruction of a full grown wolf, or half that sum for a young one ; and the 
county gave the same bounty ; and most, if not all, of the towns gave not 
less than $10 as a town bounty — making, in the aggregate, a bounty of $50 
for the destruction of every full grown wolf This large bounty induced 
hunters and trappers to devote much time to the destruction of wolves. 
From an examination of the records by Judge Foote many years since, it was 
found that the county paid in r8i5, $420; in 1816, $480; in 1817, $580; 
Jf 6 


in 1818, $710; in i8ig, $472; and in 1820, $510. The wolves having 
become so reduced by these large bounties, the board of supervisors peti- 
tioned the legislature to leave the amount of bounty discretionary with the 
board; and the petition was granted. The bounty was reduced in 1820 to 
$5 for every full grown wolf, and for every whelp $2.50. The same bounties 
were voted the nejct year. To what amount bounties were paid subsequently 
to 1820, the public records do not show. In 1834, " two certificates granted 
by justices for killing wolves were allowed, and one, being informal, was 
rejected." The records show no later action of the board in relation to 

As wolves hunt in the night, when they can not be shot, most of them 
were probably caught in traps, of which there were several kinds. One 
kind was a small pen built of small logs or heavy poles, 6 or 7 feet high, 
and narrowed upward. Into this pen a bait was thrown. A wolf could 
easily enter it at the top, but was unable to get out. Another was the steel 
trap, with jaws a foot or more in length. The clamps were notched like a 
cross-cut saw. It resembled, in form, a common spring rat trap. Attached 
to it was a chain with hooks, not to fasten it, but to make it difficult for the 
wolf to drag it. Caught, as he probably would be, by a fore leg while 
trying to paw out the bait, if the trap were made fast, he would gnaw off his 
leg and be gone. There have been still other traps, but descriptions of 
them will not be attempted. 

The following description of a wolf hunt is from the pen of Mr. Judge L. 
Bugbee, of Stockton : 

"Perhaps no town in the county suffered so severely as Stockton. The 
deep recesses of the Cassadaga swamp, in this town, formed for the wolf a 
secure retreat, where, during the day time, he could quietly digest his mutton 
of the night before. 

" At length, the inhabitants became deeply exasperated, and resolved on 
the extermination of the wolf. Meetings were held and a plan devised. 

"The battle ground was selected nearly east of the fork of the Cassadaga 
and Bear creeks. The plan of battle was a simultaneous attack upon all 
sides of the swamp at once. On the east the line was formed on the 
town line, between Stockton and Charlotte ; on the north by the line of 
lots near Cooper's mill ; on the west by the Cassadaga creek, and on the 
south by another line of lots near the Swamp road, east of the residence of 
Abel Brunson. The ground was prepared under the supervision of Col. 
■Charles Haywood, of EUery, assisted by Return Tabor, Bela Todd, and 
Royal Putnam. These lines were rendered very plain by blazing trees and 
lopping brush. 

" By previous arrangement, the forces met on the second day of October, 
1824. The north line of attack was commanded by Gen. Leverett Barker, 
of Fredonia, assisted by Elijah Risley and Walter Smith as lieutenants. 
Col. Obed Edson, of Sinclairville, with Judge J. M. Edson and Joy Handy, 
commanded the last division ; Major Asael Lyon and Gen. George T. Camp 
on the west, and Col. Charles Haywood on the south, with Elias Clark, of 
Ellery, as his lieutenant. These commanders all wore pistols in their belts 
to designate their office, and were assisted by the four men as guides, who 


had prepared the lines a short time before. Before going into the swamp, 
each division had chosen its place of rendezvous : The east at Sinclairville, 
the north at Cassadaga village, the west at Delanti, and the south at the 
residence of Newell Putnam, Esq., in the south part of Stockton. Dr. 
Waterman Ellsworth, of Delanti, was the captain of the men from Stockton, 
and very active in getting up the ' hunt' 

" Early in the forenoon the men were all upon the ground, forming a con- 
tinuous line and encircling a goodly portion of the swamp. Mr. Royal 
Putnam, who assisted in marking the lines on all sides, thinks the square was 
full one mile and a half upon each side. The number of men on the 
lines were sufficient to be within easy speaking distance from each other. 
The signal for advance was ' Boaz,' being given by Gen. Barker, and as it 
returned, the lines moved forward in splendid order, growing more compact 
until they arrived on the battle grounds, forming a square about one mile in 
circumference, or eighty rods on a side. No man was to fire his gun until he 
received the pass-word from the general, and it was known that the lines 
were closed up. The men now stood shoulder to shoulder. ' Jachin,' the 
pass-word, quickly made its round, and the signal gun was discharged, and 
in a moment the firing became general. After the first discharge of fire-arms 
the deer and rabbits within the lines became frantic with fright, making the 
rounds and seeking an opening through which to escape. One stately buck, 
making the rounds, gallantly charged the line, by forcing his head between 
the legs of Charles P. Young, from ESery, and carrying him several rods 
astride his neck, then bounding away, unharmed, into the free wilderness, 
save perhaps a few sore ribs, from the numerous punches received by the 
muskets in the hands of the men, before they had time to reload their pieces. 
After all the game had been dispatched that could be seen, a committee of 
three or more was sent within the inclosure, to search under old logs and 
fallen trees to ascertain if any game had fled to any of these places for safety. 
Dr. Ellsworth is the only man remembered as being upon that committee. 

" After the return of the committee, the men, by orders, moved towards 
the center of the inclosure, bringing in the game, consisting of two large 
wolves, one bear, several deer and a large number of rabbits. The men 
were evidently disappointed in the number of wolves captured, but after 
speeches from a number of the officers, the woods rang with their hearty 
cheers, and they resolved for another hunt, which took place in about three 
weeks, killing one wolf and several deer and other small game. The third 
hunt was in May, 1825 ; but no wolves were found, and only a few deer. The 
fourth and last hunt under this organization was in June, 1828, but like the 
two former, caught no wolves. 

" The county had offered a large bounty for the scalp of the wolf, fifty 
dollars or upward, and by resolution. Gen. Barker, Elijah Risley and Walter 
Smith were elected a committee to forward the scalps, and obtain the money, 
and expend it in ammunition, provision and whisky to assist the men in 
future hunts. From this date, wolves ceased to be troublesome in this part 
of the county, and very soon left our borders for more secure quarters." 

A hazardous encounter with a bear is thus related by J. L. Bugbee, Esq., of 
Stockton : 

" Wyman Bugbee, of Ellington, in 1815, with two of his neighbors started 
on a deer hunt; and his dog soon discovered and attacked a bear. The 
outcry of the dog brought the hunters to the rescue. Wyman advanced and 


made a pass at the bear with his axe, when Bruin, with a dexterous movement 
with his paw, knocked the axe from his hands, dropped the dog, and with 
his strong jaws laid hold of Wyman's leg just above the ankle. Then came 
the 'tug of war;' and the result was, for sometime, doubtful. His com- 
rades durst not shoot, as the position of the combatants was constantly 
changing ; the bear still holding his grip on Bugbee's leg ; and his friends 
undecided as to what it was best to do. Evidently, they did not wish to 
hazard too much in the probability of becoming the chief party in the strug- 
gle for life with this shaggy and fearful monster. However, they were con- 
tiijually doing what they could, looking well to every dangerous position. 
Bugbee soon gained the battle, by the aid of his jack-knife, cutting the 
bear's throat ; but it was six months before he was able to leave his 

Among the materials of our early history, is the following account of a 
bear eiuounter : 

"In 1822, Jehiel Tiffany, returning through the woods to Jamestown, 
treed a bear with three cubs, a short distance north of the village. He 
came to the village and rallied several men with guns to go and kill the 
bears. On arriving at the place, two of the cubs were spied high up in a pine 
tree ; and John Pickard, a good marksman with a rifle, soon shot them both. 
The other cub and the old bear not being discovered, most of the party 
started for the village. Mr. Tiffany, Samuel Barrett, Thomas W. Harvey, 
and John Pickard remained to watch for the missing bears. They soon 
heard the cub in the top of a tall hemlock, the limbs of which were so dense 
as to conceal the animal. Determined to capture it, Major Barrett climbed 
the tree, and shook it from one of the highest limbs ; but in its fall it caught 
another limb. From this, too, it was shaken, and again caught a limb lower 
down. This limb being too stiff to admit of the cub's being shaken off, 
Barrett cut the limb partly off with his jack-knife, when it lopped down, and 
the bear fell to the ground, and was so stunned by the fall, that Gen. Harvey 
caught it and tied its feet. 

" When the cub made a noise, the old bear was heard near by in the 
bushes. Harvey found that by biting the cub's ear, he could make it squeal. 
This brought the old bear near, but not fully in sight. Pickard then stepped 
off a few rods into the woods, and, while watching the bear, Harvey rallied the 
bear by biting the cub's ear, and brought her in sight of Pickard, who sent 
a rifle-ball into her head and neck. Pickard and Barrett, after having taken 
out the entrails, brought her on a pole to the village, while Gen. Harvey 
carried the cub home and tamed it." 

Among the numerous instances of men's coming in contact with bears, 
wolves, and other ravenous beasts, it is believed there is not one in which a 
man has been killed. 

Of the native animals of the forest which have disappeared, was the 
porcupine or hedge-hog. It was nearly as large as a raccoon, had a round 
head, and was covered all over with quills from an inch to two inches long, 
and as hard and as sharp as a needle. It was a terror to dogs. Young 
dogs, not knowing the consequence, would seize the animal, and get the 
quills stuck into their mouths. It is the nature of these quills to work 
deeper into the flesh and kill the dogs, if not extracted in season, which 



was usually done with nippers. A dog once stuck with quills would not be 
likely again to touch a porcupine. 

But while the forest was infested with noxious animak, it was of no small 
value as a hunting ground. Deer hunting in the winter was a common busi- 
ness. Much of the meat of deer was sometimes lost. The hunter, if alone 
and far from home, would shoulder the more valuable part — the hams and 
skin — and leave the rest for the wolves ; or, as was sometimes done, he would 
hang it to a sapling or a large limb of a tree, which had perhaps been bent down 
for the purpose, and which, springing back, would raise the meat beyond the 
reach of the wolves. Having delivered his first load at his cabin, he would 
return, conducted by his tracks in the snow, and bring home the remainder. 
The opossum, the rabbit and the squirrel, were also a part of the pioneer's 
fare. To the variety of meats enumerated, may be added several of the 
feathered tribes, as pigeons, wild turkeys, partridges, and several others. 

But the principal meat of early settlers did not long consist of game. 
Pork and poultry were soon raised in abundance. The common fowl fur- 
nished meat and eggs. Geese, though sometimes eaten, were raised chiefly 
for the feathers, with which old beds were replenished and new ones filled. 
Doubtless, many still repose on beds made by their mothers or grahdmothers 
half a century ago. 

Early Farming. 

Agriculture is a term hardly applicable to pioneer farming. The imple- 
ments used would, in this age of improvement, attract attention as great 
curiosities. The " virgin soil," as has been observed, was ready for the seed 
when cleared of its timber. The principal instrument of tillage for several 
years was the triangular harrow, usually called drag. This instrument con- 
sisted principally of two pieces of timber, (hewed, before there were mills for 
sawing,) about five inches square and six feet long, put together in the form 
of the letter A. The drag was sometimes made of a crotched tree, and 
needed no framing. The teeth were nearly double the size of those now 
used, in order to stand the severe trial they were to undergo. The drag 
bounded along over stubs and roots and stones, drawn by oxen often driven 
by boys. 

When the roots had become sufficiently brittle to admit of the use of the 
plow, an instrument was used which it would puzzle the young men of the 
present day to give a name. The idea of a cast iron plow had not then been 
conceived by the inventor. It is said to have been invented by Jethro Wood, 
of Sclpio, Cayuga county, N. Y., about fifty years ago, though it is a much 
less number of years since it came into general use. Late improvements in 
the plow and the harrow, and the invention of cultivators, drills, and other 
labor-saving implements, have wonderfully changed the aspect of farming, 
and increased the power of production. 

In harvesting, the change is not less striking. Before the decay and 
removal of stumps permitted the use of the grain cradle, wheat was cut with 


the sickle, now a rare instrument. It was then a staple article of merchan- 
dise. In the old day-books and journals of the early merchants, if they 
could be found, und|f the names of scores of customers would be seen the 
charge, " To i Sickle," followed, in many cases by that other charge, " To i 
gallon Whisky," an article deemed by some as necessary in the harvesting 
operation as the instrument itself. The cradle, which superseded the sickle, 
is now fast giving way — in many parts of the country has already entirely 
given place — to the reaper, an instrument then no more likely to be invented 
than the photographic art, or the means of hourly intercourse with the inhab- 
itants of the opposite side of the globe. Fields of wheat of one hundred 
to five hundred acres each, are not rare in some of the Western States. Let 
a person imagine an attempt to cut these immense fields of grain by hand- 
fuls with the sickle, and he cannot fail to appreciate the invention of the 

Grain was generally threshed by the early settlers with a flail, ten to twenty 
bushels a day. There were no fanning-mills to separate the grain from the 
chaff. For many years the mill-peddlers did not venture so far west as 
Chautauqua. Grain was cleaned with a fan. Neither the instrument nor 
the operation is easily described ; nor was it probably ever nmch used here. 
Another method was nearly as follows : A riddle [a very coarse sieve] about 
30 inches in diameter and 5 or 6 inches deep, was filled with wheat in the 
chaff. To " raise the wind," a linen sheet, perhaps taken from the bed, was 
held at the corners by two men, who gave it a semi-rotary motion, or sudden 
swing. Another man holding up and shaking the riddle with its contents, 
the chaff was blown from the falling wheat. About ten bushels were thus 
cleaned in half a day. When at length farmers had the means of buying 
mills, and the roads admitted of their transportation, fanning-^mills were 
introduced. A large portion of this county was early supplied with mills of 
an exceMent quality, by one of its present worthy and distinguished citizens, 
the Hon. George W. Patterson, of Westfiekl. But this once common and 
useful article has been superseded by machines propelled by horse-power or 
by steam. A single machine now receives the sheaves and delivers the 
cleaned grain at the rate of from one hundred to two hundred bushels a day. 
A reaper is in use in some of the Western states, which carries two binders, 
who drop along its track the cut grain in sheaves bound. 

In hay harvesting, also, improvements would seem to have attained perfec- 
tion. A lad of sufficient age to drive a team can mow from fifty to one 
hundred acres in an ordinary haying season ; and the hay may all be raked 
during the same season by one person. 

While, by the invention of the cultivator and other implements, the power 
and facility of producing corn has been greatly increased, there has not yet 
appeared, nor is there likely to appear, any invention that will materially 
facilitate the process of harvesting it. The husking of corn was 'generally 
done in the field, as at present. In those portions of the country settled by 
the Dutch, the ears, when fully ripe, were broken from the stalk, thrown into 


heaps, and then hauled into the barn, and thrown into a long heap across 
the barn floor, ready for a corn-husking, in which the neighbors, old and 
young, were invited to participate on some evening. The anticipation of a 
" good time ' secured a general attendance. A good supper, which several 
of the neighboring women had assisted in preparing, was served at eight or 
nine o'clock. The " old folks " would then leave, and in due time the boys 
would gallant the girls to their homes. The recreation aflforded to the young 
people on the yearly recurrence of these festive occasions was as highly 
enjoyed, and quite as innocent, as most of the amusements of the present 
boasted age of refinement. 

Early Cooking. 

To witness the several processes of cooking in pioneer times, would alike 
surprise and amuse those who have grown up since cook-stoves came into 
■use. The first thing likely to attract notice would be the wide fire-place 
already described. Kettles were hung over the fire to a stout pole, some- 
times called lug pole, the ends of which were fastened into the sides of the 
chimney at such height as not to be likely to ignite from the heat or sparks. 
The kettles were suspended on trammels, which were pieces of iron rods 
with a hook at each end. The uppermost one reached nearly down to the 
fire, and with one or more shorter ones, the kettle was brought to the proper 
height above the fire. For the want of iron, wooden hooks were sometimes 
used for trammels. Being directly above the kettles, they were safe from fire. 

The long handled frying pan was a common cooking utensil. It was held 
over the fire by hand ; or, to save time, the end of the handle was sometimes 
laid on the back of a chair, the pan resting on the fire, while the cook was 
"setting the table." The pan was also used for baking short cakes. It was 
placed in a nearly perpendicular position before the fire, leaning slightly 
backward, with coals under or back of it to bake the under side. A more 
convenient article was the cast iron, three legged, short handled spider which 
was set over coals on the hearth for frying meat. Its legs were of such 
length and so adjusted, that, when used for baking cakes or bread, being 
turned up towards the fire, to the proper slope, handle upwards, it would 
keep its position. An early mode of baking com bread, (cast iron ware 
being scarce,) was to put the dough on a smooth board, about 2 feet long 
and 8 inches wide, placed on the hearth in a slanting position before the fire. 
When the upper side was baked, the bread was turned over for baking the 
other side. When lard was plenty, the bread was shortened, and called 
johnny-cake. But a better article for baking bread than either the pan or 
spider, was the cast iron bake-kettle, in some places called " Dutch oven,'' 
with legs and a closely fitted cover. Standing on the hearth with coals under 
and over it, bread and biscuit were nicely baked. Bread for large families 
was usually baked in large out-door ovens built of brick or fire-proof stones. 
Turkeys and spare-ribs were roasted before the fire, suspended by a string, 
a dish or pan being placed underneath to catch the drippings. 


Some of the inconveniences of cooking in these open fire-places will be 
readily imagined. Women's hair was singed, their hands were blistered, 
and their dresses, scorched. But framed houses with jamb fire-places 
measurably relieved the pioneer house-wives. In one of the jambs was fixed 
an iron crane, which could be drawn forward when ketdes were to be put 
on or taken off. But the invention of cook-stoves commenced a new era 
in cookery ; and none, most averse to innovation, have intimated a desire to 
return to the " old way," which will hereafter be known only in history. 

Fare of the Early Settlers. 

Among the many hardships of pioneer life, not the least is the diflnculty 
in procuring bread. For at least two years the settler in the woods must 
obtain his family supplies chiefly from other sources than his own land. This 
difficulty is enhanced by the remoteness of his residence from older settle- 
ments, where his supplies are to be obtained. Hence, those who settled in 
this county within the first few years, had a severer experience than those who 
came after a surplus of grain was produced, and mills for grinding it were 
built in the earlier settlements. 

The first settlement in the county where grain was produced, was com- 
menced at Westfield in 1802. The settlers there had to go to Erie, a distance 
of more than thirty miles, for provisions, as we learn from the fact that 
Edward McHenry, on his way thither for that purpose, lost his life by the 
upsetting of his boat on Lake Erie. In the Memoir of Zattu Gushing, by 
O. W. Johnson, Esq., we are informed that the first settlers at Canadaway, 
[now Fredonia,] went to Niagara Falls and to Canada to get their grain 
ground. When intending to cross Lake Erie, they started when the lake 
was likely to be calm. Three men were required to row the boat. On one 
occasion Judge Gushing and his companions were wrecked on the Ganada 
shore, losing their boat and grain. As they were absent ten days, their 
families gave them up for lost. 

John Eason settled at Fredonia in 1804. All the money he had on his 
arrival was ten dollars, which he paid for a barrel of flour procured from 
Canada, across Lake Erie. Upon this, together with fish and wild game, he 
chiefly relied for sustenance until he could raise vegetables, which were his 
principal means of support during the first year. Whole families, for many 
days, tasted not a morsel of bread, subsisting upon game and other products 
of the forest. Leeks, with which the woods abounded, furnished, to some 
extent, food for man and beast. The leaves, which were in some regions 
far advanced before the disappearance of the winter snows, furnished for 
cattle a valuable pasture ground ; and the bulbs, later in the season, were, in 
times of scarcity, used by settlers as a substitute for common articles of 
food. There are probably still living on the Purchase persons who have 
eaten many a meal, consisting in great part, of cooked leeks. 

Before there were mills within a convenient distance, families lived for 
weeks on hulled wheat, and on meal from corn pounded out at home. For this 


purpose, one end of a large block was scooped out, making a cavity holding 
half a bushel or less of corn. A spring pole was fixed over the rafters, or to 
something else of proper height. On the end of the pole- a wooden pestle 
was suspended by a rope. It will readily be imagined that- the principal use 
of flie pole was to assist in raising the pestle ; and that a small quantity of 
grain was pounded at a time. The pestle was not in all cases hung to a pole, 
but was sometimes used wholly with the hands of the operator. Probably 
hominy-Mocks, or hominy-mills, as they were called, will never again appear in 
any part of our country. A " corn cracker " of this kind was attached to 
the saw-mill built by David Dickinson, an early settler at Silver Creek. 

Household Manufactures. 

Nearly all the clothing of the early settlers was made from cloth of home 
manufacture. Long after the country had passed its pioneer state, the farmer's 
house continued to be a linen and woolen factory. Where more spinning 
was to be done than the wife could do in addition to her ordinary house-work, 
or where the daughters were too young to help, spinsters were employed to 
come into families to spin flax in the winter season, and wool in the summer. 
The price usually paid these itinerant spinsters was a shilling a day, the day's 
work ending at early bed time. Some will be surprised when told that many 
of these women had money to show at the year's end. It was the custom, 
to some extent, to count a certain number of " runs " as a day's work. This 
had a tendency to accelerate the motion of the wheel, and lessen the hours 
of labor. These small earnings would not go far toward clothing Chautauqua 
farmers' daughters of the present generation. 

The spinning exercise is one which the young women of modern times 
have never enjoyed. The wheel used for spinning flax was called the "little 
wheel," to distinguish it from the " big wheel," used for spinning wool. These 
" stringed instruments " furnished the principal music of the family, and were 
operated by our mothers and grandmothers with great skill, attained without 
expense, and by far less practice, than is necessary for our modern dames to 
acquire a skillful use of their elegant and costly instruments. They were 
indispensable household articles, and were to be found in nearly every family. 
The loom was not less necessary than the wheel. There were some houses, 
however, in which there was none. But there were always some, who, 
besides doing their own weaving, did some for others. 

Woolen cloth was made in families. There being at first no carding 
machines, wool was carded and made into short rolls with hand cards. These 
rolls were spun on the " big wheel," which is still to be seen in the houses of 
some old settlers, being occasionally used for spinning and twisting stocking 
yam. It was turned with one hand, and with such velocity as to give it 
sufficient momentum to enable the nimble mother, by her backward step, to 
draw out and twist a thread of nearly the length of the cabin. The same 
loom was used for both linen and woolen. A .cloth was sometimes made 
called linsey, or linsey-woolsey, the warp being linen and the filling woolen. 


Woolen for men's outer garments was generally sent to the fuller and 
cloth-dresser to be finished, if fulling-mills and cloth-dressing establishments 
were within a convenient distance. Woolen flannel was also made and worn 
by the mothers and daughters. Flannel for women's wear, after dye-stuffs 
were to be had, were dyed such color as the wearer fancied. It was softie- 
times a plaid made of yarn of various colors, home-dyed. To improve their 
appearance, these flannels were sent to a cloth-dressing shop for a slight 
dressing, which was finished by a powerful pressing between large sheets of 
smooth pasteboard, to give them a glossy surface. 

Much dyeing, too, was done in the family. Dye-woods and dye-stuffs 
formed no small portion of a merchant's stock. Barrels of chipped Nicara- 
gua, log-wood, and other woods, k«gs of madder, alum, copperas, vitriol, 
indigo, etc., constituted a large part of teamsters' loading for the merchants. 
Many remember the old dye-tub standing in the chimney corner, covered 
with a board, and used also as a seat for children when chairs were wanted 
for visitors, or when new supplies of furniture failed to keep pace with the 
increase of the family. Mr. Goodrich, [Peter Parley,] describing early life 
in his native town in Connecticut, speaks of this " institution of the dye- 
tub," as having, " when the night had waned and the family had retired, 
frequently become the anxious seat of tne lover, who was permitted to carry 
on his courtship, the object of his addresses sitting demurely in the opposite 
comer.'' We have no authority for saying that it was ever used here on such 

Nearly all the cloth wj)rn was " home-made." Rarely was a farmer or his 
son seen in any other. If, occasionally, a young man appeared in a suit of 
"boughten cloth," he was an object of envy to his rustic associates. Few, 
except merchants, lawyers, doctors, and some village mechanics, wore cloth 
that had not passed through the hands of the country cloth-dresser. Hence, 
the early merchants kept small stocks of broadcloth. Cloths of the finer 
qualities they sometimes bought in small pieces containing a certain number 
of full patterns — one, two, or three — to avoid loss on remnants. 

There were also itinerant tailoresses, who came into families to make up 
men's and boys' winter clothing. The cutting was mostly done by the 
village tailor, if a village was near. " Bad fits," which were jiot uncommon, 
were generally charged to the cutter. Hence the custom of tailors, when 
advertising, " Cutting done on short notice, and warranted to fit," to append 
the very prudent proviso, "if properly made up." These seamstresses 
charged for their work two shillings a day. This was thought by some a 
little exorbitant, as the usual price of help at housework was but six shil- 
lings a week, Sundays not excepted. 

Boots and shoes also were made in many families. Farmers got the hides 
of their slaughtered cattle tanned "on shares;'' or, if their share was judged 
insufficient to shoe a whole family, the tanning and dressing were otherwise 
paid for. Then there was in the neighborhood a circulating shoemaker, who 
made his yearly autumnal circuit with his " kit." The children had a happy 


time during his sojourn, which lasted one, two, or more weeks, according to 
the number of feet to be shod. The boys who had doffed their old shoes 
when the winter snows had scarcely disappeared, to enjoy the luxury of 
going barefoot, were now no less joyful in the anticipation of new ones to 
protect their feet from the frosts or early snows. 

Large boys and girls, when leather was scarce and dear, have been knc^Wn 
to go barefoot the greater part of the year. And it was not a rare thing to 
see girls as well as boys, not of the poorer families, at the age of twelve, at 
Sunday meetings, with feet unshod. Some made shoes for themselves and 
their families. Boots were little worn, even by men, except in the winter 
season. Men's boots and shoes were usually made of coarse leather, called 
cowhide. Occasionally a young man attained tlie enviable distinction of 
appearing in a pair of calf-skin boots, made by a skillful workman. Boots 
and shoes for both feet were made on one last. In those days " rights and 
lefts " were unknown. In this department of dress as in others, in respect 
to style and cost, the past and the present exhibit a remarkable contrast. 

We only add, a general revolution in household labor has taken place 
within the last fifty years. The substitution of cotton for flax, and of the 
various kinds of labor-saving machinery for hand-cards and spinning-wheels 
and looms, has vastly lightened the labor of women. One of the results of 
these improvements is the opportunity they afford for mental and intellectual 
culture. That the mass of American women duly improve these opportuni- 
ties, will hardly be affirmed. 

Stores and Trade. 

A great inconvenience incident to pioneer life, is the want of the many 
articles essential to the comfort of a family, which the farm cannot supply. 
Therefore, no immigrant is more welcome in a new settlement than the first 
merchant. Fortunately, there are seldom wanting those who are ready to 
establish a store when and where there is a population sufficient to sustain 
one. Some of the early stores were kept in log buildings. The first stocks 
of goods were not large ; yet they comprised most of those articles which 
were needed by the settlers. 

But the gratification of some at the advent of the early merchant, was 
greatly moderated by their inability to purchase his wares. The inhabitants 
generally were poor. They had expended nearly all their money in their 
removal ; and the little they had left was wanted to buy breadstuffs and other 
absolute necessaries. Farmers who had been here long enough to raise a 
small surplus, obtained some money from new-comers. But the majority 
were not so fortunate. 

Goods were dear, being transported at great cost. They were principally 
brought from Albany in wagons, a large part of the way over new and very 
bad roads. A trip from Buffalo to Albany and back required for its perform- 
ance three or four weeks, and sometimes even a longer time. Bet%veen Cat- 
taraugus creek and Buffalo, the roads were for a considerable distance almost 


impassable. But the high price of the merchant's goods was but one-half of 
the farmer's misfortune. While he had to pay a double price for nearly every 
staple article of store goods, he was obliged to sell the products of his farm 
at about one-half of their cost in labor. There are yet many living who dis- 
tinctly recollect the condition of the country from its early settlement, and 
the relative prices of merchandise and the products of the farm. More 
accurate information, however, may be obtained from the books of the early 
merchants, to which reference will be made. 

The books of J. & M. Prendergast, [Jediah and Martin,] early merchants 
at Mayville, show the prices of goods from September, 1811, to January, 
18 1 5. They were among the earliest merchants in the county. The sur- 
rounding country was as yet very sparsely settled ; yet their books show a 
considerable trade, to which the Prendergast families were liberal contributors. 
The first four sales appear to have been made to four different persons of that 
name. The county seat and a land office having been established there, 
Mayville was a convenient place of trade to many in remote parts of the 

On a glance at the pages of these old books, our modern clerks would 
find, in the keeping of accounts, something of which they have no practical 
knowledge. The old mode of reckoning was by pounds, shillings and pence. 
And to most adults it is known that, until a comparatively late period, the 
prices of goods per yard or pound, both in buying and selling, at wholesale 
and retail, were given in shillings and pence. Merchants generally marked 
their goods in this currency, and so charged them to their customers ; but 
the aggregate cost of the number of yards or pounds of the article sold, was 
"carried out" in dollars and cents. But in the books. alluded to, the aggre- 
gate cost of the number of yards or pounds sold was also carried out in 
pounds, shillings and pence, and set down in three separate columns. The 
footing of a bill of many articles would, at the bottom of the columns, be 
^S 7s. pd. — 8 pounds, 7 shillings and 9 pence. Happily, this clumsy method 
of reckoning and Ijeeping accounts has been superseded by the decimal 
method — by dollars, cents and mills. 

The prices of some articles, in shillings and pence, are here given : Wool 
cards, 8s. a pair; spider net, 7s. 6d. a yard ; loaf sugar, 3s. a pound; calico, 
3s. 4d. a yard; hyson tea, r4S. a pound; pins, zs. 6d. a paper; powder, 8s. 
a pound; shot, 2S.; unbleached cotton, 2s. 7d. a yard. Farmers found it no 
easy matter to pay for iron is. 3d. a pound ; steel, 2s. ; nails, is. yd. to 2S. 
6d. ; paper, 3s. a quire ; skin tea, los. a pound ; nutmegs, is. each. Before 
the close of the year, prices began to be affected by the war. In December, 
1814, flannels were 8s. to 9s. 6d. a yard; cambric muslin, i8s.; book muslin, 
i6s. ; factory cotton, 5s. a yard; satinet, 27s. 6d. ; nails, 2s. to 2s. 6d. ; 
Swedes steel, 4s. a pound ; maccoboy snuff, 8s. a pound ; coffee, 5s. ; pow- 
der, i2s. ; skin tea, 20s. ; imperial tea, 26s. ; cotton yam, 9s. ; cotton stock- 
ings, 13s. a pair. 

If medical services rose to a point corresponding to the prices of the 


drugs and medicines used by the physicians, their patients would have had 
no less cause to complain of onerous " doctors' bills " than they who are 
now so unfortunate as to need such services. One of this mercantile firm 
[Jediah] being himself a physician, we find a charge : " To call and puke, 
2 oz. val. sylv., and caskarel, and epispastic," in all, ;£i 4s. Jacob Rush 
was charged 6 oz. laudanum, 4s. oz., and 2 pukes, 2s. each, — j£i 8s. Dr. 
Alexander Mclntyre, who, being a physician, might be expected to buy 
medicines at a discount from ordinary retail prices, was charged as early as 
181 2, for glauber salts, 3s. 6d. lb. ; bark, 32s. ; camomile flowers, 3s. 6d. oz. ; 
gum Arabic, is. 6d. oz. ; opodeldoc, to ordinary customers, 5s. Whisky, 
that staple article in those days, kept pace with other goods till it reached 
i2s. to 14s. a gallon. But the books indicate no perceptible decrease in its 

The day-book of Douglass & Houghton, merchants at Cattaraugus, in 
July, 18 1 2, exhibits prices as follows : Hyson skin tea, i6s. ; bohea tea, 8s. ; 
calico, 6s. 6d. yd.; white flannel, los. ; tow cloth, 4s.; salt, 20s. bushel; 
paper, 4s. qr. ; ginger, 6s. lb.; whisky, 12s. a gallon. Their store was, in 
December, 18 12, removed to Fredonia, where we see nails charged at 2s. 6d. 
lb. ; spelling books, 3s. a copy; Harmony cloth at 68s. [$8.50] a yard. Pins 
were charged 4s. a paper; stockings, i6s. 6d. a pair. Broadcloth is charged, 
May 22, 1813, to James Hale, by order of Elijah Risley, 80s. [$io] per 
yard; and cassimere, 36s. yd ! These far exceed the war prices of 1861-65. 

But our surprise at these prices will be less when we consider the cost of 
transportation. Charles Hill and Thomas Hill returned from Albany, Sept. 
12, 18 14, with loads of merchandise for J. & M. Prendergast, Mayville; the 
former having brought 1635 lbs, the latter 1800 lbs., for which they were 
allowed $6 per 100 lbs. Their expenses appear to have been $40 each; and 
the time spent in making the trip must have been about four weeks. 

In 18 1 9, freight from New York to Buffalo was $3.50 per 100 lbs. ; from 
Buffalo to Fredonia, $1.50 — total, $5 per hundred, or $ioo per ton. With 
the products of their farms at the prices they bore a few years later, 
farmers could hardly have paid for store goods at the prices charged. Prices 
of farm products had not reached the lowest point. They continued to de- 
cline until they were scarcely sufficient to pay transportation to the nearest 
cash market. Nor did farmers find permanent relief until after the comple- 
tion of the Erie canal, and until adequate encouragement had been secured 
to American manufactures. 

J. & M. Prendergast established in November, 1813, a branch store in 
EUicott, where Jamestown now stands. A part of the first day-book having 
been torn from its cover, the earUest date that appears is Sept. 20, 1814; 
and the business there was continued until March, 1816. The prices appear 
to have varied but slightly from those at Mayville. In the whisky trade we 
judge that, in the price and quantity sold, the Jamestown store surpassed 
that of Mayville. In July, 1815, we count, on five successive pages, 69 
separate and distinct charges for this article ; the least number on any one 


page being 12 ; on two of them, 15 each. During a considerable part of 
the war time, flour stood at $12 a barrel. On the Jamestown day-book, 
John Burgess is charged, Jan. 6, 1815, with 2 bbls. flour, at $19 bbl. ; and 
Israel Knight previously credited by 2 bbls. flour, (probably the samp flour,) 
at $18.65 bbl. Wm. Forbes is charged Jan., 1816, for hollow castings, 10 
cts. lb. ; cheese 2s. ; salt, $12 bbl. Salt rose suddenly from $7 to $12 and 
$15 ; and in November, 1814, Solomon Shepard stands credited bX the May- 
ville store, by 2 bbls. salt at $22 per barrel ! 

Considering the low prices of farm produce, and the difficulty of con- 
verting it into cash, we can hardly imagine how either the settlers could buy 
the merchants' goods, or how the merchants could sell enough to keep up 
their establishments. Immigration having nearly ceased, the market formerly 
furnished by new-comers no longer existed. Grain bore prices merely nomi- 
nal. Wheat, at times, could not be sold at the farmer's barn for more in 
cash than the cost of transportation to the nearest cash market. Cases are 
known in which loads of com have been taken to Dunkirk, twenty miles, 
over woods roads, and sold for 12^ cents a bushel to realize the money to 
pay taxes — the round trip taking two days. Wheat was taken to the same 
market and sold for 37^ cents. Maple sugar, at 4, 5, or 6 cents a pound, 
was exchanged for goods; butter at 6 to 8 cents; oats, lo to 12 cents; 
other kind of grain in about the same proportion. Dressed pork sold for 
about 2 OT 2)4 cents a pound. No wonder that, with hard labor and rigid 
economy, the settlers were slow in paying for their lands. Indeed, it would 
seem almost impossible, under such adverse circumstances, to avoid extreme 
suffering. Yet the various kinds of business were more or less successfully 
pursued. How this was done, will appear from the nature of trade, which 
will be the subject of succeeding pages. 

Ashes were for many years the most important article of trade, being 
almost the only one which could be readily turned into cash. For some 
purposes money must be had. Certain articles or merchandise could not be 
got in exchange for grain, or on credit. Taxes could not be paid in kind ; 
and to raise " tax-money," farmers were sometimes obliged to sell grain and 
other products of their farms for prices which scarcely paid for their trans- 
portation to market. Ashes afforded material relief Many a settler who 
had a large surplus of grain which he was unwilling to sell at the ruinously 
low prices offered, cut and burned timber for the ashes from which to get 
money to pay taxes and for other necessary uses. These ashes, and those 
from burned log heaps, were sometimes drawn several miles over rough roads, 
and exchanged for goods, or at a reduced price for cash, if cash must be had. 
The price was 5, 6, or 8 cents, according to quality, as ashes from old and 
partially decayed timber, or having an admixture of the soil, which was some- 
times scraped up with them, were of little value. Hence it is seen that an 
ashery was a necessary appendage to a store in a new settlement. The lye 
of the ashes was boiled down to a proper consistency and red heat, resembling 
molten iron in a furnace, and dipped into smaller kettles holding several 


pailfuls, and left to cool, when it was emptied out of the kettle in a single 
lump, solid as a stone. It was then broken and put into strong barrels, ready 
for transportation to market. 

But raw ashes not admitting of transportation a great distance, it was 
necessary to concentrate their virtue into smaller bulk. The lye was boiled 
down to the consistence of thick mortar, and was called black salts, being of 
a dark color, and converted into pearl ashes. Hence the necessity of a pearl 
ashery also. The salts were thrown into a large brick oven, 6 or 8 feet in 
diameter, and baked, or rather burned, being brought almost to a red heat. 
When cool, the color had been changed to a pearly white. Always com- 
manding cash in every market, merchants having pearl asheries would readily 
pay cash for black salts. Pot and pearl ashes, containing great value in 
small weight and bulk, would bear transportation to the most distant markets. 
They were generally sent to New York and Montreal, and thence a large 
portion of them was shipped across the Atlantic. 

Before there were stores and pearl asheries in the southern and south- 
western towns of the county, black salts were principally bought by the mer- 
chants in the lake shore towns. Many had no wagons on which to carry 
them ; nor did the roads admit of their being carried on wagons all the way 
from the back settlements. A more simple vehicle was used. From a small 
tree was taken a piece having at one end two prongs. The single end was 
put into the ring of the ox-yoke, the other resting on the ground. Acros.s 
the prongs the trough containing the salts was placed, and kept from sliding 
backward by a long wooden pin set perpendicularly in each prong. On car- 
riages of this description were many tons of this valuable product of the 
forest yearly conveyed to market. Sometimes the oxen were simply hitched 
by a chain to the fore end of the trough containing the salts, the bottom of 
which had been flattened, and the end hewed away from the under side to 
fit it, like a sled runner, for sliding over the rough ground. 

To facihtate the collection of debts, merchants, after cattle had become 
plenty, sometimes received cattle in payment from their customers, and drove 
them to eastern markets, or sold them to drovers from the East. Cattle were 
then cheap. A pair of good working oxen could be bought for about $50 ; 
steers, three years old, for $15 a head; two years old, for about $10. Pork 
also was taken on account at prices which contrast strikingly with the present. 
Well fatted pork, dressed, was sold for $2, or $2.50, per 100 pounds. 

Of the quantity and value of the products of the forest timber, a pretty 
correct idea may be formed from the following statements of the manufacture 
of pot and pearl ashes by a few of the merchants of this county. The most 
minute and accurate statement from any source is that of Albert H. Camp, 
Forestville, prefaced thus . 

" Statement of pearl and pot ashes sent to Montreal and New York 
markets, or sold at Buffalo, by Albert H. Camp on his own account, or on 
account of the finns of which he was a partner at Forestville, Chautauqua 
county, N. Y., from May i, 1820, to Sept. i, 1850." 


The number of barrels sold from 1820 to 1836, inclusive, was 2830. The 
price per cwt. of ii2lbs. varied from $4.25 to $8, averaging about $6. These 
appear to have been all, or nearly all, pearls. The timber having princi- 
pally disappeared, the statement shows the annual sales to have decreased 
from 289 barrels, the greatest quantity sold in any year, to 40 barrels, in 
1836. During this period the price paid for black salts, from which pearls 
are made, was from $2 to $3.50 per cwt. of ii2lbs. From 1837 to 1850, 
inclusive, the amount was 648 barrels, nearly all pots made of house ashes, 
for which 12^ cents per bushel were paid, if delivered, or to cents, if hauled 
by the merchants themselves. With the year 1850, the business ceased. 

George T. Camp, brother of Albert H. Camp, was a merchant for several 
years at Mayville, before he moved his business to Westfield. While at the 
former place, he paid in a single week $1200 for black salts; and for some 
time averaged $800 to $1000 a week. The price was between $2 and $3 
per hundred. This was about the years 1829 and 1830. From the fact 
that there were at that time many asheries in the county, we have some idea 
of the amount of money paid to settlers for the products of their otherwise 
valueless timber. 

Alvin Plumb, an early merchant in Jamestown, and afterward at Mayville, 
furnishes the following statement : 

" Before the completion of the Erie canal, Montreal was the market for 
ashes, which, with lumber from the south-eastern towns, constituted nearly all 
the products of exportation from the county. I was engaged in the manu- 
facture of pearl ashes at Jamestown for several years, from 1824, and at 
Mayville from 1825. The quantity produced at the former place in the best 
years of the trade was some 50 tons, and at the latter place about 100 tons. 
I also bought largely from other merchants in that trade, in the years 1825 
and 1826. The quantity manufactured and purchased at these places was 
about 500 tons, the most of which was sent from Barcelona Harbor." 

Daniel Williams, now and for many years a resident of Ashville, states 
that, at an early period of the settlement of the county, [1819,] he com- 
menced manufacturing pot and pearl ashes, at Westfield, where he worked 
at the business for four or five years, for Alvin Williams and Budlong & Bab- 
cock. During the first three years there was made about r ton per week — 
or about 156 tons in three years. The best salts averaged in price about 
$2.50 per cwt. of ii2lbs. The price of the pearl ashes in the eastern cities 
was from $5 to $7 per cwt. During the last two years he worked in West- 
field, there were made about 2 tons per week — about 200 tons in the two 
years in both asheries. On his removal to Ashville — the place being so 
named from the extensive manufacture of ashes in that section of the county 
— there were three asheries there, which were run for several years, and at 
which were made from 100 to 150 tons a year. The salts bought at the 
latter part of this period cost $2.50 to $3 per cwt. Many, unable to sell the 
products of their farms for cash, were obliged to cut down and bum green 
timber, and make salts of lye, which alone could be sold for money. 

Walter Smith, more extensively engaged in the manufacture and the 


purchase and sale of ashes than any other merchant in the county, has fur- 
nished the following : 

" The sales of our pot and pearl ashes, during the six years' trade in Fre- 
donia, varied in different years, both in quantity and price. The smallest 
amount sold was $20,000 ; the largest, $45,000. These pot and pearl ashes 
were shipped to Montreal for market until the Erie canal was finished. 
They were taken by vessel to Black Rock ; by open boat to Schlosser ; by 
ox-teams to Lewiston ; by vessel to Cape Vincent ; thence by batteaux down 
the St. Lawrence to Montreal. John R. Coney had an ashery in Portland ; 
Brockway in Ripley ; Alvin Williams in Westfield, and afterwards at Ash- 

ville, where he continued business ; Guy Webster in Hanover ; and 

in Perrysburgh, Cattaraugus county. All these bought goods of me, 

and sold me their pot and pearl ashes, or had me send them to Montreal ; 
and I accounted to them for the net proceeds, and paid them the balance 
due them in money. Harriot & McGunnigle, of Mayville, were large manu- 
facturers ; also Wm. Holbrook,. Holbrook & Camp, and Camp & Colville, 
at Forestville. I think three-fourths of all the ashes from Chautauqua county 
were shipped by me the first six years. After that, the manufacture dimin- 
ished rapidly." 

Although this product of the forest always commanded cash, or could be 
turned into cash, its 'price, like the prices of other articles, was affected by 
the law of supply and demand. Hence, the producers were not always 
adequately compensated ; and the manufacturers and dealers, who were 
generally merchants, were sometimes subjected to heavy losses. Such, 
especially, was the case in 1823. The Erie canal being not yet finished, the 
ashes from this part of the state were chiefly sent to the Montreal market. 
The Fredonia Censor, of July 30, announces "bad news for dealers in ashes,'' 
and states, that accounts from Montreal were so discouraging, that dealers 
almost despaired of obtaining fair prices. Pots were down to $128 per ton ; 
pearls about the same price. The price of black salts, which had been in 
the spring $4 per cwt., had fallen to $2.25. The high prices in the English 
market had induced the merchants to engage deeply in this business, some 
of whom had, by this sudden depression, become heavy losers. It was stated 
upon good authority, that more ashes were manufactured in this county than 
in any other along the shores of Lake Erie ; and that the high price given 
for black salts had been the means of clearing much new land, as the price 
of that article had amply paid for clearing. 

Nature of Trade. 

From what has been said in preceding pages, the reader will readily infer 
that trade was greatly restricted by the scarcity of the usual circulating 
medium. Few goods were sold for cash. Business was done on the credit 
and barter system, not only by and with merchants, but between the people. 
Notes were made payable in grain, lumber, cattle and other commodities, 
and sometimes contained the stipulation, " at cash price." Almost every 
country product, as well as some store goods, had a cash and a barter or a 
credit price. It was, however, not always easy to ascertain the cash price. 
. 7 


Merchants often suffered great loss by this system of trade. Notwithstand- 
ing the high percentage charged as profits on their goods, losses by bad 
debts, and losses on grain and other commodities, which it was almost impos- 
sible to sell for cash, rendered the mercantile business an unsafe one. 

Most of the business of the county was for many years done in the 
northern or lake towns, which were first settled, and possessed superior com- 
mercial advantages. Maple sugar, long an important article of trade, came 
in large quantities from the southern towns. The inhabitants generally sup- 
plying themselves, the price is said to have been at times as low as four or 
five cents a pound. Brown sugars from the South were rarely seen in the 
early country stores. Almost the only sugar brought from New York was 
the white refined sugar, put up in hard, tall, solid loaves of a conical form, 
and called "loaf" or " lump sugar," and was wrapped in strong and coarse 
paper. It was sold chiefly for sweetening medicines and the liquors of tavern- 
keepers, who bought it in large quantities. 

Division of Business. 

The early stores presented, in sundsy particulars, a striking contrast to 
those of the present day. As the population increased, a greater number 
and variety of articles were kept in the stores. After printing ofiices were 
established within a convenient distance, the merchants advertised their 
stocks in the papers and in posters, in flaming display letters, enumerating 
the various kinds of goods kept for sale; as "dry goods, groceries, crockery 
and glassware, hardware, dye woods and dye stuffs, iron and nails, paints, 
oil, window glass, school books and stationery, rum, brandy, gin and whisky;" 
to which was sometimes added, drugs and medicines, ending with a string of 
et ceteras, or " with other articles too numerous to mention." 

The natural result of the increase of population and trade, is the division 
of business. For a long time, in a newly settled country, merchants keep 
goods of all kinds likely to be wanted by their customers. Silks and iron, 
laces and fish, pins and crow-bars, pork and molasses, tea and tar, cotton 
yam and log chains, were all to be had at the same store. In process of 
time, stores were established for the sale of but one, or a very few kinds of 
goods, as hardware stores, drug stores, bookstores, etc. Where the first of 
these stores was commenced, has not been ascertained ; but we find Dr. 
Hazeltine informing his friends, through a Jamestown paper, as early as 
August, 1826, that he had "just received from New York a small, but general 
assortment of drugs and medicines." About a year and a half later, Dr. E. 
T. Foote announces the receipt, at his " Apothecary Store," a general assort- 
ment of not drugs and medicines only, but of " Patent medicines, oils, 
paints, dye-stuffs, surgical instruments," those articles which compose the 
stock of a modem dmg store. Russell D. Shaw soon follows with the 
advertisement of a similar stock with the addition of groceries. And in 
1834, N. L. Sears enumerates books and stationery among the articles in his 
dmg store. 


In July, 1831, Adolphus Fletcher, publisher of the Jamestown Journal, 
announces the receipt of " a general assortment of books and stationery" in 
a room adjoining the yt^ar^za/ printing office. This appears to have been an 
establishment for the exclusive sale of those articles which constitute the 
stock of a modern bookseller. In reading the list of standard school books 
and the various articles of stationery, we are reminded of the almost total 
revolution that has taken place, in regard to the books and other articles used. 
In a long list of school books advertised, there is not one which has not been 
superseded by modern authors. In the line of stationery were wafers, ink- 
powder, sand-boxes, letter stamps, round rulers, quills — all of which have 
become nearly obsolete. By the invention of gummed envelopes, wafers 
have come into disuse in letter writing. Ink-powder is no longer to be 
found in the stores. As if by common consent, the people pay from 400 to 
800 per cent, more for ink than was done when a "York shilling,'' or, after- 
wards, a dime was paid for a paper of Maynard & Noyes' powder, which 
made a full pint of the best quality of ink. Sand-boxes have been displaced 
by the superior article of blotting paper. Letter stamps have taken their 
departure with wafers. But the most valuable change is in the substitution 
of metallic for quill pens. 

Under date of August 23, 1831, Lakin & Haven gave notice, in a James- 
town paper, that they "have opened a hardware store, in the new building 
on Second street.'' They occupy the greater part of a column in the enum- 
eration of articles " s«t solid," and without a single display line. Although 
the list is long enough to do honor to any city house, these articles are said 
only to be " among their goods," intimating that the greater portion of them 
were not included in the enumeration. Even the smaller villages now have 
stores limited to a single branch of trade. 


The history of pioneer life generally presents only the. dark side of the 
picture. The toils and privations of the early settlers were not a series of 
unmitigated sufferings. The addition of each new acre to their " clearings " 
brought with it fresh enjoyment, and cheered them on in the pursuit of their 
ultimate object, an unincumbered and a happy home. They were happy 
also in their fraternal feelings; or, as one expressed it, " the feeling of brother- 
hood — the disposition to help one another /' or, in the language of another, 
" Society was uncultivated ; yet the people were very (riendly to each other, 
quite as much so as relatives are at the present day." 

We could now hardly endure the thought of exchanging our comfortable 
and splendid carriages for the rude ones of our fathers and grandfathers, 
which served the various purposes of visiting, and of going to mill and to 
meeting ; yet who doubts that families had a " good time " when they made 


a visit to a ." neighbor " at a distance of several miles, through the woods, on 
an ox-sled ? Our mothers were clad in homespun of their own make ; and 
not a few remember the " glad surprise," when fathers, on their return from 
market, presented their faithful help-meets with a six yards calico dress 
pattern for Sunday wear. And it is presumed the wearer was in quite as 
devotional a frame of mind, and enjoyed Sabbath exercises quite as well, as 
she who now flaunts her gorgeously trimmed silk of fifteen or twenty yards, 
made up in a style transforming the wearer into " the likeness '' of something 
never before seen or known "above," or "on the earth beneath," and altered 
with every change of moon. 

People were happy in their families. The boys, having labored hard dur- 
ing the day, sought rest an early hour. Parents had the pleasure of seeing 
their sons acquiring habits of industry and frugality — a sure prognostic of 
success in life. The "higher civilization" had not yet introduced — 

" In every country village, where 
Ten chimney smokes perfume the air," 

those popular modem institutions, the saloon and the billiard-room, in which 
so many youth now receive their principal training. Fewer parents spent 
sleepless nights in anxious thought about their " prodigal sons," or had their 
slumbers broken by the noisy entrance of these sons on returning from their 
midnight revels. They saw no clouds rising to dim the prospect of a happy 
future to their children. Never were wives and mothers more cheerful than 
when, like the virtuous woman described by Solomon, " they laid their 
hands to the spindle, and their hands held the distaff;" or when, with their 
knitting work or sewing, and baby, too, they went — unbidden, as the custom 
was — to spend an afternoon with their "neighbor women," by whom they 
were received with a hearty, unceremonious welcome. The " latch-string 
was out " at all times ; and even the formality of knocking was, by the more 
intimate neighbors, dispensed with. , 

Nor did they lack topics of conversation at these visits. Prominent 
among them were their domestic affairs — their manifold industrial enter- 
prises and labors — and the anticipated reward of their privations and toils. 
Their conversation, some may suppose, evinced no high degree of intellect- 
ual culture ; yet, as an indication of such culture, surely it would not suffer 
in comparison with the gossip of many of our modem educated ladies at their 
social gatherings. 

The following extract from a letter, from the pen of a pioneer mother in 
another county, and published in 3, county paper, may he read with interest 
by some : 

" The country around us was an entire wildemess, with here and there a 
small cabin, containing a small family. We were nearly all new beginners ; 
and although we had to work almost day and night, we were not discouraged. 
There were many and serious trials in the beginning of this country, with those 
who settled amid the heavy timber, having nothing to depend upon for a 
living but their own industry. Such was our situation. However, we were 


blest with health and strength, and were able to accomplish all that was nec- 
essary to be done. Our husbands cleared the ground, and assisted each 
other in rolling the logs. We often went with them on these occasions, to 
assist in the way of cooking for the hands. 

"We had first-rate times, just such as hard-laboring men and women can 
appreciate. We were not what would now be called fashionable cooks ; we 
had no pound cakes, preserves, or jellies ; but the substantial, prepared in 
plain, old-fashioned style. This is one reason why we were blessed with health : 
we had none of your dainties, knick-knacks, and ' fixings ' that are worse 
than nothing. There are many diseases that we had never, even heard of 
thirty or forty years ago, such as dyspepsia, neuralgia, and many others too 
tedious to mention. It was not fashionable then to be weakly. We could 
take our spinning-wheels and walk two miles to a spinning frolic, do our 
da/s work, and after a first-rate supper, join in some, innocent amusement for 
the evening. We did not take particular pains to keep our hands white; we 
knew they were made to use for our advantage; therefore, we never thought 
of having hands just to look at. Each settler had to go and assist his neigh- 
bors ten or fifteen days, in order to get help in return in log-rolling time ; 
this was the only way to get assistance. 

" I have thought proper to mention these matters, that people now may 
know what the first settlers had to undergo. We, however, did not complain 
half as much as people do now. Our diet was plain; our clothing we manu- 
factured ourselves ; we lived independent, and were all on an equality. I 
look back on those by-gone days with great interest. How the scene has 
changed ! Children of these same pioneers know nothing of hardship ; they 
are spoiled by indulgence, and are generally planning ways and means to live 
without work." 

It is, indeed, to many who have been brought up in the "lap of ease,'' not 
a little surprising, that a wife and mother should do the, house-work of a 
family in which were six, eight, or more children, and occasionally some 
hired men, without hired help. Yet such instances were not uncommon. 

The reader of family sketches in a succeeding part of this history, will not 
fail to notice the contrast between the pioneer settlers and their descendants 
in another T^zx'ixc.vXzx— fecundity. The former, with comparatively few excep- 
tions, fulfilled the duty enjoined upon the original progenitors of the race, to 
"multiply and replenish the earth;" an injunction which the present genera- 
tion seem to think more "honored in the breach than in the observance." 
At the present rate of the increase of our native population, who can tell the 
number of generations necessary' to "replenish" our vast national territory? 
In writing out genealogical sketches of pioneer families, which, in not a few 
instances, show a product, if not of " thirty," at least of ten to fifteen fold, 
we have oftpn been reminded of what we read more than half a century ago, 
in the history of some eastern country, where it was a part of the marriage 
ceremony to sprinkle upon the head of the bride a handful of hops, and to 
accompany the act with the expression of a wish that she might be "as fruitful 
as the hop vine." As to the cause of this modem degeneracy, we forbear to 
express an opinion. To those who desire light on this subject, we commend 
Rev. Dr. John Todd's little book, entitled " A Serpent in the Dove's Nest." 



Though struggling under the pressure of privation and poverty, the settlers 
made early provision for the education of their children. So important an 
object they would not defer until they could build more comely and con- 
venient school-houses ; they were content, for a time, with such as corre- 
sponded to their rude dwellings. The first school-houses were built of 
logs, with fire-qjlaces and chimneys like those of log dwelling-houses, and 
were roofed in the same manner. . Many still remember those houses, in 
which they received their limited education — the ill-chinked walls, the large 
open fire-place filled with a huge pile of logs, in the vain attempt to make a 
comfortable place for study. 

Benches were made of split slabs, hewed, and raised so high as to keep 
the scholars' feet swinging several inches above the floor. After there were 
saw-mills, benches were made of sawed slabs. The writing-desk was a slab 
or board extending along the whole length of one of the walls, fastened on 
long pins driven into auger holes in the logs, and slanting downward from 
the wall. Above the writing-table, holes for windows were cut through the 
wall, and filled with four or six lighted window sashes. For the want of sash 
and glass, the window openings were temporarily covered with old papers, 
greased with lard, for window-lights. 

Schools were not then regulated by law. Persons could not be compelled 
to pay for building school-houses and for the services of teachers. These were 
done voluntarily by the persons interested. They mutually agreed to contrib- 
ute labor or money toward the building of a school-house — chiefly labor, as 
little money was needed to build a log-house. Teachers were paid by those 
only who sent children to school. A subscription paper, stating the price of 
tuition per scholar for the term proposed, was circulated, and each person 
affixed to his name the number of scholars he would send. If a sufficient 
number were obtained, the school would commence. Teachers were some- 
times, wholly or in part, paid in produce, many of their employers being 
unable to pay in money. To such it was an object to employ teachers having 
families to consume the products of the farm. 

The course of instruction embraced but the few more primary branches. 
Spelling, reading, writing, and common arithmetic, constituted for several 
years the entire course. The school books used were Webster's Spelling 
Book, one or two reading books, and an arithmetic. A grammar, a geogra- 
phy or an atlas, the scholars had never seen. But many teachets were not 
qualified to teach even these few branches successfully. Only the simpler 
parts of arithmetic were taught by most teachers, especially in the summer 
term. The mathematical ambition of many pupils was satisfied when they 
could " cypher" to the end of the " Single Rule of Three," which, in that 
old popular work, " DaboU's Arithmetic," then in general use, preceded 
" Fractions," as it did in other old arithmetics. Nor did some parents think 


a higher attainment in this branch necessary for their sons, unless it were the 
knowledge of computing interest, which some of them might, at some time 
in their lives, have occasion to practice. Even after the enactment of the 
school laws requiring the examination of teachers, and a certificate from a 
board of inspectors pronouncing them " well qualified to teach a common 
school," most of them were very deficient in the " learning and ability" in- 
tended to be secured by the law. A knowledge of grammar was for many 
years not insisted on by the inspectors, and for the reason that, if it had 
been, there would not have been a sufficient number of teachers to supply 
all the schools. And so in respect to geography and other branches now 
considered indispensable. 

The manner of teaching and conducting a school was also defective. Writ- 
ing, in many schools, was not required to be done at any fixed hour, nor by 
all at the same time. Children could not make their own pens — none but 
goose-quill pens being used — nor, indeed, were teachers generally competent 
to do it properly. These pens needed to be frequently mended. To make 
and mend the pens and "set copies" for ten or twenty pupils, took no small 
portion of a teacher's time, and was often done during reading and other 
exercises, in which the worst mistakes escaped the observation of the teacher. 
To avoid this, some teachers did this work before or after school hours. 
The introduction of the metallic pen and the printed copy-book is a valua- 
ble improvement, saving much of the teacher's time, and furnishing the 
pupils with good and uniform copies. 

The black-board had not been invented ; or, if it had been, it was unknown 
in rural districts. Scholars were not taught arithmetic in classes. They got 
the attention of the teacher as they could. Voices from all quarters, asking 
for help " to do this sum," for permission to " go out," to " go and drink," 
and to "go to the fire,'' questions which, in many schools, were, to use a 
parliamentary phrase, " always in order ;" and the teacher going about the 
room to "help" scholars at their seats; all these, and other things that 
might be mentioned, kept the school-room in a continual bustle. Not all 
schools, however, were thus conducted. In many of them order and good 
management prevailed ; and many of our most intelligent citizens and most 
practical and successful business men, were graduated at these institutions. 

A citizen of the town of Stockton gives the following description of the 
school-house and school in which he " learned his ABC, and graduated in 
Webster's Spelling Book as far as ' Crucifix :'" 

" This school-house was about 20 by 24, and about 7 feet between the 
floors. A large Dutch fire-place was in the north end. There were thiee 
nine-lighted windows of the smallest pattern ; desks or writing tables against 
the walls, and pine slab seats with wooden legs. The furniture consisted of 
a plain cross-legged table, a splint-bottom chair, and a pine log about two 
feet in diameter and one foot high, called a 'dunce block,' and a pair of 
leather spectacles. It is presumable that the last two articles were con- 
tributed by the teacher, and hence omitted when not thought necessary for 
the good of the school. 


" A word of explanation may be necessary to show the use of the dunce 
block and the leather spectacles, as these appliances have become nearly or 
quite obsolete. The scholar who failed to get his lesson perfectly, was pretty 
sure to mount the block with the spectacles across his nose ; and as odd and 
droll as he looked, with his eyes through the leather belt, no one would dare 
to laugh, for fear of taking the same place, with perhaps an additional 
' switching ' about the back, by those ominous looking beechep whips care- 
fully stored in a crack in the floor overhead. Young men and women 
fi-equently mounted this dreadful block, who were too tall to stand erect, 
because their heads would come in contact with the ceiling above. This 
would occasionally bring a suppressed titter from the other scholars ; but a 
blow with the great whip in the hand of the teacher would restore gravity, 
and make us all feel thankful that it was the table, and not our backs, that 
received the beating." 

There were, however, some good schools then ; and there are many poor 
ones still ; yet a comparison of the schools of the present time with those of 
fifty years ago, shows a vast improvement. Perhaps the most salutary pro- 
vision in the school laws of our country, is that which brings the advantages of 
a sound and practical education within the reach of all classes of its citizens. 

Prior to the year 1813 or 181 4, little provision was made by the state for 
the education of its children. The poorest people had to pay wholly for the 
tuition of their children, or keep them out of school. This misfortune was 
in part remedied by providing a school fund, which consisted of lands and 
other property of the state, the income of which was annually distributed 
amongst the school districts to be applied to the payment of teachers' wages. 
The first money thus distributed in this county was in the year 1814. This 
fund was many years afterward largely increased on this wise: In 1836, 
Congress passed an act authorizing the distribution, among the states, of 
many millions of dollars which had accrued from imposts and sales of public 
lands. Propositions for distribution had been several times defeated on the 
ground of its supposed unconstitutionality. To avoid this objection, it was 
proposed that, instead of giving this money to the states, it should be " de- 
posited with " the states, until the general government should call for it. It 
was to be deposited in four annual installments ; three of which had been 
deposited, when, in 1838, it being supposed that the government would have 
occasion to use a part of the money, an act was passed to postpone the pay- 
ment of the fourth installment. About $28,000,000 had been deposited 
with the states. The quota of the state of New York was about $3,500,000. 
No portion of the sum deposited has ever been called for; nor was it supposed 
by many that it ever would be. 

\-n 1838, by an act of our state legislature, the income of the United States 
deposit fund, as this money was called, was to be appropriated " to the 
purposes of education." For three years, $55,000 was to be expended 
annually for the purchase of district libraries. The remainder was principally 
paid toward the teachers' wages. If the public moneys were insufficient for 
this purpose, the deficiency was supplied by a rate bill. 

By the first school law, a sum was to be raised by a tax on the inhabitants 


of every town equal to the sum received from the state funds ; in default of 
which, their claim to the public money was forfeited ; and by a vote at town- 
meeting, double the amount might be raised in the town. The districts were 
also required to have a school kept at least four months, [now six months,] 
to entitle them to a share of the public money. 


The establishment of the institutions of religion in the new settlements 
of this county, is a prominent feature in its history. Reared under the 
influence of these institutions, and imbued with the sentiment declared by 
the founders of our republic, that " true religion and good morals are the 
only solid foundations of public liberty," the settlers, like the " Pilgrim 
Fathers,'' planted churches at the earliest practicable period. 

The people of Western New York, as well as those of the new states 
generally, were chiefly supplied by the missionary societies of New England 
and other religious organizations. The tide of emigration to the West was 
followed up by missionaries, carrying the gospel of peace to the destitute 
pioneer settlements, enduring, with the people, for the Master's sake, the 
hardships and sacrifices incident to such a condition of the country. There 
is probably not a town in this county whose early inhabitants were not 
indebted to these self-denying laborers for the religious instruction of their 
families. We say self-denying ; because the pittance they received for their 
services — their toilsome travels, their coarse fare, and the manifold discom- 
forts they experienced in rude, unfurnished dwellings — forbids the idea that 
they were actuated by mere mercenary motives. Some of them possessed 
talents which, if employed in other pursuits, would have elevated them to 
distinction and affluence. And it can scarcely be doubted that the health- 
ful influence of their " preaching in the wilderness" did not cease with the 
generation to which they ministered. 

Perhaps no other minister labored so early and so long in the missionary 
service in this county as the Rev. John Spencer, familiarly known as " Father 
Spencer." He had been a deacon in the Congregational church in Worces- 
ter, Otsego county ; and with only such learning as an ordinary school edu- 
cation and his own reading and observation afforded, he entered the ministry. 
He was employed as a missionary on the Holland Purchase by the Connec- 
ticut Missionary Society ; and his labors were highly useful in forming and 
sustaining churches. He preached in the new settlements when his congre- 
gations consisted of but two or three families, and sometimes, it is said, 
of but one; thus literally "preaching from house to house." 

All, or nearly all, the churches formed by Mr. Spencer were ctenomina- 
tionally Congregational. Most of them, however, have long since adopted 
the Presbyterian form of government, and formed connection with* Presby- 
teries. Of his labors, a citizen of this county writes : 


" Hardly was the first log cabin reared in the wilderness, before it was 
visited by that early missionary, the Rev. John Spencer, to cheer and encour- 
age the pioneer in his struggle with the formidable difficulties that surrounded 
him. Mr. Spencer's life in the forest was an active and a toilsome one ; he 
understood the duties of his calling well, and faithfully he performed them. 
There are many anecdotes still extant illustrating the clearness of his intellect 
and cheerfulness of his disposition." 

Another writes of him as follows: 

"From 1810 to 1820, or later. Rev. John Spencer, a CongregationaHst, 
was the pioneer minister. Priest Spencer, as he was called, entered all parts 
of the county where could be assembled three or more families, and preached 
nearly every evening. His dress was ancient — knee and shoe buckles — 
short breeches and long stockings — a dress which at that period attracted 
attention, as it had nearly passed out of date. Independence in thought, 
word and deed, was characteristic. ' He was remarkable for the sharp twinkle 
of his eye, which always preceded some witty reproof. His sermons were 
short, practical, and impressive. His manner of delivery was singular : com- 
mencing short sentences, he would speak the first words slow and very dis- 
tinct, and hasten to the close, accenting strongly the last words. Especially 
was this the case in his prayers. Children noticed the set formula with which 
he closed every petition." 

Several interesting anecdotes are related of Mr. Spencer ; but the disagree- 
ment between the relators in some of the particulars, renders it probable that 
they are largely based on tradition. He closed his useful life in this county, 
and was buried in Sheridan. 

In 1 808, the Presbyterian General Assembly appointed Rev. John Linds- 
ley a missionary for four months, two of them to be spent in Steuben and 
Tioga counties, and the remaining two months in the settlements of the Hol- 
land Purchase. Although he was here probably as early as Mr. Spencer, his 
labors do not appear to have continued beyond the term of his appointment. 
The principal record of his labors that we have seen, is that of his having 
officiated at the formation of the Presbyterian church at Westfield in 1808, 
and at the formation of a Congregational, now the Presbyterian, church of 
Warsaw, July 14, 1808. It is said, however, that he visited Westfield as a 
missionary in the fall of 1807, and was then sustained by a Female Mission- 
ary Society. He was on his way to Pennsylvania ; and on his return in the 
spring, formed the Westfield church as above stated. It has been stated, and 
probably truly, that he returned and went over his former missionary ground, 
and spent three sabbaths in Westfield. 

Rev. Phineas Camp,, a graduate of Union College in 1810, and a graduate 
of the second class of the Theological Seminary at Princeton, was appointed 
by the Presbyterian General Assembly's Board of Missions as a home mis- 
sionary in Pennsylvania, Western New York and Ohio. He assisted in the 
reorganiza'tion of the church in Westfield, in November, 1817, and was 
installed as pastor of the church by the Erie Presbytery, Sept. 8, 1819. 

Bene*ts, doubtless, accrued both to Congregationalists and Presbyterians, 
from a " Plan of Union " then existing. Their system of religious belief was 


substantially the same. They were divided only on the plan of church gov- 
ernment. As it was generally difficult, in new settlements, for either to 
support a separate and distinct organization, the Presbyterian General Assem- 
bly, in 1 80 1, adopted a plan which permitted Congregational ministers to 
become pastors of Presbyterian churches, and Congregational churches to be 
represented in Presb)rterian ecclesiastical bodies. On the formation of 
churches, the majority probably determined the mode of church government. 

Rev. Asa Turner, a Baptist preacher, was also an early missionary in 
this county, and is represented to have been " very ' popular among the 
settlers, and warmly welcomed among them." Rev. Joy Handy, too, was 
an early laborer in this missionary field, though he soon became pastor of 
the Baptist church at Jredonia. As a rflissionary and pastor he made 
"full proof of his ministry," and closed his useful life after a long and 
faithful service of the Master. 

Several of the early Baptist churches in the county were formed by these 
and other early ministers. The first was at Fredonia, the preparatory work 
having been done by that devoted layman. Judge Gushing. The records of 
the church show that its organization was completed by its being received 
into fellowship by a council, October 20, 1808. 

The Methodists, too, \vith their usual promptitude, sent their preachers 
into the western wilderness. Their missionaries are their circuit preachers, 
who appear to have made their advent in this country about the year 1808. 
In Gregg's " History of Methodism within the bounds of the Erie Annual 
Conference," we find the following : 

"From 1796 to 1812, Western New York was nominally within the bounds 
of the Philadelphia Conference, though most of the time entirely unoccu- 
pied. In 1808, a circuit was formed by that conference called the ' Holland 
Purchase,' which embraced all of the state of New York west of the Gene- 
see river, to which the Rev. George Lane was appointed. Sometime in the 
winter of 1808-9, learning that a few members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church had settled a short distance east of the present village of Fredonia, 
in the west part of Sheridan, Chautauqua county, Mr. Lane started up 
from Buffalo in a one-horse sleigh to visit and preach to them. On his way 
up he overtook Mr. Gould and wife in a two-horse sleigh, who were members 
of the Methodist church, and resided in the place just mentioned, and who 
had been East on a visit, and were returning home. The snow was deep 
and badly drifted. Night came on them while in the woods some distance 
below the Cattaraugus creek ; and they became so buried in the snow, that 
they could get their sleighs no further. After disengaging their horses from 
their sleighs, each person mounted a horse, and rode on the bare back to 
Mack's tavern, where they spent the remainder of the night. Next morning 
they succeeded in getting their sleighs, and before night reached Mr. Gould's 
house, where Mr. Lane spent a few days and preached several times, and, 
during his stay in the place, formed a class consisting of Stephen Bush, Dan- 
iel G. Gould and wife, and Elijah Risley. This was undoubtedly the first 
Methodist preaching and the first class formed in Chautauqua county, which 
has, since that time, been a very fruitful field for Methodism, and very pro- 
ductive of Methodist ministers." 


As early aS 1801, the Erie circuit existed, which embraced the first religious 
organizations of the Methodists in this county, and for a long time afterwards 
the whole or a considerable part of the county. It was in the Pittsburgh 
district, which was within the bounds of the Baltimore Conference. The 
presiding elder of the district was Thornton Fleming ; and the preacher of 
the Erie circuit was James Quinn. It is said that Mr. Quinn's circuit, when 
formed, contained twenty appointments, requiring him to travel four hundred 
miles every four weeks. The first class he formed was near a place called 
Lexington, in Springfield township, Erie county. Pa. In 1804 the district 
took the name of Monongahela, and Thornton Fleming was continued pre- 
siding elder until the meeting of the Baltimore Conference in May, 18 10, 
when Jacob Gruber was appointed presiding elder, and Joshua Monroe, 
preacher of Erie circuit ; and the year following, James Watts and James 

Gospel Land. 

It is generally known by the older inhabitants, that the Holland Land 
Company made a donation of 100 acres of land to religious societies in 
every town, usually designated as the " gospel land." This was no part of 
the early policy of the Company. The manner in which this land was 
obtained, is related by Mr. Turner in his History of the Holland Purchase. 

In the fall of 1820, Paul Busti, the general agent of the Company at 
Philadelphia, while on a visit at Batavia, was importuned by a Presbyterian 
minister from a neighboring town for a donation of land to every society of 
that persuasion then formed on the Holland Purchase. Mr. Busti was for 
a long time indisposed to grant the request. But the Rev. gentleman having 
urged his suit until the agent's patience was exhausted, the latter firmly 
replied: "Yes, Mr. R., I will give a tract of one hundred acres to a religious 
society in every town on the Purchase ; and this is finis.'' He was, however, 
unwilling to give preference to any particular denomination. " But," said 
he, " to save contention, I will give it to the first society in every town." 
Mr. R., it is said, lost no time in communicating the information to the 
Presbyterians in the towns in his vicinity. Mr. Turner proceeds as follows : 

" The land office was soon flooded with petitions for land from societies 
organized according to law, and empowered to hold real estate, and from 
those that were not, one of which was presented to Mr. Busti before he left, 
directed to ' Gen. Poll Busti,' on which he insisted that it could not be from a 
religious society ; for all religious societies read their Bibles, and know that 
Po double /, does not spell Paul." Amid this chaos of applications, it was 
thought unadvisable to be precipitant in granting these donations, the whole 
responsibility now resting on Mr. EUicott to comply with the vague promise 
of Mr. Busti. Therefore conveyances of the 'gospel land' were not executed 
for some space of time, notwithstanding the clamor of petitions for ' deeds 
of our land ;' during which time the matter was taken into consideration 
and systematized, so far as such an operation could be. Pains were taken 
to ascertain the merits of each application, and finally a tract or tracts of 
land, not exceeding one hundred acres in all, were granted, free of expense. 


to one or more religious societies regularly organized according to law in 
every town on the Purchase, where the company had land undisposed of, 
which embraced every town then organized, except B^hany, Genesee county, 
and Sheldon, Wyoming county ; the donees being in all cases allowed to 
select out of the unsold farming land in the town. In some towns it was all 
given to one society ; in others, to two or three societies, separately ; and in 
a few towns to four societies of different sects, twenty-five acres to each." 

And it is said that the proceedings were so judiciously managed by Mr. 
Ellicott, that partiality was in no case charged against the agent or his 


A BRIEF sketch of the division of this state into counties, of their organi- 
zation, and of changes in their boundaries, prior to the formation of Chau- 
tauqua county, will not be deemed incompatible with the character and 
design of this work. From the introduction to a history of Oneida County, 
N. Y., a valuable and reliable work, written by Judge Pomeroy Jones, of that 
county, and published many years ago, the following is an extract : 

"The Dutch originally settled and governed the territory within the limits 
of the state of New York, and by them it was called New Netherlands. As 
late as 1683, that portion of it lying west of Fort Orange, [Albany,] was 
termed by the Dutch chroniclers ' Terra Incognito,' or Unknown Land. In 
1683, the colony having passed into the hands of the English, it was divided 
into twelve counties, viz. ; New York, Albany, Dutchess, Kings, Queens, 
Orange, Ulster, Richmond, Suffolk, Westchester, Dukes, and Cornwall. 
Albany county then included Albany and all west of it. In T768 and 1770, 
the counties of Cumberland and Gloucester were added. Of the original 
counties, Dukes and Cornwall, after a bitter controversy, were suspended to 
Massachusetts in 1693 ; and a part of Gloucester and Cumberland was, after 
a quarrel, ceded to New Hampshire, and now forms a part of Vermont ; and 
and the portion of the two counties retained was formed into a county called 
Charlotte, now Washington county. In 1772, the county of Tryon was 
formed from Albany county, lying westwardly of a line running nearly north 
and south through the present county of Schoharie. The name of Tryon 
having become highly obnoxious from the active hostility and acts of wanton 
cruelty of the Colonial Governor Tryon towards the Americans during the 
Revolution, the legislature, in 1784, changed the name to Montgomery, in 
honor of the general of that name who had fallen at Quebec." 

Montgomery county was divided into five districts. German Flats, one of 
the districts, included the present town of Herkimer and all the territory 
west of it in this state, and was an entire wilderness, with the exception of 
forts and Indian trading points and a few Dutch settlers along the Mohawk 
river. In 1786, the entire county of Montgomery, embracing over one-half 
of the state of New York, contained but 15,050 inhabitants, about one-fourth 
of the number now in Chautauqua county. In 1788, the town of Whites 
TowTi, [thus written,] was erected from German Flats, and named in honor 


of Judge Hugh White, who had recently emigrated from Middletown, Ct., 
to the present site of the village of Whitesboro', then including the present 
city of Utica, and all of the state west of it, and probably did not contain 
over 200 inhabitants. The late Judge Jonas* Piatt, of the supreme court, 
was an early supervisor of the town. 

On the 27th of January, 1788, the county of Ontario was erected from 
Montgomery, and the preamble of the act read as follows : " Whereas the 
county of Montgomery is so extensive as to be inconvenient to those who 
now or may hereafter settle in the western part of the county, therefore," 
etc. The county of Ontario included all of the state west of a line drawn 
due north from the 82d mile stone on the line between the states of New 
York and Pennsylvania, through Seneca lake, to Lake Ontario. By the 
last cited act, all of the state west of the Genesee river was erected into the 
town of Northampton. The counties of Herkimer, Otsego, and Tioga, were 
erected from Montgomery in 1801. 

On the 30th of March, 1802, the county of Genesee was formed from the 
county of Ontario, and bounded on the east by the Genesee river and the 
county of Steuben. Or, according to another description, it comprised all 
that part of the state lying west of the Genesee river and a line extending 
due south from the point of the junction of that river and the Canescraga 
creek, to the south line of the state. 

Genesee county was divided into four towns : Northampton, Southampton, 
Leicester, and Batavia. The first three embraced all the territory within the 
county lying east of the Holland Purchase, and Batavia the whole of the 
Purchase. Northampton adjoined Lake Ontario ; Southampton adjoined 
Northampton on the south, and Leicester embraced all the territory south of 
Southampton to the Pennsylvania hne. The first board of supervisors of 
Genesee county was composed of Simon King, representing Northampton ; 
Christopher Layboum, Southampton; John H. Jones, Leicester; and Peter 
Vandeventer, the town of Batavia. The first town meeting in Batavia, of 
which the present county of Chautauqua formed a part, was held at Van- 
deventer's inn, within the limits of the present town of Clarence, Erie 

The town of Chautauqua, formed from Batavia, April 11, 1804, embraced 
the present county, excepting only the loth range of townships, which was 
annexed to Chautauqua in the formation of the county. At the same time 
[1804] there were formed from Batavia the towns of Willink and Erie, the 
latter, now called Newstead, comprising, it is believed, but a single town- 
ship ; the two comprising all the territory l)ang within the present counties of 
Niagara and Erie. 

Allegany county was taken from Genesee in 1806; Cattaraugus, Chautau- 
qua, and Niagara, in 1808 ; [the present county of Erie being then included 
in Niagara;] parts of Livingston and Monroe, in 182 1 ; a part of Orleans, 
in 1824; and Wyoming, in 1841. The town of Batavia, formed in 1802, has 
alone become the mother of four whole counties, [Chautauqua, Cattaraugus, 



>fiagara, and Erie,] one-half of Allegany, and the greater parts of Orleans 
and Wyoming. 

In 1805 or 1806, the subject of erecting two or more counties from Gene- 
see and Ontario, along the Genesee valley, was agitated by settlers along the 
river. Judge Foote furnishes some interesting facts relating to the division 
of Genesee county, which were published in the Jamestown Journal, of 
October 7, 1859. He says : 

" I have understood that the Hon. Philip Church, now of Allegany county, 
the Messrs. Wadsworth, of Geneseo, and Messrs. Warner and Hosmer, of 
Avon, who were prominent and honored citizens, and men of wealth, and 
landholders, formed the plan of the formation of two or more counties from 
Ontario and Genesee, in 1806, while Joseph Ellicott, the agent of the Hol- 
land Company, strongly opposed the project. Allegany was set off from 
Genesee in 1806. But the original question was still unsettled. To many 
of the inhabitants of Allegany, its boundaries were not satisfactory ; and 
several petitions were presented to the legislature in 1807, in favor of differ- 
ent localities for the public buildings in that county; but nothing definite was 
done by the legislature until the presentation of petitions in February and 
March, 1808, which resulted in laws annexing the west part of Steuben to 
Allegany, and the west part of Allegany to Genesee, [to form the east part of 
Cattaraugus,] and fixing the county site of Allegany to Angelica. Genesee 
county was divided into four counties, Genesee, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, 
and Niagara, the last named then including the present county of Erie. 

" One fact appears singular ; in none of the petitions signed by residents 
of the present county of Chautauqua, was that name for the county solicited-; 
but it was proposed only by the five landholders, none of them residing in or 
having any interest in the county. The name was most appropriate, and I 
apprehend the people were well satisfied with it. Chautauqua and Cattarau- 
gus remain as established over half a century ago ; Allegany nearly as then ; 
Niagara, until 1821, when it was divided and Erie county erected; Genesee, 
until 1821, when Monroe and Livingston were erected from Genesee and 

In 1806, a petition was presented to the legislature for the division of 
Genesee into four counties, by the names of Allegany, Cattaraugus, Niagara, 
and Genesee ; Niagara and Cattaraugus to be organized by the name of 
Niagara in one year from the passing of the act ; and Joseph Ellicott, Eras- 
tus Granger, and Jonas Williams, to be appointed commissioners to erect a 
court-house and jail in said county. - The petition also asked that the organi- 
zation of Allegany and Cattaraugus might be suspended until they should 
contain a suitable number of inhabitants. The petitioners further prayed 
that the court-house and jail for Niagara should be erected on the eastern- 
most public square in the village of New Amsterdam, or Buffalo ; and that 
James W. Stevens, Philip Church, and William Rumsey be appointed com- 
missioners to fix upon a site for a county town in Allegany; and that Joseph 
Ellicott, Erastus Granger, and Alexander Reed fix upon a county site for 
Cattaraugus. The petitioners also remonstrated against the granting of a 
petition, then in contemplation, for erecting a new county out of the western 
part of Ontario and the eastern part of Genesee. 


The question naturally arises, why should the formation of so many new 
counties be asked for while their population was insufificient for an immediate 
organization ? The reasons assigned in the petition are, that there is much 
contention among the inhabitants on the subject of dividing counties, and 
that future divisions, when the population becomes considerable, may prove 
a source of difficulty to the legislature, and " promote dissensions among 
those who may be interested in the establishment of the limits of counties;'' 
and " that in the present state of population of the county of Genesee, the 
bounds of future counties may be so judiciously established and limited in 
extent as to obviate the propriety of any future divisions;" and "that the 
longer the divisions are delayed, the more these difficulties will increase, and 
by a variety of contending interests the more injudiciously will the new 
counties be divided." 

There are said to have been about 750 signers to this petition, among 
whom were the following : 

Benj. EUicott, Andrew A. EUicott, James W. Stevens, Joseph Ellicott, 
Daniel B. Brown, Reuben Town, Asa McCracken, Trumbull Gary, David E. 
Evans, Abraktfm Dull, William Peacock, Josiah Babcock, Richard Smith, 
David McGracken, Seth Cole, John D. Weed, Elias Scojuld, Filer Socket, 
David Eaton, Louis Lacouteulx, Richard Stiles, Nathan Gary, Benj. Hutchins, 
Alanson Weed, William Bennett, Harry Ligerson, Joseph E. Dart, James 

There was no date to this petition, but it was probably presented to the 
legislature of 1806, that being the year in which the county of Allegany was 
set off. Those whose names are in italics, were then residents of the present 
county of Ghautauqua. 

March 2, 1808, was presented to the legislature "the petition of the sub- 
scribers and landholders of the counties of Genesee and Allegany." They 
ask for a division of the part of Genesee county lying between Allegany 
county and the western boundary of the state of New York, into two coun- 
ties, by the names of Chautauqua and Cattaraugus ; and for authorizing the 
governor to appoint commissioners to fix sites for the public buildings of 
these two counties ; and for organizing the counties of Niagara, Chautauqua, 
and Cattaraugus, together by the name of Niagara, and suspending the 
organization of Chautauqua and Cattaraugus until they should contain such 
number of inhabitants as should be deemed expedient. This, too, was 
without date; but was presented, as stated above, March 2, 1808, signed 
by the five following named persons : Mather Warner, George Hosmer, 
Jabez Wilbur, James Wadsworth, Philip Church. 

Of these gentlemen, Messrs. Warner, Wadsworth and Hosmer, resided in 
Ontario county, and Mr. Church in Allegany. 

The reasons assigned for this division are in part the same as tho^e offered 
in the former petition — to prevent contention and strife among future inhab- 
itants as to the proper division of the territory. They also prayed for the 
annexation of the three western ranges of townships of Allegany to the 


territory designed to form the counties of Chautauqua and Cattaraugus ; giv- 
ing as a reason for this annexation, that, without this additional territory, 
there would not be sufficient for two counties. [It has been suspected that 
the chief object of changing the boundaries of Allegany was to secure the 
establishment of the county seat at Angelica.] 

Another petition, presumed also to have been presented in 1808, from 
inhabitants of the counties of Steuben, Genesee and Allegany, prayed for the 
annexation of the western range of Steuben county to Allegany, and the 3d, 
4th and 5th ranges of the Holland Purchase to Genesee, and for dividing 
Genesee into four counties : Cattaraugus, extending from Allegany county to 
the meridian line between the 9th and loth ranges of townships of the Hol- 
land Land Company's survey ; Chautauqua, with its present bounds ; Niag- 
ara, including the present counties of Niagara and Erie ; and all the remain- 
ing part of Genesee to constitute the fourth county, retaining the original 
name of Genesee. The petition also prays for the establishment of the 
county seat of Allegany at Angelica ; that of Chautauqua at Mayville ; and 
that of Niagara at New Amsterdam, commonly called Buffalo ; and further, 
that the contemplated county of Cattaraugus be continued organized with " 
Allegany " as far as it respects taxation, courts of justice, voting for governor, 
members of the legislature and of congress,'' until the three counties of 
Niagara, Chautauqua and Cattaraugus, should be organized together as one 
county by the name of Niagara. Signed by Asa Ransom, Trumbull Cary, 
Peter Powers, Thomas Prendergast, Jonas Williams, William Peacock, 
Richard Smith, Asa Spear, Henry Wilson, E. Cary, Emory Blodgett, Andrew 
A. EUicott, Benj, EUicott, Joseph EUicott, John Mack, David E. Evans, 
James W. Stevens, and others — in all, 56 names. 

The act of 1 808 provided that Cattaraugus and Chautauqua should act in 
conjunction with Niagara until they should respectively contain 500 taxable 
inhabitants. It having been ascertained from the assessment rolls of t8io, 
at the meeting of the board of supervisors, that Chautauqua county contained 
500 voters for members of assembly, the county was fully organized in 181 1, 
by the appointment of county officers on the 9th day of February, 181 1, by 
the council of appointment, consisting of the governor and four senators, 
one from each "of the four senate districts into which the state was then 
divided. This council had the power of appointing all county officers, 
including justices of the peace. The governor was then Daniel D. Tomp- 
kins, and the four senators were Benjamin Coe, James W. Wilkin, John 
McLean, Philetus Swift. 

First Judge — Zattu Gushing. Associate Jtidges — Matthew Prendergast, 
Philo Orton, Jonathan Thompson, William Alexander. 

Assistant Justices — Henry Abell, William Gould, John Dexter, Abiram 

Justices of the Peace — ^Jeremiah Potter, John Silsbee, Abijah Bennett, Asa 
Spear, Justus Hinman, Benjamin Barrett, Daniel Pratt, Selah Pickett. 

Clerk — John E. Marshall. Sheriff— \ya.\\dL. Eason. Surrogate — Squire 
White. Coroners — Daniel G. Gould, Philo Hopson. 


The act of 1808 erecting the counties of Chautauqua and Cattaraugus, 
required the governor to appoint three commissioners to fix on county sites 
in these counties, and file their decision in the clerk's office of Niagara 
county, then at Buffalo. Deeds of land also were to be recorded there until 
after the complete organization of this county, which took place in 1811. 
The commissioners appointed to locate the county sites, were Isaac Suther- 
land, Jonas Williams, and Asa Ransom. The act also required the super- 
visors of each county to raise the sum of one thousand five hundred dollars 
for erecting and completing a court-house and jail. A contract was accord- 
ingly made with Winsor Brigham to build a court-house and jail of wood. 
And the house of John Scott, in the village of Mayville, was designated as 
the place for holding courts until the court-house should be completed. 

The first court-house in the county was a two-story frame building, built 
between i8ii and 1815, the war having retarded its completion. The June 
term of the court in 1814 was held in the unfinished building, but not the 
fall and winter terms. In 181 5 the building was finished and occupied. The 
lower story contained three prison cells — two for criminals and one for 
-debtors. In firont of these, and divided from them by a narrow hall, was the 
dwelling part for the jailor and his family. The upper story was for court 
and jury rooms, etc. 

In 1832, the prison rooms being deemed too contracted, and having 
become dilapidated and unsafe for the detention of prisoners, the legislature 
required the supervisors to provide for the erection of a new jail. They had 
been authorized the preceding year to do so ; but, notwithstanding it had 
been presented by the grand jury as a nuisance, they refiised to provide for 
building another. Hence the necessity, next year, of a law requiring them 
to do so ; and even then the appropriation was made by a majority pi two 
only. The sum first appropriated by the law of 1832, was $3,500, in three 
annual installments, the last of which would become due in 1834, when the 
supervisors were required to raise $1,500 more for its completion. 

In 1834, on the petition of many citizens, an act wasipassed directing the 
building of a new court-house. It is not strange that county buildings 
costing but $1,500, were, after a lapse of more than twenty, years, insufficient 
for the various county purposes. The commissioners appointoi by the act 
to contract for and superintend the erection of the court-hoiise;^i|tee Thomas 
B. Campbell, Wm. Peacock, and Martin Prendergast Tlie supervisors 
were required to assess and collect therefor $5,000 in five annual installments 
commencing in 1837. This time was fixed in order to allow the jail install- 
ments to be fully paid before additional taxes were imposed. The money 
for building was loaned toAe county by the state, at 6 per cent, interest, the 
first installment to be paid the ist of March, 1838. 

The commissioners contracted with Benj. Rathbun, of Buffalo, for erecting 
the exterior of the building. The work was done the same summer, and was 
accepted by the commissioners. The plan was submitted to the board of 
supervisors in 1834, and a committee was appointed, with instructions to 












report to the board at the next meeting. At an adjourned session held the 
next month, [Dec, 1834,] the committee reported resolutions, declaring that 
all the money borrowed had been expended on the exterior of the building ; 
disapproving the acts of the commissioners as tending to burden the county 
with a heavy expense for a larger and more costly building than was needed, 
with the purpose of advancing the interests of Mayville at the expense of 
the county ; and asking the legislature to remove Wm. Peacock and Martin 
Prendergast, and appoint Elial T. Foote and Leverett Barker as commis- 
sioners in their stead. The report was accepted. 

The action of the next legislature upon the subject was the passage of a 
law requiring the raising of an additional sum of $4,000 to complete the 
building, in four annual installments, beginning with the year 1837 ; and 
authorizing the comptroller to loan it as before. And instead of removing 
the two commissioners, Elial T. Foote, of Ellicott, and Leverett Barker, of 
Pomfret, were appointed additional commissioners. With this appropriation 
the building was completed, and the five commissioners were discharged. 

Divisions of Chautauqua County. 

This county, at the time of its formation in 1808, embraced but the single 
town of Chautuaqua. The town of Pomfret was at the same time formed 
from the town of Chautauqua, and embraced the two eastern ranges of town- 
ships, [10 and II,] and the present towns of Pomfret and Dunkirk. There 
was no further subdivision until after the complete organization of the county 
in i8n. 

In 18 1 2, Ellicott was formed from Pomfret, and embraced townships i and 2 
in ranges 10 and 11. Gerry was formed from Pomfret, and embraced the 
present towns of Gerry, Ellington, Cherry Creek, and Charlotte ; and Han- 
over, embracing the present towns of Hanover, Villenova, and a part of 

In 18 13, Portland was formed from Chautauqua, and comprised the pres- 
ent towns of Portland, Westfield, and Ripley. 

In 18 16, Harmony was formed from Chautauqua, and comprised town- 
ships I, in ranges 12 and 13, and all of townships 2, in the same ranges, 
lying south and west of Chautauqua lake. 

In 18 1 7, Ripley was formed from Portland, extending from Chautauqua 
creek to the state line. 

In 182 1, Clymer was formed, comprising ihe present towns of Clymer, 
Sherman, Mina, and French Creek. Stockton was formed from Chautauqua, 
and comprised township 4, range 12, and a tier of lots from township 4, 
range 13. EUery was formed from Chautauqui, comprising township 3, 
range 1 2, all of township 2 lying north of the lake, and a few lots on the 
west from township 3, range 13. In 1850, 12 lots from EUery were annexed 
to Stockton. 

In 1823, Busti was formed from Ellicott and Harmony, comprising parts 
of townships i, in ranges 11 and 12. Villenova was taken from Hanover, 


comprising township 5, range 10, and a part of the present town of 

In 1824, Ellington was formed from Gerry, and comprised townships 3 
and 4, in range 10 ; and Mina from Clymer, comprising the present towns of 
Mina and Sherman. 

In 1825, Carroll was formed from EUicott, and comprised township i, 
range 10, and part of township i, range iij now Kiantone. 

In 1827, Sheridan was formed from Pomfret and Hanover, and comprises 
township 6 of range 11, except 4 lots in the south-east corner, which remain 
attached to Hanover. 

In 1829, Arkwright was formed from Pomfret and Villenova. A part of 
Pomfret was annexed in 1830. Charlotte was taken from Gerry, comprising 
towiiship 4, range 1 2 ; Cherry Creek from Ellington ; French Creek from 
Cl3Tiier ; and Westfield from Portland and Ripley. 

In 1832, Poland was formed from EUicott, and lies on the east border of 
the county, and comprises township 2, range 10. Sherman was formed the 
same year from Mina, township 2, range 14. 

In 1853, Kiantone was formed from Carroll. 

In 1859, Dunkirk was formed from Pomfret. 


Old Portage Road. 

That a portage road was constructed between Lake Erie and the head 
of Chautauqua lake, prior to the settlement of this county, has been generally 
conceded ; but when or by whom it was opened has, until a comparatively 
late period, been an unsettled question. The route of this road is described 
in the following letter from Col. Wm. Bell, of the town of Westfield, to Judge 
Foote : 

"Westfield, March 29, 187 1. 

" Hon. Elial T. Foote : In answer to your letter inquiring about the 
route of the old French road from Lake Erie to Chautauqua lake, I will say, 
that I came to what is now Westfield, in August, 1802. My father, Arthur 
Bell, came from Pennsylvania, with a part of the family in ' dug-out canoes,' 
up the Allegany and Connewango rivers, and the Chautauqua outlet and lake, 
to the present steamboat landing at Mayville, while I came through the woods 
from the Allegany river to Erie, and thence to Westfield, with some cattle 
and horses. And when the family arrived at the head of the lake, I went 
there to meet them ; and t^e goods were ' packed ' over to the farm that my 
father had taken up when he was here in the spring, on the ' main road,' 
about three miles west of Westfield village. 

" In 1802, there were the remains of a stone chimney standing near the 
shore of Lake Erie, a little west of the mouth of Chautauqua creek, that was 
said to have been built by the French. A road was cut out from that point 
on Lake Erie, crossing the present Erie road near the old ' McHeiuy tavern,' 


where the historical monument now stands, and crossing the west branch of 
Chautauqua creek about 100 rods above where the woolen factory of Lester 
Stone now stands, and from there to a point near the former residence of 
Gervis Foot, or late residence of Mrs. Rumsey, and from there to Chautauqua 
lake, on or near the line of the present traveled road. 

" I remember very well, when I was quite a young lad, of driving a team 
to draw salt over this old French road from Lake Erie to Chautauqua lake ; 
and from the appearance of the road, it must have been cut out a good many 
years before I passed over it. 

" My father settled on part of lot 3, township 4, range 14, of the Holland 
Land Company's survey; and after the death of my father, I resided on the 
same farm till within the last few years. 

" Respectfully yours, William Bell." 

The question as to the time when and by whom the road was constructed, 
appears to have been satisfactorily answered by Judge Foote, through the 
Fredonia Censor. His letter is dated February 10, 187 r. He first notices 
the traditionary statement that in 1782 an army of 300 British and 500 
Indians, with 12 pieces of artillery, spent the months of June and July 
around Chautauqua lake, preparatory to floating down the Connewango and 
Allegany rivers to attack Fort Pitt. And it was stated that " the British left 
a four-pounder on the shores of Chautauqua lake, from 1782 to 1784." 
These statements were founded on tradition, said to be from a copy of a letter 
from Gen. Irvine to Gen. Washington. In reference to this the Judge says : 

" I have searched the libraries of historical societies in vain for proof of 
a British army having 'been encamped about Chautauqua lake. It was only 
eighteen years from the time the British army is said to have encamped on 
the lake to the commencement of the settlement of the county, and less 
than that when the lake shores were traversed by the surveyors ; but I have 
never been able to find any one who had seen any evidence of such an 
encampment on that lake." 

On the subject of the portage road, he says : 

" We have, however, I think, reliable information relative to the opening 
of a portage road from the mouth of Chautauqua creek, on Lake Erie, to 
the head of Chautauqua lake, about 118 years ago, by the French. The 
evidence is derived from an affidavit made by Stephen Coffin, an American 
who was taken prisoner by the French and Indians, and finally enlisted in 
the French army, and was with the army when the portage road was opened. 
I will give a brief of the affidavit taken before Sir William Johnson, in 
January, 1754. There is corroborative testimony of the material facts de- 
veloped in the affidavit." [The substance of this affidavit has "been given 
in Mr. Exison's Historical Sketch, p. 38.] 

Road from Pennsylvania to Chautauqua Lake. 

The first road from Pennsylvania to Chautauqua lake, at what was after- 
wards called " Miles' Landing," was opened at a very early date. One of the 
party who performed the labor was Robert Miles, who certified to the follow- 
ing description : 

" The road commenced at my father's in the present town of Sugar Grove, 


Qcar where Frederick Miles now lives, and passed a little east of where the 
senior Devereaux first settled in Busti, and over the hills, and near where 
Josiah Palmeter lives, and also near where Samuel Griffith settled ; and 
crossed the present Jamestown and Mayville road, on the west side of the 
lake, a little west of where sheriflf Judson Southland now resides, and came 
to the lake at the mouth of the little creek on the lake shore at Uriah Bent- 
ley's. The road was used for many years for the people of Pennsylvania to 
go to Chautauqua lake, and for the first settlers on the lake to go to Penn- 
sylvania for provisions, etc. The Mileses made a large canoe on the hill 
westerly of where Devereaux settled, out of a pine tree, and drew it over the 
road to Chautauqua lake ; and the hill where the canoe was made was called 
by the early settlers "canoe tree hill." The road was opened about 1805. 
There were a few settlers in Warren county. Pa., before there were any in 
Chautauqua county ; and the early settlers about Chautauqua lake not unfre- 
quently went to Pennsylvania for seed potatoes, oats, wheat, etc., and for 
cows, hogs, etc., when commencing in the woods. My father helped build 
the first log house at Mayville, near the present steamboat landing, (before 
Mclntyre came there,) for a man by the name of Sherman. Robt. Miles, Sr., 
died in 1810, aged S7) near the present village of Sugar Grove, on the farm 
now owned by my brother Frederick. Robert Miles." 

Mayville and Cattaraugus Road. 

In 1813, the Holland Land Company made a survey of a road from May- 
ville easterly to Ischua, Cattaraugus county, a distance of 60 miles, and cut 
out, bridged, and made it passable to Love's, one mile south of Sinclairville. 
From that place to its eastern terminus, the country was an entire forest, with 
the exception of the opening at Bentley's on the Connewango. 

In May, 1814, Capt. Anson Leet, Henry Walker, Bela Todd, Dexter 
Barnes, Henry Barnhart, Oliver Cleland, Nathan Cleland, and a few others, 
most or all from what is now Stockton, were employed by the Company to 
construct the remaining part of the road. Capt. Leet, eminently qualified 
for the task, was chief command, and John West was chief cook. A good 
movable tent and utensils, and all necessary fixtures for encamping, were 
provided. Several yoke of oxen were used by them in removing heavy fallen 
timber and building bridges, etc. ; and three cows with their calves were 
taken to aid the boarding department. The calves were tied by straps to 
small trees ; and herdmen know that, unless compelled, cows wUl not go far 
from their youtig ; hence they were useful in keeping all their cattle within 
hearing of the bells strapped on the necks of some of the oxen. . The cows 
would not generally go within reach of their calves when fastened closely to 
the trees ; and the calves seldom received more than their prop)er share of 
food ; but if opportunity presented, they would, Jike some of our late con- 
gressmen, appropriate to themselves a luscious supply of " back pay." 

Pasturage at that season of the year was abundant : nature covered the 
ground with beautiful foliage, of which only the early settlers have proper 
conceptions. From the length of the road and the time taken to do it, they 
could only remove the fallen trees, cut away the bushes and small timber, 
and grade the knolls. There were many streams to be bridged, marshes 


requiring corduroy road ; and as black ash timber was plenty and easily 
worked, the Land Company allowed it to be split into rails and covered with 
dirt, the bridges being built with logs and poles. 

This party consisted of men in the strength and vigor of early manhood, 
and had, on the 4th of July, reached what was then by survey the village of 
EUicottville in embryo. Though distant from home and society and the 
church-going bell, they had observed their sabbaths as days of rest, if not of 
worship. War was raging between our country and England ; and the dis- 
tant rumble of cannon from Buffalo and the lake aroused their patriotism ; 
and they resolved to celebrate the Fourth. Dexter Barnes was orator; 
Deacon Walker, chaplain ; and Henry Bamhart, with associates, were to makfe 
all the military demonstrations at their cominand. Of course the speech of 
the orator was brief, but it was characteristic of one who was full of life and 
hope. The prayer was from one whose piety was undoubted, but not offen- 
sive. Like a Christian patriot he remembered his country then in a san- 
guinary struggle with a formidable foe for the rights of her citizens. He 
remembered home and friends, and prayed that a religious influence might 
ever characterize the place they then consecrated. 

The party thence worked onward to Ischua, which place they reached late 
in September, and then in company returned home. Having faithfully dis- 
charged their trust, they went to the office, where they received the congrat- 
ulations of their faithful friend, Mr. Peacock, as also their full pay. The 
honored agent is still living, [October, 1875,] as are Mr. West, Mr. Bamhart, 
Mr. O. Cleland, and Mr. N. Cleland. 


In consequence of the burning of a portion of the records of the General 
Post-Office at Washington, in the war of 18 12, the history of the early mail 
routes and post-offices in this part of the country is not easily obtained. It 
has been ascertained, however, that a post-office was established at Buffalo, 
by the name of Buffalo Creek, as a private office, (not then on any mail 
route,) in the latter part of the year 1804, and that Erastus Granger was 
appointed postmaster. He received the income of the office as a compen- 
sarion for carrying the mail to and from the Niagara post-office. The nearest 
offices were at Batavia, Niagara, and Erie, Penn. Mr. Granger held the 
office until 18 18, when he was superseded by Julius Guiteau. 

Stephen Bates, of Canandaigua, was contractor in 1801-2-3, f°r carrying 
the mail west once in two weeks. At or before this contract closed, the 
mail route had been extended to Niagara. In 1804, Baker and Seeley 
became contractors, and continued such until Oct. i, 1805, the mail being 
carried once in two weeks by John Metcalf, of Canandaigua, sub-contractor. 
In 1805, Gideon Granger being postmaster-general, the route was extended 


to Buffalo Creek, and an additional $ioo a year was allowed Metcalf, who 
himself, in July of this year, took the contract at the rate of $550 a year, to 
commence the ist of October. By the terms of this contract, he was 
required, in going to Niagara, to transport the mail, once in two weeks, by 
the way of New Amsterdam, [the Holland Company's name for Buffalo ;] 
but in returning omitted Buflfalo, pursuing his old route from Niagara to 
Canandaigua, by the way of Cold Spring and Batavia. The first returns 
from the Buflfalo Creek post-office, made July i, 1805, about 7 months from 
its establishment, showed a balance due the general government of $11.84. 

The first stage from Canandaigua to Buflfalo was run by Metcalf in 1807. 
He applied to the legislature for the exclusive privilege. A committee re- 
ported favorably. The line from Albany running only to Canandaigua, 
travelers were there left, liable to long detention or to imposition in hiring 
carriages to take them on. Hence the committee concluded " that the 
prayer of the petitioner be granted," and reported a bill which was passed 
without opposition, in April, 1807. All other persons were prohibited from 
running carriages for hire, under a penalty of $500. Metcalf was to keep 
three wagons and three stage sleighs, and the requisite number of horses. 
The fare was not to exceed 6 cents a mile for a passage and 14 pounds of 
baggage; and every additional 150 pounds weight of baggage was to be 
charged 6 cents a mile, or in that proportion. 

The stages were to run regularly on stated days ; and from the 1st day of 
July to the ist day of October, the rpute was to be performed at least once 
a week, except in cases of unavoidable accidents. Only seven passengers 
were to be taken in a stage at one time, unless by their unanimous consent. 
If a greater number applied, an extra carriage for four passengers was to be 
sent. The stages then run from Albany to Canandaigua twice a week ; and 
the distance was made from place to place in four days. 

The post-oflSce at Erie was established about the year 1798, at the termi- 
nation of a two weeks' mail route from Pittsburgh to Erie. The quarterly 
returns for April, 1805, showed a balance due the general government of 

Previous to 1806, the few settlers in Chautauqua county were dependent 
for mail facilities on the post-offices at Erie and Buflfalo. In 1805, a post 
route was established between the Buflfalo Creek and Erie, then called 
Presque Isle, [pronounced in French, Presk Ele,'\ John Metcalf being con- 
tractor ; the mail to be carried once in two weeks, and to commence in the 
forepart of 1806. The mail, it is said, was carried by a footman, at first, in 
a pocket handkerchief, afterwards in a hand mail-bag. The first post-office 
in Chautauqua county was established May 6, 1806, in the present town of 
Westfield ; James McMahan, postmaster; the name of the office, Chautauqua. 
It was kept on the west side of the creek, at the old Cross Roads. Col. 
McMahan held the office until 1818, when it was removed to the east side 
of the creek, and Fenn Demming was appointed postmaster. 

The second post-office in the county was the Canadaway post-office. 


established June 18, 1706, near the center of the present town of Sheridan, 
about 4 miles east of Fredonia; postmaster, Orsamus Holmes, a soldier of 
the Revolution, and a pioneer settler of the county. The town of Chau- 
tauqua, in the county of Genesee, then composed all the territory subse- 
quently constituting the present county of Chautauqua, except the towns in 
range 10, which were annexed in the formation of the county in 1804. For 
some years, these two were the only post-offices in the county ; and this mail 
route was the only one in the county for about ten years. From Oct. r, 1807, 
to Oct. I, 1809, on contract with Edward Fetherly, postmaster at Jefferson, 
Ohio, the mail was carried on horseback from Erie to New Amsterdam, 
[Buffalo,] once in two weeks, for $140 per annum. 

The third post-office in the county was the Pomfret office, established May 
6, 1809, where Fredonia now is, then called Canadaway; Samuel Berry, 
postmaster. Previously to the organization of Pomfret, in 1808, embracing 
ranges 10 and 11, and two townships of range 12, an indefinite portion of 
the county about the Canadaway village and post-office was, in 181 7, 
changed to Fredonia. 

Jacob Houghton, an early lawyer from Rensselaer county, was appointed 
postmaster of Pomfret, August 19, 18 13. Having removed to Mayville, he 
was succeeded, in 18 16, by Mosely W. Abell, from Buffalo in 18 14. The 
office was kept in the inn of Mosely W. and Thomas G. Abell, on the pres- 
ent site of the Taylor House. This became one of the principal stage-houses 
between Buffalo and Erie. The balance due the general post-office for the 
first quarter of this year, [April i, 1817,] was $68.37, at that time the largest 
amount returned from any office in the county. The names of those who 
have since held the office are Orrin McCluer, (six years,) Charles J. Orton, 
son of Judge Philo Orton, John Z. Saxton, Ebenezer A. Lester, Daniel 
Douglas, Levi L. Pratt, editor and printer, June i, 1849; O. W. Johnson, 
July 20, 1853; Lorenzo Morris, May 15, 1855; Charles J. Orton, April 17, 
1861 ; Willard McKinstry, printer, July i, 1862 ; Melvin H. Taylor, 1871. 

John Gray, postmaster, of Erie, contracted to carry the mail on horse- 
back, once in two weeks, from Buffalo to Cleveland, from October, 181 1, to 
December, 1814, for $950 a year. [Postmasters were not then, as now, 
prohibited from being contractors.] 

By an act of Congress, the postmaster-general was required to furnish mail 
facilities to the seat of justice in every county. Chautauqua county having 
become fully organized in 18 11, Mayville became entitled to a post-office, which 
was established July 1,1812, and Casper Rouse, who transported the mail to and 
from Chautauqua, [old Cross Roads,] for a number of years, for the emoluments 
of the office, was appointed postmaster. Mr. Rouse died December 25, 
1 81 2, less than six months from the date of his appointment. Anselm Pot- 
ter was appointed to succeed Mr. Rouse, but declining the office, Charles B. 
Rouse was appointed, February 12, 1813. The office has since been held 
by George McGonagle, appointed November i, 1816; Jedediah Tracy, May 
29, 1819; Jesse Brooks, July i, 1834; Russell Sackett, 1841 ; Col. E. W. 


Taylor, in 1845; Stephen A. Beavis, in 1849; Jesse Brooks, in 1853; 
Waite J. Stevens, 1866; Egbert Denton, 1867. 

For six years prior to the ist of January, 1817, nearly the entire popula- 
tion of the county south of " the ridge," received and sent their mail matter 
at the Mayville post-office, some of the inhabitants residing at a distance of 
thirty miles. People from every neighborhood frequently visiting the land- 
office, attending courts, and transacting business, the settlers had frequent 
opportunities of sending for their letters and papers. Many letters from 
their friends at the East, were brought by immigrants. 

Cattaraugus post-office, at the ferry across Cattaraugus creek, on the 
Buffalo and Erie road, was established, June i, 181 2, Foster Young, post- 
master. He was succeeded by John Mack, innkeeper, July 28, 1814. 
[Office discontinued December 4, rSiy.] 

Burgettstown post-office was established at the site of the present village 
of North-east, Pa., in May, 181 2, Andrew Stevenson, postmaster. Balance 
due the general post-office the first quarter, $3.20. 

When, after war was declared against England, it became necessary to 
send dispatches through the country with greater rapidity, the mail between 
Albany and Buffalo was required to be carried at the rate of too miles in 
twenty-four hours ; and the postmaster at Buffalo was directed to dispatch 
an express mail, twice a week, from Buffalo to Cleveland, " to go and return 
as soon as the roads would permit." Iil 1813, the government established an 
express by riders on horseback, by way of Carlisle and Williamsport, Pa., 
and Bath and Dansville, N. Y., to Buffalo, " to pass over the route in four 
days and eighteen hours." The term " express," applied to anything moving 
at this rate at the present day, would sound very strange. 

Richard Williams, a pioneer settler and innkeeper of Portland, was a sub- 
contractor, under Gray, to carry the mail from Buffalo to Erie on horseback. 
This service was mostly performed by his son, Abner Williams, until Com. 
Perry's fleet sailed from Erie to attack the British fleet on the lake, when 
young Williams volunteered on board the Lawrence, and was killed in the 
action on the loth of September, 1813. Richard Williams, while carrying 
the mail, once arrived with it from Erie, sick. His wife, Sophia Williams, 
took the mail, and set out on horseback for Buffalo. It was in the 
time of the spring freshet when the streams were swollen far beyond their 
usual limits. She swam her horse across the Cattaraugus, the Eighteen 
Mile, and the Buffalo creeks, holding the mail above the water, and delivered 
it at Buffalo in time. She also occasionally rode the mail horse between 
Buffalo and Erie when her husband and the sons were hurried on the farm. 
In 18 14, Richard Williams contracted to carry the mail from Buffalo to Erie, 
by the way of Mayville, on horseback, once a week, for $650 a year, from 
January i, 181 5, to January i, 181 8. In 1816 was established a mail route 
from Meadville, Pa., by way of the forks of Oil creek, Warren, and the out- 
let of Chautauqua lake, to Mayville, once a week, on horseback, for three 
years, at $420 a year. 


Jamestown post-office was established December 13, 18 16, and Judge 
James Prendergast, a pioneer settler, appointed postmaster. The office was 
kept in the store of J. & M. Prendergast, the first store erected in the 
village, at the north-west comer of Main and First streets, since occupied by 
the building of Dascum Allen. The balance due the general post-office at 
the end of the first quarter, April 1, 1817, $5.54. Judge Prendergast was 
succeeded by Dr. Laban Hazeltine, October 24, 1824, who was succeeded, 
June 13, 1829, by Elial T. Foote, the first settled physician in Jamestown, 
who held the office twelve years, and who was the first postmaster in the 
county that introduced letter-boxes for individuals, commencing with eighty 
boxes in 1829. No rent was charged for the boxes during his official term, 
and for several years after. He also used the first engraved letter stamps in 
the county. Alvin Plumb, an early merchant of Jamestown, was appointed, 
June 8, 1 84 1. Having been elected county clerk, he resigned, and was suc- 
ceeded by Joseph Kenyon, December 5, 1843. He was a druggist at James- 
town, and an early pioneer in Sheridan. He was succeeded by Franklin H. 
Wait, October 4, 1844; Eliphalet L. Tinker, an early settler and merchant 
in Westfield, was appointed October i, 1848 ; Smith Seymour, July i, 1849; 
Rufus Pier, a hatter and an early resident, July i, 1853 ; Charles L. Harris, 
July I, 1858; Robert V. Cunningham, July 10, 1861 ; Abner Hazeltine, Jr., 
1866; John T. Wilson, 1867; A. Hazeltine, Jr., 1868; Henry J. Yates, 
1871, (perhaps earher ;) Alex. M. Clark, 1874. 

Hanover post-office was established in the town of Hanover, at a place 
afterwards called Kensington, in the present town of Sheridan, on the Buf- 
falo and Erie mail route, about 5 miles from Silver Creek, and 3 miles firom 
Forestville, Dec. 7, 1816, and Wm. Holbrook, an early merchant, appointed 
postmaster. Having resigned and removed to Walnut Creek, now Forest- 
ville, Asa Pierce, an early settler, was appointed in 1822. He, with the aid 
of his neighbors, procured a change of the name of the office to Kensington, 
the name of the intended village at that place. Mr. P. was for many years 
an innkeeper in different parts of the county, and died at Fredonia in 1844, 
aged 63 years. 

In 1823, a post route was established from Perry, Genesee county, through 
Perrysburg, Nashville, and Forestville to Fredonia, the mail to be carried on 
horseback, once in two weeks. A post-office named Hanover, was estab- 
lished at Forestville, May 15, 1823, Albert H. Camp, postmaster. Unfor- 
tunately for the inhabitants around Kensington, the name of Hanover drew 
to Forestville nearly all the mail designed for them ; and the name of Han- 
over post-office was changed to Forestville, Oct. 15, 1823. On the 2 2d of 
March, 1824, it was again changed to Hanover; and in 1853 it again took 
the present name of Forestville. Amount due the general post-office for the 
quarter ending July i, 1823, $5.73 ; for the quarter ending July i, 1825, 
$17.97. For several years a mail was carried, by consent of the postmaster- 
general, between Forestville and Kensington, as often as the mail passed on 
the Erie road. Mr. Camp having resigned the office, Wm. S. Snow, a printer. 


and son of Seth Snow, a pioneer from Massachusetts, was appointed. The 
names of those who have since held the office, are Ernest Mullett, John 
Morrison, Ira A. Torrey, Nedebiah Angell, Benajah Tubbs, James H. Phelps, 
B. Tubbs, (2d appointment,) Orrin Morrison, Cyrus D. Angell, Horace 
Burgess, Walter G. Griswold. Present postmaster, Horace Burgess. 

The mail contract from Meadville was renewed in 181 9, the mail to be 
carried weekly on horseback, by way of Forks of Oil Creek, Brokenstraw, 
Youngsville, Warren, Fairbank, and Jamestown ; and to this route was added 
the route between Mayville and Westfield, which had been included in the 
Buffalo and Erie contract 

In 1823, Capt. Gilbert Ballard started a stage- wagon ' running once a week 
on the east side of the lake from Jamestown to Mayville, going and return- 
ing the same day. In 1824, the weekly was changed to a tri- weekly route; 
and the mail was carried three times a week, the postmaster-general allowing 
$200 for the service. Subsequently the line became a daily mail stage line 
of post-coaches, rurming alternately on the east and west side of the lake. 
And later, the mail was carried on the lake by steamboats in the summer. 

Dunkirk post-office was established as a private office, in February, 18 18, 
Elisha Doty, postmaster, who received the avails of the office for the trans- 
mission of the mail to and from Fredonia. There have been since appointed. 
Dr. Ezra Williams, a pioneer physician from Oneida county, June 3, 1822 ; 
Adam Fink, Dec. 16, 1833 ; Wm. L. Carpenter, a publisher of the Dunkirk 
Beacon, in 1841 ; Lysander B. Brown, a lawyer, in 1844; George B. Stock- 
ton, in 1852; Patrick Barrett, in 1856, who died in the war in 1862; 
Richard L. Cary, in April, 1861 ; Sidney L. Wilson, 1867 ; Lee L. Hyde, 1871. 

Westfield post-office was established June 15, 1818, Fenn Demming, post- 
master, virtually superseding the old Chautauqua office, the first in the county. 
Demming had been a surgeon in the war of 181 2, and opened the first drug 
store in Westfield. Orvis Nichols was appointed in February, 1833 ; Calvin 
Rumsey in 1840; Wm. Sexton a few months later, and in' 1843 superseded 
by Orvis Nichols, who was in turn superseded by Mr. Sexton. In 1853, 
Hiram W. Beers, a Methodist minister, was appointed, and in about a year was 
succeeded by Dr. Marcellus Kenyon. David Mann, a former district-attor- 
ney, was appointed in 1855 ; Byron Hall in 1861 ; Fred. C. Barger, 1865 ; 
Wm. K Wheeler, 1867 ; Clara U. Drake, 187 1. 

Portland post-office was established December 7, 1818, Calvin Bams, post- 
master. He was a pioneer settler, a soldier of the Revolution and in the war 
of 1812, and was wounded at the battle of Buffalo, December, 1813. The 
office was then at his farm, afterwards owned by Hiram and Joshua West, 
about six miles east of Westfield. The town then extended west to Chau- 
tauqua creek. The present Portland post-office is on the Erie road, i J^ 
miles west from Brocton. 

Elijah Blaisdell carried the mail on contract from Buffalo to Erie, by way 
of Mayville, at the rate of $736 a year, for three years from January i, 1818. 
The route was finally extended from Buffalo to Lewiston, for the additional 


sum of $150. Blaisdell having made a default in the fulfillment of his con- 
tract, Richard Williams, innkeeper, of Portland, was employed to cany the 
mail from Buffalo, by way of Mayville, to Erie. 

In 1820, Col. Nathaniel Bird, a soldier of the Revolution, who settled in 
Westfield in 1815, contracted to carry the mail once a week, on horseback, 
from Buffalo to Erie, not by way of Ma)^le, from January i, 1821. The 
people of Mayville bfeing dissatisfied, Mayville was restored to its place in 
the route; and the carrier was allowed $50 additional compensation. Col. 
Bird commenced the running of mail stages on this route. The weekly 
stages were a great accommodation to the public; but the road, for miles 
east of Cattaraugus creek, was for many years' extremely bad — sometimes 
almost impassable, except when frozen — and passengers were often compelled 
to go on foot. The stages were ordinary two-horse wagons, with canvas 
covering, and seats on wooden springs along the inside of the box, with 
cushions and low backs. To carry the mail through in the stipulated time, 
it became necessary at times to forward it on horseback. There was no 
bridge on the stage route over the Buffalo, Eighteen Mile, or Cattaraugus 
creek. The " four-mile woods," Cattaraugus creek, and Cash's tavern in the 
present town of Brant, were the dread of all travelers in carriages. Many a 
traveler with a team has been compelled to employ a man with a yoke of 
oxen to assist in dragging the wagon through the mud, the women and 
children walking over the road. 

At the commencement of 1823, Col. Bird, associated with a Mr. Marvin, 
of Buffalo, commenced running his stage-wagons twice a week ; the postmas- 
ter-general having added $200 to his compensation, making it $750 for trans- 
portation of the semi-weekly mail. By the exertions of Col. Bird, the erection 
of toll bridges over the Buffalo, Eighteen Mile, and Cattaraugus creeks was 

In 1824, Col. Bird associated with him his son, Ira R. Biid, of Westfield, 
and others, and in 1826 commenced running a daily stage, post-coaches being 
run on portions of the route. An opposition line, called the Buffalo and 
Erie Union Line, was put on this road by Walter Smith and others. In 
February, 1825, the toll bridge over Eighteen Mile creek fell a few minutes 
after the mail stage had crossed it. 

In May, 1826, the Union Stage Company, of which Alanson Holmes was 
agent, established a tri-weekly line of stages between Buffalo and Erie, by 
way of Hamburgh, Eden, Collins, Lodi, (now Gowanda,) Perry sburgh, For- 
estville and Fredonia, to Erie. Fare $3, and four cents a mile for way 

In February, 1826, Obed Edson and Harry Eaton established a semi- 
weekly line of stages between Fredonia and Jamestown, which they soon 
extended to Dunkirk and Warren, Pa. Capt Ballard soon after commenced 
running his stages between Jamestown and Ma)rville, except Sundays, making 
a daily line between Jamestown and Westfield. 

Post-coaches were first run regularly on the entire route between Buffalo 



Jaod Erie, with tlife d^r mail;.f«afly ip 1829, by llufus S. Reed, of Erie, 
Thomas G. Abell, of Fi^donu^ a»i4j5ela t). Coe, of Buffalo. Col. Bird sold 
out his interest in the stages 9%^ thfi tinpiej having peached the age of 16. 
He died in Hi|mi»uirgh, N. Y., in 1847, dged 84. 

lo the spria^of tSifi an agrahgenSSi^ was ^aide between the proprietors 
oC the '^Pioneer'' st^mb^ hmniiog feom;^u&lip to &ie and those of tk^ 
4^y stages, 1>y whu^,&^^^o;^e^'jf^' ^^!(^fi^^fa^!i^gep to and from Buffalo 
and Dimlarky.,ni^i^{|;t^^Pf:KeBG^^^I^}(W^^%^ Passengers would 

tj^en leave by ^e, ^jeinw^l^^^0ip^afftHit^ b{^<l K^^ between Buffalo and 
GattaAiu^ and.gji/i^^sl^^^^ll^ 

: .'hK' ■■■' i-r ' %:■ '■■■'■ '■ 


^oli<;y of, the ,^oH-and land, company. 

V;. VifLick OF Land, and Terms of Sale. 

The pqlicy.ot tlMt I^pUaxidr Cpiupany in the disposal of their lands, and 
the effects pf tbftt pplicy upoii the interests of the Company and of the set- 
tlers respeeti3((dy< b?kve been a thenie of frequent discussion. Although 
nearly forty yeai^ b^ve elapsed since the relation between the Company and 
the settles. cdSjfC^^ yet, as ap important item of past histoiy^the subjejCt is 
entitled t6 a notfce in this work. ? ..;. 

The prpe pakJ"foK this, Jands, by the. Company, we are infcJrpaedt was«32 
cents ,pe^^e.>/J>^ P#^' at wWpb the early ssde? were,m«de,waS about 
$a^be»^<viU^ B#)«&,Qr l^^b)^, tjbe locadon and the quantity sold. The 
books ^ li^j^qj^pswgr i^f^Hfj^e pjipa>,in thisy CQUOty to. haiise been about 
$2.5qan acf(k,i;if3Bb||»,'R|i^^ajtet,de4wSiig the eoaS q£ swrey% |tod the ex- 
penses of the l$||^t<<^^60^i,$0ttld seem to have left to the Company a large 
profit. Yet th^opi|^q^^^^^4)^^^f>'^«vai]e4»i,^t»t,!B^ s^9 at what is 
usually .termed the > g^^«i^8WS|ai^^ii|5*/4?^ better for the 

Company. . -'■'"v'ir^^^jpftA • ■' "','*• ■ "'' 

It hfes often been remarked, th&t By nolding the lands .at the high credit 
prices, eastern emigrants hav|(ig money were attracted to the Western state% 
across the Hollan^ .P-aJs^jw^to get' c^eap'laftte^tlms retarding the settle- 
meM^ the Furc^m^^i^)|iavii>8tits lan(i^ t^oe ikcupied by the poorer 
class^f emigran^'!\6i}t,)m^^. are pqt aware that the price of the public 
land^at the tfaag ''^^gll' ^^^^^"^ <^l&^^ ^ c^^ppieoced theic^ales, was 

ab<ilit.,!|be%m*«8W Pjf^l^^^fc;^?^''^ ^^'^I^P*?''^f ^^^ common; price 
of gov|^mefi%Hlands ii^ilP^^WPfts ^*$a/ 'A^^t^^ enter a 

quarter-secti|to,;^§o a^(||r,JKjf."pajfeg dowp $80 ; the remainder to bfc paid 
in sums of $80 yearlji. " If tl^eV^ole were not paid in five years, the claim 
was forfeited. The lai^^ was i*t Uable to taxation before tWl&piration of 
five years. As Congress sold to no person less than a quarter-section, poor 
men joined in the purchase, and divided H^ land. During the period of 
general depression and bank suspensions that succeeded the war of 1812, 

"C y^t^^ 


many were unable to make further payments, and forfeited their lands. But 
for the relief of such, Congress passed an act making the certificate of en- 
trance receivable on the land it covered. By a later act, the price was 
reduced to $1.25 per acre, cash. Another act allowed the division of quarter- 
sections into lots of 80 acres ; so that, with a certificate of the payment of 
$80, and $20 in cash, a person could buy 80 acres. Still some, unable to 
raise the $20, lost their lands. It appears, therefore, that, not until several 
years after the war of 1812, which closed in 1815, did emigrants find more 
favorable terms of purchase in the Western states. 

The books of the Holland Company show remarkably slow progress of 
payment by purchasers of lands. A large portion of them must have for- 
feited their claims. It appears that, at the' expiration of ten years, those 
who had paid little or nothing, were charged with " increase of purchase 
money," which was a sum added to the sum remaining unpaid. To what 
extent this was done in this county does not appear, as many of the older 
books were destroyed at Mayville by the memorable conflagration at that 
place, in 1836. The increase charged was, in many instances, nearly equal 
to, and in a few even greater than the sum due on the contract. 

For example : In Wyoming county, G. T. J. was charged April i, 1806, 
" To 2tlots, 728 acres, $1,456," being $2 per acre, only $10 having been 
paid down. At the end of 10 years, he was charged "To Increase, $1,648," 
making the sum of $3,104; and the land was bought in parts by six diflfer- 
ent purchasers, who took new articles. Another, whose unpaid balance was 
$615, was charged " To Increase, $642," and articles were given to three new 
purchasers, charged with $1,257. In Chautauqua county, Eleazar Crocker 
was charged, Sept 3, 1808, for land, $225, on which $12 were soon after 
paid, and on the 4th of September, 1818, $157.50 was added as increase 
of purchase money. Jonas Seaman, charged Jan. 13, r8io, for land, $435, 
of which there remained unpaid, $391.25, was charged Jan. 14, 1820, as 
increase, $281.14, and renewed his article for $672.39. In nearly every 
instance, the increase is charged the day next after the ten years had expired. 
In some cases, a smaller increase is charged in less than ten years from the 
date of the contract. 

Some assistance ' was rendered the settlers in making pa)m[ients, by the 
offer of the Company to receive cattle on their contracts. Agents were sent 
once a year to certain towns for that purpose. We find in the Batavia books, 
the first credit for cattle in 1822 or 1823. Cattle were thus received for a 
number of years. We have seen, in the eastern part of the Purchase, a few 
credits for grain ; but the receiving of grain, it is presumed, was never gen- 
eral, at any considerable distance from a good market. An additional stimu- 
lus was given by a notice to those most in arrears, that in case of speedy 
payment, a liberal deduction would be made from the sums due. This was 
the cause of some dissatisfaction to those who had been more prompt in 
their payments, who regarded it as a premium to their slack neighbors for 
their want of punctuality. 


During these times it was that most was heard of the impolicy of the 
plan of the Company for the disposal and settlement of their lands. .Prob- 
ably with the view of inviting immigration, articles were given to settlers on 
the most easy terms — to some, on payment of a sum barely sufficient to pay 
for drawing the contract, which was about one dollar ; and many, doubtless, 
were attracted hither by this easy mode of obtaining possession of land. 
The early settlers were generally poor, having expended nearly the last dollar 
in their removal, and could scarcely have purchased on less accommodating 
terms. Yet some of these, after a short residence and sundry discourage- 
ments, sold out their " improvements " and sought new homes in more favor- 
able localities. Then, too, was so often expressed the opinion that the 
Company would have done better, and the country would have been more 
prosperous, had the low price and cash plan been adopted, as it would have 
brought in a better as well as a more industrious and enterprising class of 
inhabitants. That some persons of the lower class were drawn hither by 
the easy terms offered by the Company is true. But the old inhabitants of 
Chautauqua county still living will agree in saying that its early settlers were 
generally honest, frugal, and industrious, and in point of moral worth, not 
inferior to the population of any other county in the state. 

Condition of the Settlers. 

A recurrence to facts will reveal the true cause of the slow progress of the 
settlers in discharging their obligations to the Company. Most of them were 
comparatively young men from the East, and poor. Wages had been low ; 
and they had laid up little more than enough to buy a team and to defray 
the expense of their removal. They had heavily timbered lands to clear, 
and for a time had no sons able to help, nor the means of hiring help. And 
for the little surplus of the products of their farms, there was for years no 
market beyond the demands of new-comers. War came ; and many were 
obliged to leave their farms and join the army. Some of them served to 
the end of the war — between two and three years. Peace returned ; labor 
was again thrown upon the land ; and within a few years there was a large 
surplus which scarcely compensated for raising it. The price of wheat in 
Rochester, then the nearest and best cash market in the western part of the 
state, was 2S. 6d. to 3s. per bushel, which would hardly pay for its transpor- 
tation in that time of bad roads. Occasionally a load was taken to Albany 
by teamsters going after goods for the merchants. At home, a bushel was 
given for a pound of tobacco, or a yard of brown cotton cloth. 

In providing means for prosecuting the war, double duties were laid upon 
imports, which duties were to continue during the war, and for a year after 
its close. These duties checked importations and encouraged home manu- 
factures. Many manufactories sprang into being. The period of high duties 
expired in the winter of 1816. Commercial intercourse with Great Britain 
was resumed, and the country was again flooded with British goods. Our 
manufactures were prostrated. The country was drained of its money to 


pay for foreign goods ; specie payments were suspended ; and bank bills 
depreciated to 70 or 80 per cent, below par, and in some states to almost 
nothing. No wonder that the books of the Land Company showed so few 
and so small credits to settlers, nor that so many children went barefoot 
until the first snows had fallen. 

We have elsewhere spoken of the partial relief found within doors from 
the help of the spindle and the shuttle, and from the products of the forest — 
ashes. Thus the struggle continued until the completion of the Erie canal, 
in 1825, which, by opening to our people an accessible market, brought them 
permanent relief. They entered upon a course of prosperity, and many of 
them soon attained a comfortable independence. 

A large portion of the settlers, however, still felt the pressure of their land 
debt. They thought it but just that the Land Company, who had grown 
rich under the laws of the state removing their alien disabilities, and exempt- 
ing them from taxation, should contribute some share toward the expenditures 
of the state government. Application to the legislature was made in 1833, 
for a law to this effect, which was passed in that year. The act was advocated 
by its friends upon the principle, that, if any of our own citizens held the 
same security, as the contracts of these non-resident landholders, such 
securities would be liable to taxation ; that the present value and ultimate 
payment of the debt due the Holland Company were involved in the stability 
of our laws ; and that the construction of the Erie canal, effected by the 
settlers on their lands in connection with other citizens of the state, had 
increased the value of the Company's purchase several millions of dollars, a 
considerable portion of which had been and would be realized by the 

After the passage of this law, the Company, through their local agent, 
served notices on persons having contracts on which payments were due, 
though the contracts had not expired, requiring them to pay, " or satisfac- 
torily arrange,'' the balance due, or quit the premises within two months. 
A citizen commenting' on this notice in a newspaper remarked, that, "if 
every species of personal property owned by the settlers could be sold, the 
money would not half meet the requirements of this summary mandate." The 
issuing of this notice so soon after the passage ot the act, is of itself strong 
presumptive evidence that this sudden change of policy was designed as a 
retaliation to those who had been instrumental in procuring the passage of 
the law. This evidence finds confirmation in the innuendo or threat uttered 
by one in the interest of the Company, while the bill was pending in the 
legislature, that, " it might be worse for the settlers." 

The Company Sell their Lands — Land Office Destroyed. 

It will readily be imagined, that the announcement of this newjiolicy 

produced a stir among the settlers throughout the Purchase ; and their feelings 

found vent, to a great extent, through the newspapers. They advised the 

making of no new contracts while existing contracts were in life, and when 



they did renew, to agree to the payment of no tax but the ordinary land tax 
which they now paid. It was suggested that meetings be held in the several 
towns to consult on measures to be adopted ; that the Company be petitioned 
to rescind the decree, and if this were not done, to petition the legislature. 
They also questioned the power of the Company to enforce the forfeiture 
of a contract until all the stipulated payments were due. 

In the same year or the year following, the Company commenced selling 
out their remaining interest in portions of the Purchase to small companies 
or to individuals. The first sale in this county by the Company, was the sale of 
their interest in the town of Charlotte, to Hinman Holden, of Batavia. In 
November, 1835, the Holland Company made an agreement with Trumbull 
Cary and George W. Lay, of Batavia, to sell to them all their estate, personal 
and real, in this county. This consisted in wild lands, reverted lands, lands 
held under valid contracts, and a few bonds and mortgages on lands sold and 
Tiot conveyed. The purchase money was payable as follows : $50,000 in 
hand, and the residue in four equal installments in six, twelve, eighteen, and 
twenty-four months ; the Company to retain the legal title to the property as 
security, to receive all the moneys collected, and to take in their own name 
and retain all securities by bonds, mortgages, and contracts, which should 
be taken on the sale of the lands and the liquidation of debts. But the local 
agent of the Holland Company was, as far as should be consistent with its 
security, to be governed by the direction of the new [equitable] proprietors. 

The sale, or agreement to sell, having come to the knowledge of the settlers, 
Mr. Peacock, the local agent of the Company, was applied to for informa- 
tion as to the terms and policy adopted, or to be adopted, by the new 
proprietors ; but the applicants received no definite answer. The fact was 
reported to a meeting of settlers, at which a committee was appointed, con- 
sisting of Elial T. Foote, Oliver Lee, Samuel Barrett, Leverett Barker, and 
George T. Camp, who were to visit the new proprietors at Batavia, for the 
information which they failed to obtain at Mayville. 

The following is a copy of the " Genesee Land Tariff" as it was called. 
It was copied by Judge Foote from the one exhibited to the Chautauqua 
committee : 

" In all cases of articles which have expired since the first of January, 1835, 
or which may hereafter expire, a new sale may be made, and new contracts 
may be issued, payable in ten annual installments, with interest annually, on 
the following terms, one-eighth of the purchase money being paid down : 

" I. In all cases where the amount due on the old contract is less than $3 
on the acre, an advance of $1 on the acre to be charged. 

" 2. Where the amount due is over $3 per acre, and less than $5, an 
advance of $1.50 per acre to be charged. 

" 3. Where the amount is over $5 on the acre, and less than $8, $2 per 
acre to be added. 

" 4. .Where there is due over $8 per acre, an advance of $3 per acre to 
be charged. 

" 5. Contracts which have been forfeited in consequence of non-compli- 
ance with the notices, to be considered as expired. 


" 6. Any settler holding under an article expired since January last, may 
be permitted to pay up and take a deed on the payment of per acre. 

" 7. In all cases where the land is worth twice the amount of the purchase 
money, a deed may be given and a mortgage taken on the above terms. 

" 8. Any settler may surrender his article before it expires, and take a new 
contract on the above terms. 

" 9. These terms are for the benefit of actual settlers, and not to be 
extended to those who hold contracts pledged for the payment of debts, or 
who have purchased them for speculation ; but all such persons will be 
required to pay the full value of the land. 

" 10. In case any settler whose article has expired since the first of Jan- 
uary last, or shall hereafter expire, shall neglect to take a new article on the 
above terms, for the space of six months, the said land to be resold for a sum 
not less than wild land. 

"11. No advance to be charged upon lands held by widows and orphan 

"12. No wild land, or other land not heretofore articled, or any of that 
class of expired articles purchased as wild lands, at $2 per acre, or the lots 
in BaUvia or Buffalo to be sold until the same have been apprized, and a 
price fixed by the proprietors. 

"Dated November, 1835." 

Incensed by what the settlers deemed an unreasonable advance on the 
prices of their lands, arrangements were soon made for a raid upon the land- 
office in Mayville, with a view to the destruction of the books and papers 
belonging to the office. This design was carried into eflfect on the 6th of 
February, 1836. The land-office was demolished ; and most of the books, 
records, maps, mortgages and contracts, were carried off about two miles and 
burned. The mob consisted of about two hundred and fifty men. The 
excitement was not confined to this county. In the spring of 1836, a crowd 
of seven hundred made a descent upon the Holland Company's office at 
Batavia, which, however, was successfully defended by an organized military 
force and citizens, armed from the state arsenal in that village, and two block- 
houses, erected in anticipation of an attack. 

Policy of Mr. Seward. 

William H. Seward had, just before the day fixed for the attack upon the 
Batavia office, been applied to by the new proprietors to assume the agency 
of the estate. He was also to take an interest in the purchase. And sub- 
sequently, Abraham M. Schermerhom, a banker in Rochester, also became 
a partner. In June, 1836, before Mr. Seward had accepted the proposition 
of the proprietors, a convention, held at Mayville, resolved, that the proprie- 
tors be invited to open an office in the county, and pledged themselves that 
the settlers would cheerfully pay the principal and interest accrued upon their 
contracts, but would submit to no extortionate demands, by way of what was 
called the " Genesee Tariff," compound interest, or otherwise. Confiding in 
the intelligence and justice of the people, he was determined by this expres- 
sion to accept the trust proposed. With a view to greater safety, he estab- 
lished his office at Westfield, the citizens of that place having pledged them- 


selves to protect it from mob violence. Rooms were fitted up in the West- 
field House building ; and the business was conducted to the general satis- 
faction of the settlers. A commodious building for a land-office was soon 
erected on North Portage street, and was occupied for this purpose until the 
business of the new Company was closed. 

In 1838, Mr. Seward was nominated for the office of governor. A few 
weeks after, it was insinuated by an anonymous correspondent of a county 
paper, that — 

" The bonds and mortgages of the settlers of Chautauqua county are now 
in Wall street. New York : 

" That some Trust Company has a deed of all the lands of the settlers : 

"That through the agency of Nicholas Biddle and others, William H. 
Seward has raised money in Europe at an interest oi Jive per cent , while he 
demands seven per cent, from you, [the settlers] : 

" And that he and his associates pay interest annually, and extort interest 
from you semi-annually." • 

These accusations, as might be expected during an election campaign, 
were copied into leading papers of the party opposed to Mr. Seward* elec- 
tion, with numerous additional accusations : " having violated his agreement 
with the settlers ; sold their mortgages to soulless corporations, which would 
demand payment the moment they expired;" that their farms "would be 
sold on mortgage for half their value, and Seward, a wealthy and heartless 
speculator by trade, would be the purchaser, and thus rob the poor settlers of 
millions of their hard earnings." 

A few weeks after the publication of these accusations, Mr. Seward 
addressed the citizens of Chautauqua county, through the press of the county, 
defending himself against what he called " misrepresentations of fact and 
injurious inferences." Regarding it as having a legitimate connection with 
the history of the Holland Purchase, and especially that portion which is 
embraced within the bounds of Chautauqua county, a large portion of it is 
here copied as a part of our county history : 

" Compelled by ill health to relinquish my profession, it seemed to me that 
I might, without wrong or injury to you, contribute to restore peace, harmony 
and prosperity in that flourishing region of the state where so much unhappy 
agitation prevailed. . . . Nor did it appear to me morally wrong to 
receive from the purchasers an adequate compensation for my services. The 
compensation tendered, as an equivalent for the not unprofitable pursuits 
which I abandoned, was invested in the purchase. 

" The Holland Company reposed in me the extreme confidence of consti- 
tuting me their agent, although I was a purchaser under them ; and it is due 
to them and to the proprietors to say, that without even the previous formal- 
ity of an agreement in writing, or other instrument than a letter of attorney, 
I went among you to undertake the agency you desired should be estab- 

" It was known to me that the Holland Company insisted upon its pay- 
ments ; and these could only be made by raising a loan in Europe or else- 
where, to meet their demands sooner than they could be collected from you, 
without intolerable oppression. I therefore stipulated with the American 


Trust Company, before commencing my agency, that as soon as the liquida- 
tion of the debts by bonds and mortgages could be effected, and the mone- 
tary affairs of the country would permit, they should advance me their bonds 
for the amount. I secured also an understanding with the Holland Com- 
pany, that they would favor the proprietors and settlers, until I could accom- 
plish this preliminary settlement and security. 

" Thus prepared, I opened an office, and invited the settlers to liquidate 
their debts, and quiet all alarm, as well about the title of their lands, as 
the terms and conditions of their credit, by taking deeds and executing 
bonds and mortgages for the purchase money. In less than eighteen 
months, four thousand persons whom I found occupying lands, chiefly under 
expired and legally forfeited contracts of sale, and excited and embarrassed 
alike by the oppression and uncertainty of ever obtaining titles, and antici- 
pated exactions upon their contracts — ^became freeholders — upon the terms 
at their own option either of payment of their purchase money, or payment 
of a convenient portion thereof, and a credit of five years for the residue.. 

"When the occupant could not pay an advance, and his improvements 
were insufficient to secure his debt, his contract, no matter how long 
expired, was renewed without any payment. It was always, as you well 
know, a principle of my agency, that no man could lose his land by forfeit- 
ure, if he would but agree to pay fox it in five years. There was none so 
poor that he could not secure his "farm and his fireside." I think, too, you 
will recollect, that to the sick and infirm, I invariably sent their papers for 
securing their farms; to the indigent, the money to bear their expenses to 
the land-office ; and since I am arraigned as a ' soulless speculator,' I may 
add, that to the widow, I always made a deduction from the debt of her 
deceased husband. To the common schools I gave lands gratuitously for 
their school-houses. From the time I came first among you to this period, I 
have never refused any indulgence of credit and postponement that was 
asked at my hands. 

" When I found a few persons (as there must necessarily be some) who were 
obstinate in refusing terms generally esteemed so liberal, I appealed to them 
first through the public newspapers, then by letters through the post-office, and 
finally by a message sent directly to their houses. When these efforts failed 
to arrest their attention, and in a few cases legal proceedings or forfeitures 
were necessary, I uniformly conveyed the land upon the same terms as if the 
occupants had earlier complied with the terms which their fellow-citizens 
deemed so reasonable and liberal. 

" Thus contentment was universally diffused among you, when the pressure 
of 1837 fell upon you, and me, and the whole country. Foreseeing many 
cases of emljarrassment, in making payment on your bonds and mortgages 
in that season of scarceness of money, I immediately issued a notice that 
the first payment of principal would be dispensed with if the interest should 
be paid. Having then obtained a definite proposition from the American 
Trust Company, that an advance to the proprietors should be upon a credit 
of ten years, with semi-annual interest, I immediately announced to you the 
welcome and unexpected proposition to extend your bonds and mortgages 
for the same period and upon the same terms. This proposition has been 
generally accepted, and is yet open to all. 

"On the nth of July, 1838, after two years' continued notice that the 
title of the Holland Company would pass from them to the proprietors 
or their trustees, the improved condition of the estate and the returning 


prosperity of the country, enabled me to conclude my arrangement with the 
American Trust Company. That institution advanced to me its bonds for 
the amount owed by you to the proprietors, and by the proprietors to the 
Holland Company; and I paid them over to John Jacob Vanderkemp, agent of 
the Holland Company, at a sacrifice to my associates and myself, in discharge 
of their whole demands. Desirous to secure you against all possible incon- 
venience from this arrangement, it was agreed that the estate should remain 
as before, under my agency ; and the title of the lands, bonds, mortgages 
and contracts, was vested by a deed in myself and two others as trustees, to 
continue the settlement of the estate for the benefit of the proprietors and 
the security of the American Trust Company. This deed was immediately 
placed on record in Chautauqua county. The agreement between the parties 
stipulates that my agency, in person or by my own appointment, shall con- 
tinue three years ; and that payments made by you in Chautauqua county shall 
be credited as soon as paid there. The bonds, mortgages and contracts remain 
tinder this arrangement in the Chautauqua land-office, whence they have never 
been removed. 

" In this transaction the Bank of the United States has had this agency : 
the general agent of the Holland Company has always kept his accounts and 
deposits with that institution, and his remittances were made through it. 
The payments from the Chautauqua office, like those of all the other offices 
on that tract, pass through the same institution. It received the bonds of 
the American Trust Company at a discount stipulated by me, arid paid for 
them by a certificate of deposit to Mr. Vanderkemp, payable at six months. 

" From this explanation it appears that your bonds and mortgages are not 
in Wall street, nor in the Bank of the United States, but where you have 
always found them — in the Chautauqua land-office. 

" That no Trust Company, foreign or domestic, has a deed of your lands ; 
but that the title of the lands of the state, and your securities; is vested in 
myself and my associate trustees, citizens of this state, instead of Wilhem 
Willink, Walrave Van Heukelom, and others in Europe : 

" That neither through the agency of Nicholas Biddle, nor otherwise, have 
I borrowed money in Europe or elsewhere, at 5 per cent., and loaned it to 
you at 7 per cent. ; but that instead of demanding from you immediate pay- 
ment of your indebtedness to the Holland Company, I have borrowed the 
money upon your credit and that of the proprietors, and for your benefit and 
ours, upon a term of ten years, at 7 per cent., of which you have the full 
benefit : 

" That the proprietors do not exact semi-annual interest while they pay 
annually ; but that while they pay interest semi-annually, you pay annually 
or semi-annually, at your own option : 

"That your 'farms and firesides' have not been put in jeopardy by me, 
but in just so much as a deed subject to a bond and mortgage, with ten 
years' credit, is a more safe tenure, than an expired and forfeited contract of 
sale, they have been secured to you : 

"And that you have not been delivered over to a ' soulless corporation,' 
but that your afiairs have been arranged so as to secure you against any pos- 
sible extortion or oppression in any quarter ; and your bonds and mortgages 
are more certainly accessible to you for payment than before the arrangement 
was made. 

" I have only to add, what you well recollect, that in all the settlement of 
this estate, no cent of advance upon your farms, or compound interest, or of 


costs upon your debts, has gone into my hands, or those of any other pro- 
prietor. That no man has ever lost an acre of land which he desired or 
asked to retain, with or without money ; no bond, mortgage, or contract, has 
been prosecuted for principal or less than two years' interest; no proceedings 
of foreclosure have ever been instituted when the occupant would pay a sum 
equal to one year's interest; and every forfeiture has been relinquished 
upon an agreement to pay the principal and interest due. 

" To the people of Chautauqua county of all political parties, this state- 
ment is due, for the generous confidence they have reposed in me, and the 
hospitality they have extended to me. It is required, moreover, by a due 
regard for their welfare, since their prosperity must be seriously affected by 
any discontents about their title and security. It is due to the harmony and 
contentment of their firesides. And if it needs other apology, it will be 
found in the duty I owe to others ; for, however willing I may be to leave 
my own conduct to the test of time and candor, I can not suffer their 
interests to be put in jeopardy. William H. Sew.\rd. 

"Auburn, Oct. 15, 1838." 

Cherry Valley Company's Purchase. 

In 1828, a sale of unsold lands in the east and south-east towns of the 
county, amounting to about 60,000 acres, was made by the Holland Land 
Company, to James O. Morse, Levi Beardsley, and Alvan Stewart, who were 
known as the " Cherry Valley Company." The following is a list of the 
towns in which the lands were, and the number of acres in each : 

Township i, r. 10, Carroll, 9,619 acres. Tp. 2, Poland, 5,398 acres. Tp. 
3, Ellington, 1,015 acres. Tp. 4, Cherry Creek, 9,092 acres. Tp. 5, 
Villenova, 5,246 acres. Tp. 6, Hanover, 3,273, besides Cattaraugus Village, 
1,588 — in all, 4,861 acres. Range 11, tp. i, Kiantone and Busti, 2.824 acres. 
Tp. 2, EUicott, 4,169 acres. Tp. 4, Charlotte, 6,218 acres. Tp. 5, Ark- 
wright, 5,066 acres. Tp. 6, Sheridan, 747 acres. Range 12, Busti and 
Harmony, 5,857 acres. — Total, 60,112 acres. 


Gilbert Motier, Marquis de La Fayette, was bom in France, Sept. 
6, 1757, and was married at the early age of sixteen years. Though posses- 
sed of an immense estate, he adopted the profession of a soldier, and, at 
the age of nineteen, was stationed as captain of dragoons at one of the gar- 
risoned towns of France. Having heard of the revolt of the American 
colonies, and of the subsequent declaration of independence, and sympa- 
thizing with the colonists, he determined to take part in the struggle, and 
offered his services to Ccftigress. The rank of major-general was promised 
him by the American commissioner at Paris. 

News having been received of the disastrous campaign of 1776, he was 
advised to abandon his intention. His wife is said to have exhorted him to 


persevere. He resolved to purchase a vessel, to freight it with supplies, and 
to set sail for America. His purpose having been discovered, a royal order 
was issued to detain him ; but making his escape to Spain with De Kalb and 
others, he succeeded in embarking in his vessel from that kingdom. After a 
protracted and stormy passage, he landed at Georgetown, S. C, hastened to 
Philadelphia, and presented his recommendations to Congress. He was 
answered, that, in consequence of so many applications having been received, 
there was doubt of his obtaining a commission. Determined to aid the 
struggling colonists, he offered his services as a volunteer, and without pay. 
His letters were examined, and he was tendered a commission as major- 
general. He was wounded at the battle of Brandywine, and debarred for a 
time from active service. 

In 1788, France declared war against England, and formed an alliance 
with the United States. His own country now having need of his services, 
he obtained leave of absence. * Complimentary resolutions, and a beauti- 
fully ornamented sword, were voted by Congress. He was received by his 
countrymen with great enthusiasm. 

After an absence of fifteen months, he returned with the assistance of 
money and a Frefich fleet bringing Rochambeau and 6,000 soldiers, and 
rejoined Washington. He again took an active part in the war, and distin- 
guished himself by his successful conduct of the campaign against Cornwallis 
at Yorktown. He again returned to France, and procured additional assist- 
ance^6o vessels and 24,000 men, and money. Soon after arrival, tidings of 
peace were received. 

In 1784, at the invitation of Washington, he again revisited the United 
States. He arrived in August and departed in December, Congress taking 
a formal leave of him. In 1824, he visited this country for the last time. 
He landed at New York in August, and took a tour through the United 
States, going west to the Mississippi, and returning through the Northern 
states. The highest honors were everywhere paid him ; and he was received 
with an enthusiasm seldom if ever equaled. So liberally did he share in the 
cordial greetings and the hospitalities of the people on his tour of several 
months, that he was everywhere hailed as " The Nation's Guest." In two 
towns in our county, thousands of our citizens were favored with an oppor- 
tunity of testifying their gratitude for his particular services in the nation's 
struggle for independence. 

Reception at Westfield. 

In anticipation of the arrival of the illustrious guest of the nation into our 
state from Pennsylvania, a number of gentlemen assembled at Westfield, June 
2, 1825, on the evening previous to his expected arrival, to make arrange- 
ments for his reception into the state, and to escort and welcome him to that 
village. A committee of arrangements was appointed, consisting of the fol- 
lowing named persons: Jonathan Cass, Joseph Farnsworth, Henry .^bell, 
Oliver Lee, Joshua R. Babcock, Fenn Demming, Eliphalet L. Tinker, Silas 


Spencer, Thomas B. Campbell, Lemon Averill, John Dexter, Ebenezer P. 
Upham, Wm. Peacock, Thomas A. Osborne. 

A superb carriage, owned by the Hon. Wm. Peacock, was furnished for 
the conveyance of the General from the state line to Westfield. Messrs. T. 
B. Campbell, Silas Spencer, Ebenezer P. Upham and Fenn Demming, of the 
committee, proceeded to the state line. On his arrival and introduction, he 
was presented by T. B. Campbell, Esq., in behalf of the committee, with the 
following address : 

" General La Fayette : With hearts full of gratitude for services ren- 
dered our country, we, as a committee, in behalf of the citizens of Westfield, 
have come to meet you and welcome your return to the state of New York. 

" We assure you, General, that the same grateful feelings which have been 
so unanimously expressed to you by the people of this republic, influence 
and animate the citizens of this part of our state ; and although unable to 
receive you i^ith the splendor which accompanied your reception on landing 
upon our shores, yet we do receive you with no less affectionate and grateful 

To which the General replied : 

" I am fully sensible of the kindness and affection thus expressed to me 
by the people of this part of your state ; and I assure you, sir, it affords me 
much pleasure to take you by the hand and return you, and, through you, the 
citizens of Westfield, my hearty thanks for the respectful manner in which 
they have been pleased to communicate their feelings towards me. I am 
very happy to find myself again in the patriotic state of New York. Accept, 
sir, for yourself and the other gentlemen of the committee, the assurance of 
my best wishes for your health and happiness." 

From the state line the General was escorted by a large number of gentle- 
men on horseback, collected from Ellery, Chautauqua, Portland and Ripley. 
At Westfield, the military had been under arms throughout the day to receive 
him. An immense concourse of citizens fi-om the neighboring towns was 
likewise awaiting, with intense anxiety, the signals of his approach. At a 
little after sunset, on Friday evening, the signal guns announced the joyful 
tidings of the veteran's arrival. The public houses were illuminated in front, 
and a bonfire- was kindled upon the public square, which added much to the 
grandeur of the scene. The General was then received amidst the discharge 
of cannon. The appearance of the military, particularly the company of 
Light Infantry commanded by Capt. Towle, did honor to themselves and the 

The General, on being introduced into the room provided for the occasion, 
was presented by Mr. Campbell to the other gentlemen of the committee 
there assembled, when Mr. Osborne, in their behalf, delivered the following 
address : 

" General : Permit our feeble notes of congratulating welcome to swell 
the general anthem of the American nation. Taught fi-om infancy to lisp 
the venerated name of La Fayette, which now trembles upon our tongue 
with gratitude and joy, we greet thee as the champion of freedom, the friend 
of Washington, of our country and her institutions, and the benefactor of 


mankind. While the burst of grateful acclamation which hailed your land- 
ing upon our shores has been borne on the tide of grateful hearts, until the 
remotest parts of the Union have vibrated with its influence, we of Western 
New York have cause for deep and peculiar emotions. , 

" At the period of your valuable labors for the establishment of our repub- 
lic, the spot upon which you stand was only tenanted by the howling inhab- 
itants of the wilderness. Until a long subsequent period, our country was 
without a name and without a population. Now, within its borders the hearts 
of more than twenty thousand freemen beat your welcome. It is to you 
whom we now address, that, more than to any other, this important change 
is to be attributed. The counsels of your wisdom were felt in the cabinet, 
and your youthful arm lent vigor to their execution in the field. Animated 
by your spirit and fired by your example, your king and your country stepped 
forth in the cause of liberty and man, and forever sealed the fate of tyranny 
in this western hemisphere. The life-giving energies of the triumph of liberty 
were felt in the rapid increase of population and settlement. Had a state of 
colonial servitude and dependence continued, your eye would not now have 
witnessed our fields covered with golden grain, waving their undulating shad- 
ows with sportive playfulness in the breeze. Compare, as you traverse the 
mighty Niagara, the colonial and the independent shores, and by their con- 
trast test the influence of liberty on the improvement and settlement of the 
country, and the promotion of the social happiness of man. 

" Finally, General, in behalf of the citizens of the vicinity, we tender to 
you our most cordial congratulations upon your arrival among them, and the 
anxious aspirations of their hearts, that the evening of your days may be as 
tranquil as your life has been constant in the pursuit of freedom. That they 
have enjoyed the felicity of meeting and welcoming you among them, will 
ever be among the most gratifying of their recollections, while the remem- 
brance of the aflfectionate farewell which they must shortly bid you, their 
father and their friend, can not fail to awaken the liveliest sensibilities of their 
natures, and call forth the most poignant grief." 

To ^hich the General replied as follows : 

" Gentlemen : I can not express to you my happiness at the kindness of 
your reception. When, about ten months since, .1 first landed- upon your 
shores, I was received in a manner which can never be forgotten. The 
impression then received has been heightened by every subsequent event. 
Wherever I have been, I have received the kindest welcome. "But it affords 
me peculiar pleasure to be thus received here in Western New York, and to 
witness the astonishing rapidity of its progress in improvement and settle- 
ment. Accept, sirs, my best wishes for your personal happiness, and, 
gentlemen, for the happiness of you all. I am happy to enjoy the interview; 
to see you all assembled ; and sincerely regret that circumstances render it 
necessary that my stay with you should be so short." 

The General was then introduced individually to the ladies and gentlemen 
assembled, and appeared to be, highly gratified with the scene. Among the 
gentlemen introduced were a number of the soldiers of the Revolution. The 
interviews between the General and these companions in arms were cordial 
and affecting. 

He was then presented to the Fredonia delegation, in waiting to escort 
him to that village ; and, after a stay of about two hours, at about ten o'clock 


in the evening, they departed during the discharge of twenty-four rounds 
from the artillery, with every demonstration of gratification on his part, and 
of respect and veneration on the part of the citizens assembled. 

Reception at Fredonia. 

The account of the reception of the " Nation's Guest " at Fredonia was 
published in the Censor, of June 9, 1825, as follows : 

Gen. La Fayette, with his suite, Col. G. W. La Fayette, and Messrs. Le 
Vasseur and De Syon, arrived in this village on Saturday last, [June 4th,] at 
about two o'clock in the morning, on his way to the eastward. He left 
Waterford, Pa., about 7 o'clock on Friday morning, and arrived here — 2l 
distance of 60 miles — ^without making any long stops, traveling in the night. 

His approach was announced by a salute of thirteen guns from Capt. 
Brown's company of artillery, which, with Capt. Whitcomb's rifle rangers 
and detachments of the 169th regiment, were posted on the west hill 
to receive him. When he arrived, the military marched in advance down 
the hill, and halted in front of Abell's hotel, [the present site of the Taylor 
house]. Here the ladies had been collected, and with the military. Revolu- 
tionary soldiers and citizens, formed into two lines extending to the platform 
erected in front of the hotel. The General and suite then alighted, walked 
down the lines, and ascended the platform, followed by the committee of 
arrangements and military officers. The committee, clergy, etc., having been 
introduced, the Rev. David Brown, of the Episcopal church, at the request 
of the committee, thus addressed our distinguished guest : 

" Gen. La Fayette : We rejoice to see you. We greet you welcome to 
our rural hospitalities, and thank you for the great pleasure thus to salute a 
man most high and most dear in the estimation of every American. It pains 
me, sir, to add the least possible degree to your fatigue at this late hour of 
the night, but my fellow-citizens, having appointed me to the honor of 
addressing you, expect from me a passing remark on the motives which 
have prompted the little attentions within our limited powers, dwelling, as 
we do, where shortly since dwelt beasts of the forest. 

" It will suffice to tell how much and for what we admire you ; but, sir, 
our admiration is qualified by a dearer sentiment. We greatly admire your 
character as standing in the front rank of the true and disinterested cham- 
pions of the universal republic, whose citizens comprise all the friends of 
liberty on earth.. We admire the brilliant luster of your early heroism, by 
which you were inspired to rend the strongest ties of nature, and as a disin- 
terested volunteer in the righteous cause of liberty, to burst from the attrac- 
tions of all that was splendid and all that was lovely. In this act of your 
youth, sir, as in many that followed, we behold an eminent illustration of the 
much admired virtue, which enabled a great chief of sacred antiquity to look 
down with indifference on all the splendors and glories of the royal court of 
Egypt, when the cause of freedom and of God called him to the privations 
and dangers of a hostile wilderness. 

" That, at every earthly hazard, through a life devoted to the vindication 
of liberty, you have uniformly asserted the rights of man, we admire you ; 
and we rejoice in an opportunity to acknowledge your undisputed claims to 


the gratitude and admiration of the world. We are almost lost in admira- 
tion, sir, as we look forward to the transcendent eminence that you will here- 
after occupy in the history of all princes and potentates of the earth, how- 
ever shining may have been their career, nay, how great soever their virtues ; 
for, with our own Washington, you have shown that ' a man is greater than 
a monarch.' 

" But it is not so much by our admiration of what is illustrious in the 
character of Gen. La Fayette that we are moved and animated on this occa- 
sion, as by our veneration and love for what is excellent and amiable. Most 
sincerely and deeply do we appreciate the respect and admiration of your 
exalted character ; yet, the sentiment that predominates over even these, if 
not in general estimation more highly honorable, we feel as not less your 
due as our benefactor and friend, nor less worthy ourselves as Americans. 
We love you, sir, as our friend, and our fathers' friend ; we love you and can 
never forsake you. Never can our hearts beat with sentiments becoming 
men and Americans, when .they shall have ceased to glow with filial affec- 
tion for Gen. La Fayette. 

" It would be needless to speak of the origin and strength and warmth 
of affection entertained for you by those who took part with you in the 
liberation of our country from a foreign yoke. It may not, however, be 
unpleasing, we hope, to be reminded of the means by which, in the bosoms 
of the generations that have since come on the stage of life, this sentiment 
has been implanted and made to grow with our growth and to strengthen 
with our strength. For almost half a century, sir, your name, associated 
with all that is amiable in the philanthropist, as well as all that is chivalrous 
in the soldier of liberty, has been one of our most favorite ' household 

" When, in your tour through our country, our hearts have followed you 
and witnessed your emotions while embracing your old comrades in arms — 
especially when our sympathies were roused by the sublime and affecting 
scene at the sepulchre of our Washington, the interesting fire-side scenes of 
our early days were again brought home to our bosoms, when our fathers 
and our mothers taught us to venerate — to love the name of La Fayette. I 
have seen and I have felt the tear standing in the eye of childhood, when 
the tale has been told of your youthful disinterestedness, in devoting your 
fortune, your life, and your honor to the cause of our country, and of your 
sufferings and wrongs, and of your unbending virtues that no sufferings nor 
wrongs could subdue. 

"When the fires of persecution assailed you, sir, our hearts were taught 
to bum with indignation, and to shiver at the name of Olmutz, when its 
prison damps were settling on the brow of our hero and friend. God be 
thanked, we trust those scenes of sufferings and wrongs and persecutions will 
no more be renewed. But on this spirit stirring subject I must not dwell. 
In behalf of my beloved fellow-citizens, most cordially do I welcome you, 
where, through the influence of our free institutions, which you yourself, sir, 
so greatly contributed to rear, the wilderness of yesterday is now blossoming 
as the rose. As our country's friend and benefactor, with heartfelt sincerity 
and gratitude do I salute you. May that ever gracious Being, by whom we 
are thus favored, strew the path of your pilgiimage with his richest blessings, 
until, at some far distant day, he may please to receive you to Himself in 
glory everlasting." 

The General grasped the speaker's hand with great emotion, and replied : 


" My Dear Sir : Accept my most sincere thanks for your most affec- 
tionate address. Your allusion to my early visit to America, to my services 
here and to my sufferings since, are very kind, and, as I must frankly con- 
fess, are very gratifying to Aiy feelings. The manner of my reception here, 
my very dear sir, in a place so shortly since a wilderness, as you have said, 
surprises me as much as it pleases me. Surely, I am very much obliged. 
And I beg you, sir, with the committee, who have shown me every kindness, 
to accept my grateful acknowledgments." 

The General, then turning to the military and ladies and citizens, assem- 
bled in front of the bower, addressed them in a warm and animated 
style of thankfulness for their attentions, and especially for awaiting his arri- 
val to so late an hour. * * * " That the ladies, too," to use his own 
affectionate words, "that the ladies, too, should remain up all night to receive 
me, surely it is too much." 

After several introductions, the ladies were presented to him, to whom he 
severally gave his hand, greeting them most affectionately, and giving them 
many compliments for these flattering testimonials of their respect to him. 
The Revolutionary soldiers were next introduced to him. The scene was 
truly interesting. The crowd was so great, that, to afford all an opportunity 
to see him, he took a stand on the front of the platform, where the military 
and citizens passed in review before him. He then sat down to an entertain- 
ment prepared by Mr. Abell with great taste and elegance. 

Day began to dawn when he arose from the table ; and the military, again 
in advance, escorted him to Dunkirk, where, with the committee and several 
military officers from this place, he embarked on board the steam brig Supe- 
rior, which, agreeably to an arrangement, was in readiness to receive him on 
board and convey him to Buffalo. As the yawl was gliding along, a salute of 
twenty-four guns was fired from the steamboat in quick succession, which was 
followed by another salute of twenty-four gims from the artillery on shore, in 
a handsome style. 

Too much praise can not be bestowed upon the military and band of 
music belonging to Col. Abell's regiment — ^all under the command of Col. 
Smith, the marshal of the day — who turned out on so short a notice ; and, 
notwithstanding their fatigue and exhaustion, patiently and soldier-like kept 
on the ground, not only all day but all night, to welcome the " Guest of the 
Nation." It was a pleasure to see Major-General Risley, with a part of his 
staff, and Brigadier-General Barker, contributing, as on all similar occasions, 
greatly to the fine appearance of the military. The entertainment and prep- 
arations made by Mr. Abell were splendid, and got up in a style worthy the 
reception of so distinguished a guest. 

The platform erected in front of the house, set round with green trees 
planted in the ground, overhung with lamps and chandeliers, with an arch in 
front, all beautifully dressed off by the fine taste and decorations of our 
ladies, had an effect at that late hour of the night, and amid the illumina- 
tions of the village, bordering on enchantment. And to crown the imposing 
scene, the eloquent, spirit-stirring address delivered by the Rev. Mr. Brown, 


in a manner preeminently calculated to awaken the ardor of the patriot's 
bosom, had an effect which we are unable adequately to describe. Every 
eye gazed intently, now at the General and now at the orator, with thrilling 
delight. The reply of the General was warm and affectionate, and showed 
that the patriotic flame which burst forth so brilliantly and burned so efful- 
gently in the Revolutionary struggle, had not ceased to glow in his devoted 
bosom at this late period of his life. 

The procession accompanying the General from this place to Dunkirk, 
consisting of the military, and ladies and citizens in carriages and on horse- 
back, extended very nearly a mile. We were highly gratified with the hand- 
some manner of his reception by the Buffalo committee on the pier at 
Dunkirk. The steam brig lay off a mile from shore, and presented a fine 
appearance. Her salute was in a style that would have been creditable to a 
ship of war ; and with the advantage of an echo from our forests, rolling 
back its reverberations on the ears of thousands of spectators, we scarcely 
recollect anything equal to it. 

The morning was clear and tranquil, and everything in Nature seemed to 
have been carefully arranged for the purpose of contributing to the interest 
of the occasion. 


Drinking Customs. 

The use of intoxicating liquors as a beverage by all classes of the commu- 
nity, and the direful consequences of its use, prevailed throughout the coun- 
try. Although the evils of intemperance are still lamentably prevalent, a 
material change in the custom of drinking has been wrought. Good men 
and bad indulged in it. The whisky jug was thought an indispensable help 
in the harvest field, and was ever present at house-raisings, log-rollings, and 
corn-huskings ; nor was the decanter with its exhilarating contents usually 
wanting at social gatherings. A man meeting a friend near a tavern, invited 
him to the bar to " take a drink." A man was deemed wanting in hospitality 
if he did not " treat" his visitors. A traveler stopping at a tavern to warm 
himself, thought it " mean " to leave without patronizing the bar to the 
amount of a sixpence or a shilling. ' The idea had not been conceived, that 
both parties would have been gainers if the money had been paid for the 
fire, and the liquor left in the decanter. Liquor bought by the gallon, and 
even by the barrel, was kept in families for daily use. Seated at the break- 
fast table, the glass was passed round to " give an appetite." Bittered with 
some herb or drug, it was used as a " sovereign remedy " for many of the ail- 
ments " flesh is heir to," and often as a preventive. It was taken because 
the weather was hot, and because it was cold. Liquors being kept in coun- 
try stores, some merchants were wont to treat their customers, especially 


when they made large bills, and sometimes beforehand, to sharpen their 
appetite for trading. Happily most of these customs have become obsolete 
among the better classes of society, and, it is hoped, never to be revived.. 

In nearly every town was a distillery — in some towns a number — where 
fanners exchanged their rye and com for whisky, which was a common arti- 
cle of traffic. Merchants exchanged for it the grain received from their cus- 
tomers, and, after supplying the demand at home, sent the surplus to the 
eastern markets, after the opening of the Erie canal. Having reached its 
destination, a large portion of it was, by some mystic process, suddenly con- 
verted into another article, and, under a different name, bought, perhaps, by 
the same country merchants, to supply their customers with " a pure brandy 
for medicinal purposes.'' 

That drunkenness, and its natural concomitants — poverty, crime, and pre- 
mature death — were the result of the practices we have mentioned, is not 
surprising. The marvel is, that the opinions and habits so long prevalent, 
should have had the sanction of good men. The evils of intemperance be- 
came at length intolerable, and remedial measures began to be suggested and 

Further evidence of the general prevalence of liquors as a beverage among 
all cla.sses, is found in the by-laws adopted by the grand jury of Chautauqua 
county, in June, 1827 — a body of men whose duty it was to indict men for 
crimes, the most of which were committed under the influence of the bever- 
age which was the principal cause of crime, and to the popular use of which 
these inquisitors of crime contributed the weight of their example. The 
subject of by-laws was referred to a committee who reported seven rules, the 
first two of which were as follows : 

" I. That the foreman of the jury pay one bottle of brandy for the honor 
of his seat. 2. That the secretary also pay one bottle." 

The other rules imposed fines of 12)^ cents for the violation of certain 
rules of etiquette, or non-observance of some prescribed formality. And it 
is quite probable that these fines were expended in intoxicating drinks. 

A noticeable specimen of the use and cost of liquor is found in a tavern 
bar-book of Jacob Fenton in Jamestown, in 1817. A glance over its pages 
will convince any person of the mistake of those who think that more liquor 
is drunk now than there was before the organization of temperance societies. 
On page 19, G. G. is charged with 3 half pints whisky, at three different 
times, at 25 cents each, making 75 cents, and supper and lodging, 44 cents. 
Total, $1.19. N. L. is charged 3 milk punches, 25 cents each. E. W. is 
credited on account $2.05, to apply on tavern bills contracted, it is presumed, 
at the above rates. H. B., i gill whisky, 13c. W. M., 2 gills whisky, 25c. 
A Mr. J. M. buys, in one day, 5 gills at i2}4c. each. On the next page 
are charged 11 gills at i2j^c. each, and 2 breakfasts at 37c.; 2 lodgings at 
7c., and a supper, 2sc. Total, $2.44. This man probably had a wife and 
children in town. On another page are 7 half pints whisky at iz^c, and 
I qt. porter, 25c., charged in succession, no charge against another person 


intervening. Here are seen the names of well known business men scat- 
tered through the book. It is readily seen that, in proportion to the capital 
employed, tavern-keeping must have been the most lucrative business at that 
time carried on ; provided, however, that there were no " bad debts." A 
citizen is charged for i gallon and i qt. $2.50 ; from which it appears that 
" landlord " Fenton sold for the same price, pro rata, by wholesale and 

Temperance Reform Measures. 

Where, or how, or when the temperance reform originated, is, perhaps, not 
now known. The first temperance document the writer recollects, was an ad- 
dress by Mr. Kittridge, of New Hampshire, which, if it did not start the reform, 
gave it a powerful impetus ; and the name of the pamphlet, " Kittridge's Ad- 
dress," became, in some parts of the country, as familiar as a household word. 
This was soon followed [in 1826] by "Six Sermons on Intemperance," by Rev. 
Lyman Beecher, of Boston, which also rendered the cause essential service. 
A portion of the newspaper press soon came to its support. Meetings were 
held in all parts of the country. The pledge of abstinence was circulated, 
and was signed by a large number of both sexes, among whom were many 
intemperate persons. Although many of these relapsed, some were effect- 
ually reclaimed. 

For a number of years only spirituous liquors were interdicted by the 
pledge. Complete success, it was believed, required abstinence from intox- 
icating liquors of all kinds ; and the societies soon adopted the principle of 
total abstinence. 

When and where the first temperaiue society was formed, perhaps no person 
knows. The Chautauqua County Temperance Society, auxiliary to the state 
society, was organized in 1829. Pursuant to previous notice, the friends of 
temperance met at the court-house for the purpose of forming a society. In 
a county containing 31,000 inhabitants, only fifteen met for that purpose. 
The number being so small, they repaired to the law office of Anselm Potter, 
and organized by choosing Elial T. Foote, president, and Harvey Newcomb, 
secretary. Among the number assembled were Abner Hazeltine, Hiram 
Couch, and Thomas W. Harvey. This organization, though small in its 
beginning, soon became a respectable and efficient society, sustained by 
auxiliaries in the several towns. 

Like other reformatory movements, the temperance cause had both open 
and negative opponents. Among the latter were respectable men. Some of 
them drank temperately; others, perhaps not at all, but would "not sign 
away their liberty," and manifested their professed regard for their unfortunate 
fellow-men by a " masterly inactivity." In their view, it was well enough for 
drunkards, and those Ukely to become such, to take the pledge ; but for the 
temperate it was not necessary. Among these were at first many members 
of religious societies, whose example furnished the intemperate and the .occa- 
sional drunkard with the most effective shield against the arguments and 


entreaties of the friends of the cause. Happily, many of these, convinced 
of the adverse influence of their example, abandoned their position, and took 
an active part in the reformation. 

About the year 1840, a fresh impulse was given to the temperance cause 
by the efforts of men called Washingtonians. A number of abandoned men 
in the city of Baltimore, who had been wont to spehd their evenings at the 
taverns and other haunts of the vicious and dissipated, resolved to reform, 
and at once became " teetotalers." They traversed a larg€ portion of the 
country, lecturing to large gatherings. Drunkards in large numbers and from 
great distances attended ; and many of them signed the pledge. The most 
noted of this band of reformers was John Hawkins, who, though unlettered, 
was one of the most effective lecturers in the country. Although there was 
nothing in their principles or mode of operation to distinguish them from 
other temperance men, they took the name of " Washingtonians." Their 
efforts resulted in the reformation of many drunkards, who became mission- 
aries, and constituted, for a time, the principal lecturing force of the country. 

It must be confessed, however, that the benefits of this " temperance revi- 
val" which many anticipated, were not fully realized. These reformers came 
to be regarded by many as almost the only efficient champions of the cause, 
while its earliest and ablest advocates were lightly esteemed. Hence these 
were chiefly superseded as lecturers, by reformed inebriates, many of whom, 
though for the time abstaining from the use of intoxicating drinks, were far 
from having attained the character of the true reformer. Often was the pul- 
pit surrendered, on the sabbath, to men whose mirth-provoking stories were 
wholly unbecoming the place and the occasion. It is not strange that some 
who, under such influences, signed the pledge, soon relapsed into their former 
habits. Still, much good was accomplished. Probably about this time, and 
for several years thereafter, less ardent spirits were drank in proportion to our 
population, than at any other time since distilleries were first established. 

The Washingtonian movement was succeeded by other organizations. 
Among the earliest of them was that of the Sons of Temperance, which was for 
several years a popular order of temperance men. But it seems to have been, 
to a considerable extent, superseded by the Good Templars, who have organ- 
izations in most of the towns. These two orders are both secret. Whether 
their efficiency is increased by this feature in their organization, or not, it is 
not easy to determine. 

As incidental to the efforts for the promotion of the temperance reforma- 
tion, came the license question. Notwithstanding the marked progress of the 
cause by the simple instrumentality of the pledge, many, with a view to its 
more rapid advancement, began to mvoke the aid of legislation by the 
enactment of prohibUory laws. Without questioning the propriety of these 
laws, it may be said, with truth, that in proportion as the friends of the cause 
relied on legislation to accomplish the desired reform, their labors in the use 
of the pledge were relaxed. The effect of this relaxation of effort was a 
retrogression of the cause. 


A stringent prohibitory law was passed in Maine. Well authenticated 
official statements soon showed a reduction, in some districts, of more than 
three-fourths of the expense of pauperism and crime. A similar law was tried 
in one or more other states, and with similar results, for short periods of 
time. But the strong opposition which these laws have encountered has 
greatly impaired their efficiency, or effected their repeal. Hence many of 
the friends of temperance advise a return to the old tried and effectual 
method of promoting the cause, not as a substitute for legislation, but as a 
means of reclaiming inebriates, and of preparing public sentiment to sustain 
prohibitory laws if any should be enacted. 

Many different laws for checking the evils of intemperance have been 
enacted in many of the states. In communities in which these laws have 
been enforced, they have had a salutary effect. But they are generally little 
more than a dead letter on the statute book. The evil to be remedied is 
firmly rooted; and its eradication, or even its material mitigation, requires 
unwearied, persevering effort on the part of the friends of temperance. 
Although intemperance may be measurably checked by legislation, more 
may be done hy prevention. Let the young be trained in the principles of 
Christian morality, and be early pledged to total abstinence from all intoxi- 
cating drinks, and a marked improvement in the state of society will soon 


In 1829, Wm. Lloyd Garrison became joint-editor of the Genius of Uni- 
versal Emancipation, an antislavery journal, published in Baltimore, pre- 
viously established, it is believed, by Benjamin Lundy. It had advocated 
the gradual abolition of slavery; but Mr. Garrison distinctly avowed the 
doctrine that immediate emancipation was the right of the slave, and the 
duty of the master. Having, soon after, denounced certain persons engaged 
in the domestic slave-trade, which he stigmatized as " domestic piracy," he 
was tried and convicted for a libel. Unable to pay the penalty, he was sent 
to prison. After a few weeks' confinement, a friend paid the fine, and 
released him. He went to Boston, where, on the ist of January, 1831, he 
issued the first number of the Liberator. Other papers soon followed in 
advocating immediate abolition of slavery ; and antislavery societies began to 
be formed. The American Antislavery Society was formed in 1833. 

The abolitionists believed with their opponents, that slavery in the states 
could only be abolished by their respective governments. Their chief object 
was, by the discussion of the subject, in all its bearings, social, moral, and 
political, to convince slaveholders that it was their duty, and that it would be 
for their interest, to aboUsh slavery. They hoped also, that a general expres- 
sion of northern sentiment against the institution as morally wrong, might 


serve to hasten action on the part of the slave states. And as the power of 
Congress to abohsh slavery in the District of Columbia and the territories of 
the United States, was generally admitted in the North, petitions in vast 
numbers, praying for the exercise of this power, were sent to Congress from 
all the free states. Town and county societies were formed throughout the 
North. This movement alarmed as well as exasperated the southern people ; 
and the excitement soon became general. In the North as well as in the 
South, meetings were held, and resolutions passed, bitterly denouncing the 
abolitionists. Antislavery meetings in many places were broken up by 
violence, and several antislavery presses were demolished. 

These acts of violence were not always the work of men of the "baser 
sort," but were, in many instances, not only instigated hnt perpetrated by men 
of high standing. The men who, in Utica, in 1835, entered a church in 
which the delegates of the New York State Antislavery Society were assem- 
bled, and actually dispersed the occupants of the house by force, were promi- 
nent professional men and other men of high official and social position. A 
respectable minister, a resident of the city, was violently thrown upon the 
floor, his own son, a lawyer, being one of the participators in the shameful 
affray. The governor of the state, in 1836, took part in a meeting in Albany, 
by which the most denunciatory resolutions against the abolitionists were 
passed, and the deepest sympathy was expressed for their "southern 
brethren." . 

An antislavery convention had assembled in a court-house in Western 
New York. A committee of fifty, embracing nearly every man of fair social 
position in the village, having been appointed for the purpose at a public 
meeting, entered the court-house, and read the resolutions adopted at that 
meeting, disapproving the views of the abolitionists, and advising the con- 
vention to disperse, intimating that they might not be permitted to proceed 
peaceably in their deliberations. In the gallery were seated about twenty 
ruffians, who, on signals given by two lawyers and an editor standing below 
and facing the gallery, would, by hissing, stamping, and other noises, inter- 
rupt the proceedings of the convention. After several fruitless attempts to 
proceed to the transaction of business, the meeting was adjourned to a future 
day, and to another part of the county. 

Many now will wonder that the discussion of an evil of such magnitude, 
should not be allowed in a country whose constitution guaranties the right 
oi freedom of speech, even when the subject is liberty itself. It is, however, 
proper to state, that much of this opposition to the antislavery effort arose, 
not firom a regard for slavery, but from a misapprehension of the aims of the 
abolitionists. [For political action on the slavery question, see Political 

A majority of Congress being opposed to the objects of the abolitionists, 
who continued to send in their petitions for the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia, and for prohibiting the slave trade between the states, 
the house resolved that such petitions should, on presentation, be laid on the 


table without being debated, printed, or referred. This action of the house 
rather increased than allayed agitation ; and petitions were daily offered as 
usual^some for the repeal of the " gag resolutions," as they were called. 

But as yet there was no political antislavery party. The abolitionists, 
however, began to vote for candidates in favor of their views without respect 
to party. The subject of a political organization was soon after agitated ; 
and in November, 1839, at a small meeting of abolitionists in Western New 
York, James G. Birney, formerly a slaveholder in Alabama, who had eman- 
cipated his slaves and removed to the North, was nominated for president. 
This party never became numerous. A large majority of the abolitionists 
refused to join it, believing their object was more likely to be effected by 
adhering to the original plan of the societies. 


Chautauqua County Medical Society. 

This society was formed in June, 18 18, in court week. Pursuant to pre- 
vious public notice, a number of physicians and surgeons met at the hall of 
Gen. John McMahan, in Mayville. Dr. E. T. Foote was chosen chairman of 
the meeting, and Dr. Fenn Deming, secretary. Officers of the society were 
elected as follows: President, Elial T. Foote. Vice-President, Samuel Snow. 
Secretary, Treasurer, and Librarian, Fenn Deming. Censors, Orris Crosby, 
John P. M. Whaley, Henry Sargent. The -last three named were also ap- 
pointed as a committee to prepare a code of by-laws for the society, to be 
presented at the next meeting ; and Dr. Foote was appointed a delegate to 
the state society. At the meeting in June, 1819, Dr. Sargent presented a 
code of by-laws prepared by himself, which were adopted. Dr. Jediah 
Prendergast was chosen president for the ensuing year ; Dr. Squire White, 
vice-president; Dr. Ebenezer P. Upham, secretary; Drs. Foote, Crosby, 
and Sargent, censors. Dr. Sargent was appointed to deliver an address at 
the next annual meeting. 

Eclectic Medical Society. 

The first "Reform Medical Society" was organized in Fredonia, in 1844, 
Dr. J. R. "Qvish, president, and M. Hobart, secretary. Under the auspices of 
this society, a course of lectures was given in Fredonia by Prof. Hill, of 
Cincinnati, commencing June, 1847. About twenty students were in attend- 
ance. The last meeting of the society of which a record is obtained, was 
held at Jamestown, in September, 1850. The Eclectic Medical Association of 
Chautauqua County was organized in September, 1856, Dr. O. C. Payne, 
president; A. P. Parsons, M. D., secretary. During nine years, this associa- 
tion held thirty meetings for the transaction of business, and received thirty- 
five members. Their names are as follows : 


O. C. Payne, A. P. Parsons, H. C. Taylor, Joseph Carpenter, John 
Clough, A. Landers, E. H. Thatcher, J. B. Chace, Ezra Mills, Daniel 
Briggs, W. L. Wilbur, David Bradford, Joseph Whitaker, A. S. Davis, Simon 
Bart-is, I. J. Bowen, John Devoe, Joseph Button, Ezra Martin, S. Monroe, 
Z. Kilboum, A. D. Brooks, S. Logan, C. C. Rugg, C. C. Johnson, G. H. 
Bowen, G. L. Whitford, B. Hubbard, A. Jackson, Wm. Bourne, Orrin Gar- 
field, E. Clark, N. F. Marble, S. Brown. 

At a meeting held at Dunkirk, September 15, 1865, a new constitution 
was adopted, in compliance with a request of the state society; and to 
become auxiliary thereto, the name was changed from Association to Soci- 
ety, and is now known as the Eclectic Medical Society of the 32d Senatorial 
District. The officers chosen were : H. C. Taylor, M. D., president ; A. P. 
Parsons, M. D., vice-president; M. M. Fenner, M. D., secretary ; G. L. 
Whitford, treasurer. The foUomng are the names of members: G. H. 
Bowen, A. S. Davis, N. F. Marsh, C. C. Rugg, C. C. Johnson, J. B. Chace, 
A. D. Brooks, N. F. Marble, D. A. Loomis, G. W. Carpenter, James Fenner, 
Phineas Sage, C. W. Babcock, A. Ayers, John Gazley, A. Haynes, J. A. Salis- 
bury, C. D. Thompson, A. H. Bowen, J. Lord, S. J. Bowen, Q. A. Hollis- 
ter, D. C. Storer, W. L. Wilbur, O. H. Simons, M. C. Belknap, J. Phillips, 
A. P. Philhps, A. A. Hubbell, V. A. Ellsworth, A. Jennings, J. J. Lenhart, 
J. R. Borland. 


Agriculture received public encouragement in this state during the first 
term of Gov. De Witt Clinton. In the Chautauqua Eagle., published by 
Robert I. Curtis at Mayville, we find, under date of Jan. 4, 1820, a circular, 
signed by ten prominent '' members of the great republican family," residing 
in the city of New York. They enumerate a long list of considerations, or 
measures of reform, characterizing Mr. Clinton's administration, which they 
urge in favor of his reelection. They say : 

" Under the administration of De Witt Clinton, a board of agriculture has 
been established upon the strength of his special recommendation. This 
has laid the foundation of our future agricultural prosperity, and called forth 
a noble and salutary emulation in the forty-nine counties of our state. It, in 
fact, has given a vast impulse to internal and even national industry, and is 
the only board in the twenty-one United States. Twenty thousand dollars 
will be hereafter expended annually to encourage the most approved cultiva- 
tion of the soil." 

The following facts relating to agricultural societies in this coimty are found 
in one of a course of lectures by the late Samuel A. Brown, Esq., before the 
students of Jamestown academy, in 1843. About the year 1820, an agricul- 
tural society was formed at Mayville, and Judge Cushing, a wealthy farmer 
of Pomfret, chosen president. This society did but little, and was suffered 


soon to expire. On the 12th 6f October, 1836, the citizens met at the court- 
house to organize an agricultural society under the statute ; and Jedediah 
Tracy, of Mayville, was chosen president, and Wm. Prendergast, 2d, secre- 
tary. They adjourned to the 4th of January, 1837. On that day the 
Chautauqua County Agricultural Society was organized, and officers chosen. 
Wm. Prendergast, 2d, was chosen president ; Henry ■ Baker, of EUicott, 
Timothy Judson, of Portland, Thomas B. Campbell, of Westfield, and Elias 
Clarke, of EUery, vice-presidents ; E. P. Upham, corresponding secretary ; 
Jedediah Tracy, treasurer. The executive committee were Wm. H. Seward, 
Thomas B. Campbell, of Westfield, Stephen Prendergast, of Ripley, David 
Eaton, of Portland, Seth W. Holmes, of Chautauqua, John Miller, of Har- 
mony, Sampson Vincent, of Sherman, Abraham Pier, of Busti, Chauncey 
Warren, of Stockton, Jedediah Vorce, of Ellery, and Richard Walker, of 
Mina. The design of the society, as expressed in its constitution, was " to 
improve agriculture, horticulture, the household arts, and the breeding and 
improvement of domestic animals, and also the improvement of farming 
utensils, and domestic manufactures." 

In many of the counties of this state, besides the county organizations, 
there are societies embracing one or more towns. The nature of these 
societies is too well understood to need description. That they have been 
instrumental in advancing the agricultural interest in the state will hardly be 
disputed ; and that practices have been introduced which materially detract 
from their usefulness, is extensively believed. 


New York and Erie Railroad Company. 

This company was chartered by the legislature, April 24, 1832. The 
first preliminary survey was made the same year by De Witt Clinton, Jr., by 
order of the government. The company was authorized to organize when 
subscriptions for stock should have been taken to the amount of $1,000,000. 
Books were opened in the city of New York and in the counties along the 
route of the contemplated road. No subscriptions, or none to any consider- 
able amount, were obtained. The commissioners subsequently subscribed 
$10,000 each, and Wm. G. Buckner, of New York, subscribed for the 
remainder of the million required ; and the company was organized in July, 
1833. Eleazar Lord, of New York, was chosen president; Wm. G. Buckner, 
treasurer. In 1834, the governor appointed Benj. Wright to survey the 
route ; who, assisted by James Seymour and Charles Ellett, began the survey 
May 23d, and finished it the same year. In 1835, the company was reor- 
ganized, and 40 miles were put under contract. In 1836, an act was passed 
authorizing a loan to the company of $3,000,000 on the credit of the state ; 


and the comptroller was directed to issue state stock, to that amount, to aid 
in constructing the road. After this sum had been expended, it was found 
necessary to suspend the prosecution of the work. In this county, about 14 
miles of the road from Dunkirk eastward had been graded, and for about 
8 miles toward Mud lake the rails had been laid. The company being 
unable to proceed in the construction of the road without further aid, the 
state, in 1845, released its lien on the road, and authorized the original 
stockholders to surrender two shares of the old stock, and receive one share 
of the new. 

April 8, 1845, a branch was allowed to be built from Chester to Newburgh, 
19 miles. A road was also authorized from about 20 miles west from Pier- 
mont, through New Jersey to Jersey City, opposite New York, where nearly 
all the freight and passengers of the Erie road, to and from New York, are 
landed. To secure to the people of the southern counties of the state the 
benefits of the road, the company was originally required to keep the road 
all the way within the limits of the state. In 1846, however, in order to 
obtain an easier grade, the company was allowed to cross the Delaware 
river into Pennsylvania, and run the road a short distance through that state. 
For this privilege the road is compelled to pay the state of Pennsylvania, 
annually, a bonus of $10,000. The road was opened as follows: From 
Piermont to Goshen, Sept. 22, 1841 ; to Middletown, June 7, 1843 ; to Port 
Jervis, Jan. 6, 1848; to Binghamton, Dec 28, 1848; to Owego, June i, 
1849 j to Elmira, Oct., 1849 ; to Corning, Jan. i, 1859 ; and to Dunkirk, 
May 14, 1851. The Newburgh branch was opened, Jan. 8, 1850. 

The consummation of the great enterprise, which had been anxiously 
awaited through long years of doubt and despondency, was appropriately 
followed by a 

Celebration at Dunkirk. 

This was a joyous occasion, not only to the citizens of this county, but to 
thousands in every county in the " southern tier.'' These " sequesterai 
counties," as they had long been called, having participated but slightly 
in the benefits of the " grand canal," were at length favored with a " road 
to market." The day was highly auspicious, and many thousands ' were 
attracted by the fame of the expected guests, and the novelty of the antici- 
pated spectacle. The village of Dunkirk presented a gay appearance, from 
the flags and streamers with which the hotels and private houses were 
decorated. On the d^pot were the flags of three nations ; the stars and stripes 
gracefully floating above the tri-color of the French republic and the red 
cross of St. George. 

At about 1 1 o'clock, the Queen City arrived from Buffalo, and soon after, 
in succession, the Niagara, the Empire State, the Empire, the Key Stone 
State, and the United States steamer Michigan, took positions in the harbor. 
Gov. Hunt and suite arrived from Buffalo on one of the boats, and received 
his friends at the American hotel. The train from New York, expected at 
1.30 P. M., did not arrive until about 4, when the locomotive "Dunkirk" 


came in as a pioneer, followed, soon after, by the long expected "iron horse," 
from New York city, amid the ringing of bells and shouts of thousands. The 
train consisted of twelve passenger cars, bearing a long row of banners which 
had been presented along the line. Among the guests in the train, were 
President Fillmore; Daniel Webster, secretary of state; Wm.' A. Graham, 
secretary of the navy ; Nathan K. Hall, postmaster-general ; John J. 
Crittenden, attorney -ganeral; Senators Seward and Fish; Daniel S. Dickin- 
son ; Ex-Gov. Marcy ; Senator Douglas, of 111. ; Christopher Morgan, 
sec. of state of New York, and others. 

After the presentation of an- elegant banner by the ladies of Dunkirk to 
the president and directors of the road, a procession was formed under the 
direction of Noah D. Snow, marshal, and to the music of Dodsworth's New 
York Cornet Band, proceeded through the village, and back to the depot, 
where refreshments were provided. The president and invited guests, with 
the directors of the road, repaired to the Loder house, where a sumptuous 
collation was served up. At the conclusion of the repast, President Fillmore, 
being introduced to the guests, congratulated them on the completion of the 
road, and complimented the president aiKl directors of the road for their 
exertions in its behalf He was followed by Mr. Loder, president of the 
company, who gave a history of the origin and progress of the road, during 
which time the charter had been changed some twelve times. The road, 
he said, was 445^ miles in length, the longest ever built under one charter 
in the world. 

Mr. Crittenden, of Ky., having been called for, said he was surprised at 
what had been accompHshed. He had heard something of it, but had pre- 
viously had no adequate idea of its extent. The French eagle, said 
Napoleon, had flown from spire to spire, till it rested on Notre Dame ; but 
he [Mr. C] had been in a car that outdid the French eagle. They had 
been flying, not from spire to spire, but from mountain top to mountain top. 
The president and directors of the road were benefactors of the state. Our 
country was destined to progress. In fifty years, there would be a popula- 
tion of 100,000,000. The speaking was continued within the house until a 
late hour, by Gov. Hunt, Senators Seward and Dickinson, and others. 

Outside the house. President Fillmore was introduced by Hon. Geo. W. 
Patterson, to the multitude in front, and briefly addressed them in eulogy of 
the road and the occasion. He was followed by Gov. Hunt and Secretary 
Graham. They were succeeded by Joseph Hoxie, of New York, or, as 
Lieut.-Gov. Patterson remarked, better known as " Joe Hoxie." He chained 
the audience for some time by a flow of humor ; but the cry was for Webster, 
and no excuse would be taken. Mr. Webster at last appeared, looking 
fatigued and care-worn, but spoke at length on the benefit of the work, and 
in behalf of the Union. The festivities of the day were closed by a brilliant 
display of fireworks, bonfires, etc.,- while the windows of many dwellings 
were illuminated. There were probably 15,000 people assembled on the 


Buffalo & Erie, and other Railroads. 

The Buffalo &■> Erie Railroad Company was formed under an act passed 
April 14, 1832, with a capital of $650,000. The term of the charter was 
fifty years. Four years were allowed the company to commence the work, 
and ten to complete it. The route was surveyed and located nearly all the 
way to the state line. The stock was taken, but from some disagreement in 
regard to the route at certain points, the work was not commenced within 
the four years, as required by the act, and the enterprise failed. 

The Buffalo <S^• State Line Railroad Company was formed June 6, 1849. 
The road was located by way of Fredonia. The route was subsequently 
changed by the company's deciding to run it through Dunkirk. The road 
was opened from Dunkirk to the state line January i, 1852, and to Buffalo 
February 22, following. The company purchased the Erie & North-east 
Railroad, under the act of April 13, 1857, and operated the united roads 
under the name of the Buffalo &• Erie Railroad. The three railroads be- 
tween Erie and Chicago, owned by three different companies prior to May, 
1869, were then consolidated under the name of Lake Shore &• Michigan 
Southern Railroad. In August following, this road and the Buffalo & Erie 
road were consolidated, without a change of the former name. 

A company for the construction of a railroad from Portland Harbor 
\Barcelona\ to Mayville, was formed under an act of the legislature, passed 
March 29, 1832. The capital stock was to be $150,000, and the term of 
charter fifty years ; eight years to be allowed for its construction. It is need- 
less to say the project was never carried into effect. 

The Fredonia is' Van Buren Railroad Company was formed May 21, 1836, 
with a capital of $12,000. This was at the time when the projected city of 
Van Buren [elsewhere noticed] had just made its appearance on paper — the 
epoch still frequently designated in this section of the state as the time of 
the " Buffalo land speculation," but which extended to all parts of the coun- 
tr}'. [See Van Buren, in History of Dunkirk.] The people of Fredonia, 
having no hope of securing an early connection with a railroad in any other 
way, and anticipating the selection of this place for the terminus of the New 
York & Erie road, sought cpnnection with the lake and railroad trade by this 
short road. But the " crisis " which succeeded the fictitious prosperity of the 
years 1835 and 1836 having crushed the prospective city, and the western 
terminus of the N. Y. & E. R. R. having been fixed at Dunkirk, the project 
was abandoned. 

The Atlantic & Great Western Railway. 

This company was formed December 9, 1859. The line was said to extend 
from the New York & Erie Railroad at Little Valley to the south line of 
Chautauqua county. But it was never intended to be thus restricted. On 
the completion of the road westward to Jamestown, the Journal Extra, of 
August 25, i860, said: 

" This great enterprise, which has for a decade of years absorbed the 


interests of capitalists and commercial men, as well as the business public, 
both east and west, and which, in its vastness of design, unites the valley of 
the Mississippi (and ultimately the Pacific slope) to the great emporium of the 
Atlantic shore, has reached a stage of its completion that assures its speedy 
and indisputable success. Its line traverses the very garden of the states, 
the central region through Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana, so well known 
to producers and buyers as the great market ground between the lakes and 
the Gulf states." 

On the 6th of April, negotiations between the companies of the Erie & 
New York City Railroad and the Atlantic & Great Western Railroad were 
completed ; the latter company adopting 38 miles of the Erie & New York 
City Railroad line. About the ist of May, the contractors and engineer 
corps commenced operations at the junction with the New York & Erie 
Railroad near Little Valley. On the 3d of July, the iron was laid down to 
Randolph, r6 miles from the junction. On the 25th of August, i860, the 
first train of cars arrived at Jamestown, a distance of 33 miles ; the achieve- 
ment of the result being ascribed in great part to " the vigor of the English 
engineer, [Thomas W. Kennard,] the coolness and energy of his American 
associate, J. Hill, Jr., and the urging of the work by the able contractors, 
Messrs. Doolittle and Streator. On the occasion of the laying of the rails of 
the road into the village of Jamestown, a complimentary dinner was given to 
Mr. Kennard at the Jamestown House, where a large company of invited 
guests sat down to a sumptuously furnished table. Col. Augustus F. Allen 
presided on the occasion, which, judging from the published proceedings, 
was one of deep interest to the people in a part of the country until then 
remote firom canal or railroad. 

The Buffalo &• Oil Creek Cross Cut Railroad was chartered in 1865. Its 
name was subsequently changed to Buffalo, Corry &•• Pittsbu^h Railroad. 
It connects Corry, in Pennsylvania, with Brocton in this county, where it 
joins the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern road. Its length is 43.20 miles. 
The portion Ijdng inlhis state is 37.20 miles, and terminates at the state line, 
which there forms the south line of Clymer, on lot 49. The company con- 
structing from this point to Corry, was chartered by the legislature of Penn- 
sylvania, and the two were consoUdated April 24j 1867. 

Dunkirk, Allegany Valley & Pittsburgh Railroad. 

A meeting was held in the summer of 1866 by the citizens of Sinclairville, 
at which Hon. C. J. Allen presided, to consider the practicability of con- 
structing a railroad from Dunkirk to Warren, Pa., by the way of the Cassadaga 
and Connewango valleys. Other meetings were afterwards held in the same 
year at Sinclairville, Dunkirk, and Fredonia, at which preliminary steps were 
taken for the organization of a company to build the road. Subscriptions 
were also made to its capital stock, in anticipation of the organization of such 
company, by the citizens along the route of the proposed road. During the suc- 
ceeding winter, the company was organized under the name of the Dunkirk, 
Warren & Pittsburgh Railroad Company. The officers first chosen were 


'I'imothy D. Copp, president; George Barker, vice-president; S. M. Newton, 
chief engineer ; T. R. Coleman, treasurer ; and James Van Buren, secretary ; 
S. M. Newton, Wm. Bookstaver, Walter Finkle, and Lee L. Hyde, of Dun- 
kirk ; George Barker and Thomas Higgins, of Fredonia ; Ebenezer Moore, 
of Stockton ; T. D. Copp and Alonzo Langworthy, of Sinclairville ; B. F. 
Dennison, of Gerry ; Patrick Falconer, of Ellicott ; and Edwin Eaton and 
Wm. H. H. Fenton, of Carroll, directors. April 23, 1867, an act was passed by 
the legislature of New York, authorizing the towns in this county to subscribe 
to the capital stock. June 17, 1867, the first work on the road was done. 
A party consisting of Obed Edson, compassman, Thomas Glissan, George 
Blackham, Stephen H. Allen, Walter Hyde, and Charles Higgins, under the 
direction of the chief engineer, commenced the preliminary survey at the 
north end of Cassadaga lake, and completed this survey from Dunkirk to the 
Pennsylvania line during that year. 

The original contract for the construction of the road was made with 
T. M. Simpson and J. Condit Smith ; and grading was commenced in Ellicott, 
at Ross's mills, October 3, 1867. In December, 1867, supervisors of towns 
issued bonds and subscribed for stock for their respective towns, as fol- 
lows : George D. Hinkley, of Pomfret, $50,000 ; Obed Edson, of Charlotte, 
and B. F. Dennison, of Gerry, each $34,000 ; John S. Beggs, of Dunkirk, 
$100,000 ; and Wm. H. H. Fenton, of Carroll, $20,000. This substantially 
constituted the capital stock on which the road was built. In 1868, 1869 
and 1870, the road was graded. In 1870, the track was laid to a point a lit- 
tle south of Laona ; June i, 1871, to Sinclairville ; June 17, to Worksburg ; 
to which place the first passenger train passed over the road, June 22, 187 1. 
The road was afterwards completed to Warren, and continued to Titusville. 

The Buffalo and Jamestown Railroad ^zs, chartered in' 1872. It passes 
through the towns of Hamburgh, Eden, and Collins, in Erie county ; Persia 
and Dayton, in Cattaraugus county ; Cherry Creek and Ellington, in Chau- 
tauqua county ; Randolph, in Cattaraugus ; Poland and Ellicott, in Chautau- 
qua county. 

Early Parties. 

Ever since the organization of the government under the constitution, 
there have been two great national political parties in this country. The first 
had their origin in the convention which firamed the constitution of the United 
States. Prior to the formation of the present government, national affairs 
were conducted under the articles of confederation, which were adopted during 
the Revolutionary war. This confederation was a mere league between thir- 
teen sovereign and independent states. This league was formed for the more 
effectual resistance to the power of Great Britain in the struggle for American 


independence. It was hardly entitled to be called a government. It had 
neither a legislature, an executive, nor a judiciary. There was what was 
sometimes called a legislature — the Congress — consisting of delegates from 
the several states, sitting in a single body. It could pass no law that was 
binding upon the states or individuals. 

In this Congress all the states were equal. In the decision of all ques- 
tions, each state had but one vote ; and that vote was determined by the major- 
ity of its delegates. Each state, large or small, was entitled to an equal 
number of delegates, not exceeding seven ; but its vote was not counted 
unless at least two of its delegates were present and voting. Also, if its 
delegates were equally divided upon a question, it had no vote. 

The weakness of the confederation appeared during the war. Congress 
could not compel a state to raise men or money to carry on the war. Its 
business was to pass ordi7iaJices, so called, assigning to the states their respect- 
ive quotas of men and money to be raised ; but it could not enforce its 
requisitions. Generally, however, they were obeyed, all the states being 
united to avert a common danger. But after the war was over, the states 
did not long continue in harmony. Laws were enacted in some states giving 
their own citizens undue advantages over the citizens of other states ; and 
mutual jealousies and animosities soon arose which threatened to break up 
the Union. 

It was now evident that, to preserve the union of the states, a government 
possessing more extensive powers was necessary ; a government that could, 
in all needful cases, control the action of the state governments. Under the 
confederation, Congress had no power to lay and collect taxes. It borrowed 
money to carry on the war ; but, as the power of taxation was in the states 
alone, Congress was wholly dependent on the states, which were not always 
ready and willing to comply with its requisitions. 

But what originated the movement for a constitutional convention, was the 
want of power to lay duties to protect American labor. Other countries, 
especially Great Britain, where manufactures had become firmly established, 
were flooding this country with their fabrics, and were draining it of its specie, 
and impoverishing our people. Great Britain had built up her manufac- 
turing interest by high duties upon foreign goods ; and our Congress had not 
the power thus to protect capital and labor by countervailing duties. The 
states had the power, but they would not agree upon a uniform system of 
duties ; and without uniformity the object could not be accomplished. Mr. 
Madison and other eminent statesmen, after several unsuccessful attempts 
to have the evil remedied by the action of the state legislatures, requested 
Congress to call a convention of commissioners from all the states, to alter 
the articles of confederation so as to confer upon Congress this needed power, 
and to make such other alterations '' as the exigencies of the Union might 

The request for the calling of a convention by Congress was granted ; and 
the delegates met at Philadelphia on the second Monday of May, 1787. 


There was soon found a wide difference of opinion among the members 
respecting the plan of government to be formed. Some wished to retain the 
existing plan with a slight enlargement of the powers of Congress. Others, 
instead of a simple confederation of equal and independent states, desired a 
complete national government, with a legislative, an executive, and a judicial 
department — a government that could enforce its laws upon states and indi- 
viduals. A resolution in favor of such a government was introduced. It 
was the occasion of a long, earnest, and, at times, angry debate, which came 
near breaking up the convention. But the friends of a national government 
prevailed ; and a plan, of which Mr. Madison was the reputed author, was 
introduced as the basis of action, and was called the " Virginia plan." Mr. 
Patterson, of New Jersey, presented a plan in accordance with the views of 
the friends of the confederation. This was called the " New Jersey plan." 
The convention had not proceeded far in its labors, when some members of 
the defeated party left the convention and returned to their homes. The 
delegates from the state of New York were Alexander Hamilton, Robert 
Yates, and John Lansing, Jr., the last two of whom were among the depart- 
ing members. Mr. Hamilton being the only remaining delegate from this 
state, New York had no longer a vote in the convention, as the presence of 
at least two members was necessary to entitle a state to a vote. 

We have now come to the origin of the first two political parties : one in 
favor of a imion of sovereign, independent states ; or, as it has sometimes been 
called, a union of states as states ; the other, in favor of what is called in the 
preamble to the constitution, " a more perfect union " — a union of " the people 
of the United States'' It is proper to here correct a prevailing error. It 
is generally supposed that, from the beginning, those who were in favor of 
the constitution, were called federalists. This is a mistake. Those who, in 
the convention, advocated the continuance of the confederation, were, as the 
word itself ira'pon^, federalists, and were distinguished by that name to the 
close of the convention, and for some time afterwards ; and the friends of the 
constitution were termed anti federalists. But while the constitution was be- 
fore the people for ratification, its friends came to be called federalists. Al- 
though the contemplated government was national, it was also still in some 
sense, or to some extent, a confederacy. And as the articles of confederation 
were too weak to preserve the union, the anti-federalists, believing the only 
way to perpetuate the confederacy or federal union, was to adopt the consti- 
tution, took the name of federalists. And by this name they and their fol- 
lowers and successors were called until the party disbanded, soon after the 
first election of President Monroe. 

Among the earliest federalists whose names are familiar to the American 
people, were George Washington, John Adams, James Madison, Alexander 
Hamilton, John Jay, John Marshall, and others. Mr. Madison, however, 
soon after the new government went into effect, joined the opposite party, 
though not on account of any change of views in relation to the constitution. 

Notwithstanding this early division of sentiment Gen. Washington was 


unanimously chosen president by the presidential electors ; and although the 
leading measures of his administration were opposed from its commence- 
ment, there seems to have been for several years no organized opposition 
party. His second election, like the first, was unanimous. 

The earliest measures of his administration which received material oppo- 
sition were his financial measures. One of these was the funding of the 
public debt, including the debts of the states contracted during the war. 
Another was the incorporation of a national bank, in 1791. His foreign 
policy also encountered much opposition. France was in the midst of a 
revolution. In the war of Europe, then existing, Great Britain and France 
were the principal belligerents. Some of our people were in favor of taking 
part with France against Great Britain ; but Washington, though friendly to 
France, determined to maintain a strict neutrality. The opponents of the 
federalists at length took the name of the republican party, and obtained con- 
trol of the government after the expiration of the presidential term of John 
Adams, having elected their leader, Thomas Jefferson, over Mr. Adams, who 
was a candidate for reelection. 

These were the two national parties when the settlement of this county 
commenced. Thomas Jefferson had taken his seat in the presidential chair, 
March 4, 1801, for whom not a vote had been cast within the bounds of the 
present county of Chautauqua ; the electors by whom he was chosen hav- 
ing been elected in the fall of 1800. Probably there was not a vote given 
for his reelection in 1804, by any settler within these bounds. The town of 
Chautauqua had been formed by the legislature of that year, but no election 
was held in it until 1805. This town was then a part of Genesee county : 
and it is not likely that any one of the few settlers then here made a journey 
of eighty or ninety miles to vote. Besides, there was not among them one 
who had the required qualifications of property and term of residence to 
vote for president, if the election had been at his own door. 

One of the causes — perhaps the principal cause — of the unpopularity and 
decline of the federal party, was the passage of two acts during Mr. Adams' 
administration, called the alien and sedition laws. The alien law, entitled, 
" An act concerning aliens,'' authorized the president to order out of the 
country any alien suspected of any treasonable purpose, or deemed danger- 
ous to the safety of the country, unless satisfactory proof should be given 
that no injury or danger should arise from his residing here. The other law 
was entitled, " An act in addition to ' an act for the punishment of certain 
crimes against the United States '" ; but it was generally called the "sedi- 
tion law." It provided for punishing persons for conspiring to oppose any 
measure of the government, or for hindering any public officer in discharging 
his duties; also for punishing any person for slandering or libeling the 
government, congress, or the president. Although these acts were well- 
intentioned, and approved by wise and good men, among whom were Wash- 
ington and Patrick Henry, as being necessary to check the influence of 
numerous meddlesome foreigners then in the country, who were active in 


exciting opposition to the administration, and were combined in organized 
associations which were considered dangerous to the peace of the United 
States ; they were, nevertheless, disapproved by a majority of the people, who 
regarded them as infringements upon popular rights, especially upon the 
freedom of speech and of the press. Hence, to render the act against sedi- 
tion the more odious, its opponents gave it the title of " gig law." 

These laws gave rise to the famed " Virginia and Kentucky resolutions of 
1798," which were for more than half a century referred to as expressing the 
principles of the old republican party. Those passed by the Virginia legis- 
lature were drawn up by Mr. Madison, then a member. They declared that 
the constitution was a compact, to which the states were parties, granting 
limited power? ; that in case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exer- 
cise of other powers not granted, it was the right and duty of the states to 
interpose for arresting the progress of the evil, and for maintaining the rights 
of the states within their respective limits ; and that the alien and sedition 
laws were palpable and alarming infractions of the constitution. 

The resolutions of the Kentucky legislature were drafted by Mr. Jefferson. 
They declared the Union to be "a compact between the states as states ; 
that, as parties to this compact have no common judge or superior, each 
party has an equal right to judge for itself," of the constitutionality of a law, 
" as well as of the mode and measure of redress." 

The reader who recollects the action of the convention of the framers of 
the constitution, as given on preceding pages, will be surprised at the declar- 
ation of sentiments like those expressed in the above resolutions. The idea 
of a confederation of states as states was rejected by the convention. Yet, 
after the lapse of only ten years, the most eminent statesmen assert that the 
Union is a compact between the states as states. Mr. Madison, the head or 
leader of the party in favor of a national government to supersede the con- 
federation, which was a union of states as states, can hardly be supposed to 
have intended to convey the impression that the Union was a compact 
between the states as such. He calls it " a compact to which the states are 
parties." He may have meant simply, that, in the ratification of the con- 
stitution, the people of each state acted separately by state conventions. 

The Kentucky resolutions do not admit of so favorable a construction. It 
is expressly declared that there is no higher authority than that of a state, to 
judge what is a violation or "infraction" of the constitution — thus denying 
the right of the supreme court of the United States to decide questions of 
constitutionality ; and claiming the right to nullify any act of Congress which 
the highest state court shall decide unconstitutional. It must seem strange, 
especially to the younger class of our citizens, that doctrines like the above 
should ever have been so explicitly asserted, and so extensively accepted. 
Yet, for more than thirty years, "the principles of 1798" were regarded as 
the test of political orthodoxy; and that man's chance of an election to 
an important office was small, indeed, who could not avow his adherence to 
the doctrine enunciated in the resolutions above referred to. In the series 


of resolutions adopted by the legislatures of these states, were some that 
are unexceptionable. Declaring the opinion that the alien and sedition laws 
were unconstitutional was the right of any man or body of men. But a 
doctrine that a law is null and void before it has been so pronounced by the 
highest judicial authority, is dangerous and disorganizing in its tendency. 

The doctrine of 'state sovereignty, to the extent asserted by the Kentucky 
resolutions, never received the unanimous assent of republican statesmen. 
According to Mr. Madison's own exposition of the constitution, not the 
states, as states, but iht people of the several states, were parties to the com- 
pact ; and in 1830 he expressly repudiated "nullification as a right remedy." 
So also President Jackson, in his proclamation against South Carolina in 
December, 1832, denied such right, and maintained the doctrine now held 
by American statesmen generally, that, instead of there being 710 common 
judge, it is the prerogative of the supreme court of the United States to judge 
of the validity of the acts of Congress. If every state might disobey any 
law which its authorities should pronounce unconstitutional, no general gov- 
ernment could be maintained ; secession would be constitutional. 

The transfer of power, however, from the federal to the republican party, 
was not followed by any great changes of policy. The alien and sedition 
laws were designed only to have a temporary eflfect ; and no act of the new 
administration was necessary for their repeal. The alien law expired by its 
own limitation, June 25, 1800; the sedition act, on the 4th of March, 1801, 
the day of Mr. Jefferson's induction into office. 

During our commercial controversy with France and Great Britain, prior 
to and during the war between the latter and the United States, the hostility 
of the two parties toward each other was probably more marked than at any 
other period. The federalists were generally opposed to the declaration of 
war, the causes being in their view insufficient to justify a war. The repub- 
licans maintained the justice and propriety of the war, and charged their 
opponents with hostility to their own country, and sympathy with the enemy. 

Chautauqua and Cattaraugus counties, it will be recollected, were, for 
several years from the time of their formation, united, for judicial and other 
purposes, with Niagara, which then comprised the present counties of 
Niagara and Erie. And after they had become fully organized with the 
requisite population, [Chautauqua in 1811,] they formed but one assembly 
district until 1822. It will be recollected, too, that until after the adoption 
of the constitution of 1821, the general elections for the election of other 
than town officers, were held on the last Tuesday in April. 

On the 14th of April, 1812, the federalists of this assembly district met at 
Buffalo ; and on the next day they nominated for the assembly, Abel M. 
Grosvenor, of Buffalo. The committees of the two towns then composing 
this county, were the following : 

Pom/ret — Jacob Houghton, John ^ E. Howard, Ozias Hart, Orsamus 
Holmes, James Hale, Daniel Warren; Samuel Sinclear, Foster Young, 
Isaac Barnes. 


Chautauqua — James McMahan, Anselm Potter, Dennis Brackett, Wm. 
Berry, Thomas Prendergast, Thomas McClintock. 

Having no account of any nominating republican convention, we can 
only give the name of the candidate of that party, Jonas Williams, who had 
a majority in the district. 

In the same year, [1812,] Messrs. Hopkins and Howell, federal candidates 
for Congress, received in this county a majority of 47 votes. 

On the 3d of November, 1812, a meeting of the "Friends of Liberty, 
Peace, and Commerce," as the anti-war men called themselves, held a meet- 
ing at David Joy's, in Buffalo. (?) Jacob Houghton, chairman ; Anselm Pot- 
ter, secretary. Resolutions were adopted disapproving the administrations 
of Jefferson and Madison. A committee of correspondence was appointed, 
consisting of Orsamus Holmes, Samuel Sinclear, Anselm Potter, James Mont- 
gomery, Jacob Houghton, James McMahan, and Foster Young. The meet- 
ing concurred in recommendations previously made in other places, for a 
state convention to be held at Albany. 

On the 23d of December, 1812, a county meeting of the republicans was 
held at John Scott's, in Mayville ; Matthew Prendergast, chairman ; 
John Dexter, secretary. Resolutions were adopted declaring the justice of 
the war and the purpose to sustain it. Names of delegates, and of the mem- 
bers of a committee, if appointed, are not given. 

On the 17th of March, 18 13, another county meeting of delegates of the 
friends of " Liberty, Peace, and Commerce" was held in Pomfret; Thomas 
Martin, chairman ; Isaac Pierce, secretary. Jacob Houghton was nomi- 
nated for the assembly. Committees to promote the election : 

Chautauqua — Thomas Prendergast, Jabez Hurlbut, Elisha Wallis, James 
Montgomery, David Eaton, Asa Hall, Henry Sartwell. Ellkotl — James 
Prendergast. Gerry — Samuel Sinclear, Robert W. Seaver, Wm. Devine, 
Abm. Windsor. Pomfret — Orsamus Holmes, Elijah Risley, Jr., Ozias Hart, 
Isaac Pierce, Thomas Martin, Andrew Bates, Rodolphus Loomis. Hanover 
— John E. Howard, John Mack, Bethel Willoughby, Guy Webster, Cushing 
Brownell, Abel Flint. 

The republicans of the asserftbly district met at St. John's, in Buffalo, pre- 
vious to the April election in 1813; David Eddy, chairman; John Root, 
secretary. Jonas Williams was nominated for the assembly. Committee in 
Chautauqua county : 

Pomfret — Zattu Cushing, Philo Orton, Jehiel Moore, Eliphalet Day. Chau- 
tauqua — David Eason, Wm. Peacock, M. Prendergast, John E. Marshall, 
John Scott. 

The majority for Gov. Daniel D. Tompkins in this county was 57 ; for 
Jonas Williams, — . It was said many votes were admitted for governor and 
senators from persons only holding articles for land ; whereas, by the old con- 
stitution, none but freeholders to the 'value of $250, could vote for those 

April 4, 1814, at a republican convention held at Buffalo, Joseph McCluer,. 


of Cattaraugus Co., was nominated for the assembly. Philetus Swift, of On- 
tario Co.; Bennett Bicknell, of Madison Co.; and John J. Prendergast, of 
Herkimer Co., were candidates in the western district for the senate. Peter 
B. Porter, of Niagara, and Micah Brooks, of Ontario, were candidates for 

The federalists nominated this year for the assembly, Elijah Holt, of Buf- 
falo. This nomination was confirmed at a meeting in this county held in 
Pomfret, April nth. Samuel Sinclear, chairman; D. Sterne Houghton, 

In 1815, the republicans nominated Daniel McCleary, of Buffalo, and 
Elias Osborn, of Clarence, for the assembly. The federalists nominated 
James Prendergast, of Chautauqua, and Daniel Chapin, of Buffalo. There 
was this year a small federal majority in this county. The district was 

Parties in New York.. 

Next in the order of the birth of parties which divided the people of this 
county, were the Bucktaih and the Clintonians. These, however, were not 
national parties, but were confined to the state of New York. Hostilities 
between the two old parties had ceased, if, indeed, they could be said to 
have an existence. The federalists had, by their opposition to the war, 
become quite unpopular. Their weakness may be imagined from the presi- 
dential election of 1816. Of the presidential electors chosen that year, Mr. 
Monroe received 183, and Rufus King, the federal candidate, but 34. Mr. 
Monroe received for reelection, 213 of the 214 votes cast by the electors, 
there being no longer any federal organization. In April, 1820, about the 
time of the election, forty-eight of the leading federalists published a mani- 
festo, in which they assigned their reasons for dissolving their connection 
with the party, and changing their party relations. Being gentlemen of high 
respectability, they were long spoken of as the " forty-eight high-minded.'' 
Most of them, if not all, joined the bucktails. The rank and file of the 
federalists, having been deserted by their leaders, felt at liberty to go where 
they pleased. Some of them followed their leaders ; others attached them- 
selves to the fortunes of De Witt Clinton. 

Mr. Clinton was an early and ardent republican, and a man of great ability ; 
and, having taken an early and decided stand in favor of the construction 
of the canals, which made him popular, especially in the western part of the 
state, he had become the head and leader of a strong party, called Clintoni- 
ans. The origin of the name of the other party is not so well known. Hon. 
Samuel A. Brown, in a public lecture at Jamestown, in 1843, gave it as 
follows : 

" In the city of New York, a political party had existed for many years, by 
the name of the Tammany Society, so called in honor of a noted Indian 
chief. These Tammanies erected Tammany Hall, or the wigwam, as they 
sometimes called it This society had its auxiliaries throughout the state ; 
and its influence was felt even in Chautauqua. They called their officers by 


aboriginal names, and on festival days wore the Indian costume, and among 
other peculiarities, wore a real buck's fail on the hat." 

We have in these local political conflicts a striking illustration of the 
mutability of party associations. In 181 2, as has been stated, having been 
an unwavering republican, and a thorough-going friend and advocate of a 
war with Great Britain, Mr. Clinton was nominated as a candidate for presi- 
dent by the republican members of the legislature of this state, under the 
leadership of Martin Van Buren, Samuel Young, and others ; now [1820] 
we find two parties, composed alike of republicans and federalists, arrayetf 
against each other, the one under the lead of Mr. Clinton ; the other under 
that of Mr. Van Buren. 

Mr. Clinton, who had been elected governor in 1817, without any material 
opposition, in the place of Mr. Tompkins, elected vice-president of the 
United States, was nominated, in 1820, for reelection; and Mr. Tompkins, 
whose official term as vice president was near its close, was nominated by the 
bucktails. A spirited contest ensued, which resulted in the election of Mr. 
Clinton. He received 47,447 vot|s in the state; Mr. Tompkins, 45,990 — 
majority for Clinton, 1,457. In this county, Clinton, 744; Tompkins, 455 
— Clinton's majority, 289. The light vote is accounted for by the fact, that 
only freeholders were entitled to vote for governor and senators under the 
first constitution of the state. Mr. Clinton held the office but two years of 
the three years for which he was elected. His term commenced the ist of 
January, 1821. A new constitution, made the same year, required the elec- 
tion of new officers the next year, when Joseph C. Yates was elected, who 
caune into office the ist of January, 1823. 

In a review of the manifesto, or address of the " forty-eight high-mipded " 
federalists, Mr. Hammond, in his Political History of New York, notices 
them substantially thus : 

" They affirm that the federal party whose principles they approve, no 
longer exists. They approve the administration of the general government ; 
affirm that the federalists have now ' no ground of principle,' on which to 
stand ; and therefore declare their intention to unite with the great republican 
party of the state and Union. They do not object to the character or 
measures of Mr. Clinton, but allege that he is attempting to form ' a personal 
party.' The absurdity of the address appears from the fact, that Mr. Van 
Buren and his friends also approved his measures, and admitted his talents 
and virtues, but opposed him solely because t\i& federal party did exist in the 
state, and that Mr. Clinton was secretly inclined to favor it ; yet the high- 
minded gentlemen opposed him because, as they alleged, the federal party 
did not exist; and they joined the party that held the contrary position. * * 
The anti-Clintonian party, which now fairly deserved to be called the repub- 
Ucan party, succeeded in electing a majority of the members of assembly, 
and in two of the senatorial districts ; notwithstanding which, Mr. Clinton 
was reelected by a majority of 1,457 votes." 

The election of Mr. Clinton, while a majority of the legislature elected 
were his political opponents, was ascribed to the misfortune of Mr. Tompkins 
in having lost, or having never taken, vouchers for large sums of money 


which were disbursed by him while governor, during the war, and for which 
he was unable to account. Although it was generally believed he had 
appropriated no portion of the money fraudulently to his own use, his in- 
ability to account for all the moneys, was turned by his opponents to his 
disadvantage. But what probably contributed rqost to Mr. Clinton's own 
success, was his able, zealous, and uniform support of the canal policy. This 
gained for him a strong vote in the counties most directly interested in the 
completion of the canals. 

, By the election of Gov. Yates, the party opposed to Gov. Clinton had ob- 
tained entire control of the state government, and doubtless anticipated a long 
and uninterrupted possession of it. They could, soon after their accession to 
power, have had no premonition of the political reverse which awaited them. 
The presidential election of 1824 was approaching. The federal party was 
defunct ; and there were no questions of national policy to divide the repub- 
licans. In the selection of candidates, they were simply divided upon men. 
Many were named as candidates \ but the number was diminished to four : 
John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William H. Crawford, and Andrew 
Jackson. It had been the practice fronf and including the year 1804, for 
the republican members of Congress to meet during the last session prior to 
the next presidential election, to nominate candidates for president and vice- 
president. These congressional caucuses had at length become unpopular 
with the party. The meeting in 1824 was held on the 14th of February. 
Of the 258 republican members, only 68 attended. Of the votes of these, 
William H. Crawford received 64. 

The presidential electors were not chosen then as now, in this state, by a 
general ticket, and voted for by the people ; but they were chosen by the 
legislaftire. Mr. Van Buren was in favor of the election of Mr. Crawford ; 
and it was apprehended that he might influence a majority of the members 
to vote for electors in favor of Mr. Crawford. To prevent this, a bill was 
introduced in the legislatute of 1824, proposing to give to th^ people the right 
to choose the electors^ of president and vice-president. And notwithstanding 
a large majority of the members of the assembly were republicans, the 
" electoral bill " passed that house, and was sent to the senate for concur- 
rence, where it was defeated by a vote of 17 to 14. It should be stated, 
that the question of changing the mode of choosing the electors was 
agitated before the election of the members of the legislature in the fall of 
1823; and that a large portion of them were pledged to vote for the pro- 
posed change. The republicans who were opposed to Mr. Crawford, to a 
congressional caucus, and to Mr. Van Buren and the Albany Regency, 
assumed to themselves the name of the " People's Party." [Albany Regency 
was a name given to 'the leaders of the democratic party at Albany.] 

The defeat of the electoral bill caused such a popular excitement as has 
rarely been witnessed in this state. The seventeen senators who voted 
against the bill were the particular objects of the displeasure of the friends 
of the bill; and to render them as odious as possible, their names were 


published in the newspapers, and surrounded by heavy black lines. They 
were for years spoken of as the " infamous seventeen." 

The opposition to the electoral law was one of the acts of the dominant 
party which brought upon it the " reverses " before alluded to. Another act 
having a similar effect, soon followed. On the last day of the session, and 
within about an hour before the time fixed for the adjournment of both 
houses, a senator introduced a resolution for the removal of De Witt Clinton 
from the office of canal commissioner. The resolution was hurried to its 
passage, and received the votes of all the senators except three. It was 
forthwith sent to the assembly, where it was passed hastily by a vote of 64 
to 34. Mr. Clinton had taken early ground in favor of the canal policy against 
a powerful opposition, and had aided in bringing the Erie canal near its com- 
pletion, and had served faithfully as commissioner from 18 10, fourteen years, 
without any compensation. It was evident that the object was to degrade 
him, and to weaken or destroy his political influence. This act caused an 
excitement throughout the state more intense than did the defeat of the 
electoral law. Public meetings were held in many places, and resolutions 
passed denouncing the act in the most severe terms. 

The removal of Mr. Clinton had an effect the opposite of that which was 
designed. At a state convention of t\\e people's party, in the city of Utica, in 
September, 1824, Mr. Clinton was nominated for governor, and James Tall- 
madge for lieutenant-governor. Mr. T. was a member of the assembly, and 
had ably and zealously supported the electoral bill, but he had voted for the 
removal of Mr. Clinton. In November, Mr. Clinton was elected by a 
majority of 16,906 over Samuel Young; and Gen. Tallmadge's majority over 
Gen. Erastus Root was 32,409. In this county, Mr. Chnton received 1,483 
votes; Mr. Young, 1,093 — majority, 390. Nathan Mixer was elected mem- 
ber of assembly for this county. 

In 1826, Mr. Clinton was renominated for governor, and Henry Hunting- 
ton for lieutenant-governor; and in opposition to them were Wm. B. Roches- 
ter and Nathaniel Pitcher. In respect to national parties, these candidates 
were strangely divided. The four candidates for president, it will be recol- 
lected, were all republicans; and, so far as we may judge from the discussion 
of their claims respectively during the campaign of 1824, they were not 
materially divided on measures of national policy. Almost immediately 
after the commencement of Mr. Adams' administration, an organized opposi- 
tion to it was formed, by the union of the friends of the defeated candidates, 
Crawford and Jackson, and those of Mr. Calhoun, the vice-president Mr. 
Clinton was one of the earliest supporters of Gen. Jackson, when Mr. Van 
Buren, the leader of the opposition to the Clintonians, was strongly opposed 
to him ; the great organ of the party declaring him, " of all the candidates, 
the most unfit for the office of president." Yet, in 1826, we see the party 
supporting for governor a candidate opposed to Gen. Jackson, on a ticket 
with a candidate for lieutenant-governor in favor of Gen. Jackson. Mr. 
Clinton was elected by a majority of 3,650 votes over Judge Rochester : 


and Mr. Pitcher by a majority of 4,188 over Mr. Huntington. This result, 
however, is said to have been owing, in some measure, to Mr. Clinton's 
having favored the construction of a state road through the southern coun- 
ties, some of which, though anti-Clintonian, gave him majorities. In Chau- 
tauqua county, Clinton received 1,839 votes; Rochester, 1,612. February 
II, 1828, less than eleven months before the expiration of his term of office, 
Mr. Clinton died suddenly, sitting in his chair, of apoplexy ; and Nathaniel 
Pitcher became the acting-governor. 

In 1828, by the union of the friends of Jackson, Crawford and Calhoun, 
Mr. Adams and Gen. Jackson became the only candidates for president. Of 
the presidential electors chosen, 178 were in favor of Gen. Jackson, and 83 
for Mr. Adams. John C. Calhoun was reelected vice-president, having 
received 171 of the electoral votes; Richard Rush, 83 ; and Wm. Smith, of 
South Carolina, 7. 

After the dissolution of the federal party, there were no two national par- 
ties known by distinctive names, until after the election of Mr. Adams. 
They were for a time distinguished as the Adams, or administration party, 
and Jackson, or opposition party. But the latter soon assumed the name of 
the democratic party, which name the organization has borne to the present 
time. The Adams party became known as the national republican party. 
This name was retained until after the presidential election of 1832, when a 
union was formed with the anti-masons, under the name of whigs, and by 
which name it was known during the remainder of its existence, which termi- 
nated with the formation of the present republican party, in 1855, whose 
leading object was to oppose the further extension of slavery. 

Anti-Masonic Party. 

In the month of September, 1826, an event occurred which sensibly 
affected the people of this county in their social, civil, and religious associa- 
tions. William Morgan, of Batavia, Genesee county, having written for 
publication a work alleged to contain a disclosure of the secrets of free- 
masonry, and which was about to be issued from the press of David C. 
Miller, in that village, was apprehended on a criminal process, and conveyed 
to Canandaigua, Ontario county, where, upon examination before a magistrate, 
he was discharged. He was subsequently, the same day, taken for debt ; 
judgment was rendered against him ; and he was confined in the county jail. 
[Debtors being then liable to imprisonment in case of non-payment of a 
judgment.] On the evening of the 12th of September, persons concerned in 
his seFzure and confinement, discharged the debt, and caused his liberation. 
On leaving the jail, he was forcibly taken, and carried in a close carriage to 
the Niagara frontier, where he was last seen ; and, as some alleged, he was 
murdered on the night of the 14th of September. 

At the next session pf the legislature, petition* relating to the abduction of 
Morgan were presented, and referred to a select committee of the assembly ; 
and a reward of $1,000 was offered by Gov. Clinton, for the discovery of 


Moi'gan if alive ; and if murdered, $2,000 for the discovery of the offender or 
offenders ; and a free pardon to any accomplice or cooperator who should 
make the discovery. 

Bills of indictment were found against several persons who had participated 
in the abduction ; two of whom were convicted, and sentenced to imprison- 
ment in the county jail ; one for two years and four months ; the other, for 
one year and three months. The former was the sheriff of Niagara county, 
who, as a witness on the trial of the latter, testified that he had been apprised 
several days previously of the coming of Morgan, and had been requested to 
prepare a cell for him in the Niagara county jail at Lockport. It was proved 
that Morgan was conveyed to Lewiston blind-folded in a covered carriage, 
which was kept closed. From Lewiston he was taken in another carriage to 
the ferry near Fort Niagara. Witness and four others crossed with him into 
Canada in the night ; their object being to get him away from Miller into the 
interior of Canada, and place him on a farm. The preparation not having 
been made for his reception, he was brought back to this side of the river, to 
wait a few days, and was put into the magazine of the fort ; since which the 
witness had not seen him. 

The publication of Morgan's book was followed by that of others, claim- 
ing to be true revelations of the secrets of masonry ; and many masons 
seceded from the institution, and confirmed the published statements con- 
cerning its ceremonies, oaths and obligations, some of which were deemed 
inconsistent with their civil duties. Those who believed that members who 
held their civil obligations subordinate to their obligations to each other, 
considered free-masons unfit to hold office. Those who thus believed, soon 
united in the formation and support of a. party on the single principle of oppo- 
sition to masonry ; and in 1828, the year of the next gubernatorial election, 
an anti-masonic candidate — Solomon Southwick, of Albany — was nominated 
for governor. The two national parties then were the national republicans, 
supporters of John Quincy Adams and his administration, and the other, the 
friends of Andrew Jackson, who were opposed to the party in power, and soon 
after took the name of the democratic party. Martin Van Buren, the Jack- 
son candidate for governor, received 136,794 votes ; Smith Thompson, the 
Adams candidate, 106,444; arid Solomon Southwick, 33,345. The organi- 
zation of the anti-masons as a political party may be considered to have been 
at this time about complete. 

It is believed that, at the time of the abduction of Morgan, no paper in 
this county was published by a mason. After the fact of the murder had 
become established, all information on the subject deemed authentic was 
published. The papers which, in this county, first supported the new politi- 
cal organization, were ^e. Jamestown Journal, published by Adolphus Fletcher, 
and edited by Abner Hazeltine ; and the Western Star, published and edited 
by Harvey Newcomb, Westfield. The excitement became intense. In 
Western New York, the two previously existing parties were almost broken 
up, and many churches were divided. ISfot long after the publication of 


Morgan's Illustrations of Masonry, Rev. David Bernard, then of Geflesee 
county, published his Light on Masonry. And masons in many parts of the 
country, seceded from the organizations. The progress of the institution 
was arrested, and in a few years nearly all the lodges suspended operations. 

In 1826, Judge Foote and Nathan Mixer were nominated as bucktails for 
the assembly ; Samuel A. Brown and Philo Orton as Clintonians. The votes 
were, for Foote, 2,312; for Mixer, 1,619; fo^" Brown, 1,696; for Orton, 
1,197. It is not likely that voting was materially affected, at this election, 
by the anti-masonic excitement. Mr. Brown, on account of some local ques- 
tion, ran ahead of his colleague, [Orton,] and was elected. Thus James- 
town had both the members, who were of opposite politics. De Witt Clin- 
ton received 1,839 votes for governor; Wm. B. Rochester, 1,612. 

In 1827, the anti-masons nominated for the assembly. Col. Nathaniel 
Fenton and Nathan Mixer, who received respectively 2,192 and 2,332 votes. 
The bucktail candidates, James Mullett and Thomas A. Osborne, received 
1,232 and 1,101 votes. In 1828, the anti-masonic votes for assemblymen 
were, for Abner Hazeltine, 2,056; for Nathan Mixer, 2,091. The votes for 
the Jackson candidates were, for Joseph White, 1,458 ; for John McAlister, 
1,158. James Hall and John Crain, candidates on a third ticket, received 
respectively, 1,091 and 936. For governor, Solomon Southwick, [anti-mason,] 
received in this county 1,783 votes; Martin Van Buren, [Jackson, or demo- 
cratic,] 1,520 ; and Smith Thompson, [administration, or national republican,] 
1,135. Ifi 1829, Abner Hazeltine and Squire White, anti-masons, received 
2,461 and 2,502 votes; Horace Allen and Benjamin Walworth, democrats, 
(though neither was a mason,) 1,835 ^-^^d 1,837 votes. The Eighth senate 
district gave an anti-masonic majority of over 13,000. In 1830, Francis 
Granger and Samuel Stevens, anti-masons, were candidates for governor and 
lieutenant-governor, against Enos T. Throop and Edward Livingston, demo- 
crats. Granger received 3,470 votes, and Stevens 3,454. Throop received 
1,854, and Livingston 1,855. Foi" assembly, John Birdsall and Squire 
White, anti-masons, received 3,403 and 3,387 votes ; and Elial T. Foote and 
Ernest Mullett, democrats, received 1,958 and 1,884 votes. Every town in 
the county gave an anti-masonic majority, except EUicott, Judge Foote 
having a majority of 19 over the highest anti-masonic candidate. Gov. 
Throop's majority in the state was 8,481." In the Eighth senate district the 
anti-masonic majority was about 13,000 ; in the Seventh district, about 2,000 ; 
in the Sixth, about 1,000. In 1831, Squire White and Theron Bly, anti- 
masons, were elected without opposition. 

In 1832, Granger and Stevens were again nominated by the anti-masons 
for governor and lieutenant-governor ; also a full presidential electoral ticket. 
And at a national convention, William Wirt and Amos Ellmaker were nom- 
inated as candidates for president and vice-president. The national repub- 
lican convention at Utica, nominated Ambrose Spencer for president, and the 
anti-masonic electoral ticket and state candidates. The object of the coa- 
lition probably was to elect Mr. Clay president, the anti-masonic state ticket, 


and a union legislature. Wm. L. Marcy, democrat, was elected governor by 
a majority of 9,733; John Tracy, lieutenant-governor, by about the same 
majority, and the whole Jackson electoral ticket. The anti-masonic electoral 
ticket had a majority of 1,717 in Chautauqua county; John Griffin, for 
senator, 1,637 ; Alvin Plumb and Nathaniel Gray, for assembly, about 1,600 
over Albert H. Camp and Robertson Whiteside. Abner Hazeltine for 
Congress, 1,580 majority. In 1833, James Hall and Thomas A. Osborne, 
democrats, were elected over Waterman Ellsworth and Austin Smith, anti- 
masons. Albert H. Tracy was reelected state senator over Judge John H. 
Jones, by only 165 majority — the only one out of the eight elected. Of 
the 128 members of assembly elected, 104 were democrats. 

The union of the anti-masons and national republicans, in 1832, termi- 
nated the existence of the anti-masonic party. The coalition was not an 
unnatural or a strange one. The national republicans were striving to regain 
political supremacy, and to restore the policy which had characterized the 
administration of Mr. Adams ; and knowing a large majority of the anti-masons 
to be in favor of that policy, they desired the alliance. The masons having 
been quieted, and their lodge meetings generally having been suspended, 
the anti-masons saw no necessity for continuing their organization, and quite 
naturally consented to the proposed union. 

The anti-masonic party owed much of its strength to the aid of Thurlow 
Weed, of the Albany Journal. Mr. Weed had for some time conducted an 
anti-masonic paper at Rochester. The Journal was established early in 
March, 1830, by Packard, Hoffman 8z: White, (or two of them,) who placed 
its editorial control in the hands of Mr. Weed, who continued to occupy the 
position of editor-in-chief during the remaining two and a half years of the 
anti-masonic period, and the entire period of the existence of the whig party. 
Soon after the union of the national republican and anti-masonic parties, the 
organization took the name of whig^ which it retained until the formation of 
the republican party. 

The American Party. 

Several attempts have been made to weaken or destroy the political influence 
of foreigners in this country. It was held that persons educated in monarchical 
countries ; those who have in their native land enjoyed scanty educational 
advantages ; and especially those who have been reared under papal in- 
fluences, were unsafe depositaries of political power, after so short a proba- 
tion as our laws prescribe. They held that the required term of residence, 
previous to their full admission to citizenship, was insufficient for their 
acquiring an adequate knowledge of our free institutions, and to form a proper 
attachment to them. And it was proposed to extend this preparatory period 
to twenty-one years. 

An effort was made, to some extent, in this state, thirty years ago, to elect 
members of the legislature, and of Congress, who were in favor, of the pro- 
posed change in our naturalization laws. In several of the eastern and 
south-eastern counties of the state, members of both houses were elected. 


The motto of the advocates of the measure was : " Let Americans govern 
America." But the attempt to form a strong party upon this basis, was 
abortive. The mass of our people were indisposed to raise so powerful a 
barrier to immigration. It had been the policy of our government, from the 
time of its organization, to invite the people of the monarchies of the Old 
World to the "asylum of liberty," established in the New. 

About the year 1853, a new movement in the same direction, and more 
effective than the former, was originated. The plan of organization in detail 
was not then — perhaps is not now — fully understood by most persons outside 
of the order. The meetings of its members were conducted in secret. And 
it is believed, generally, that secrecy and concert in action were secured by 
extra-judicial oaths. We are not aware that this has been admitted by 
members of the order, or that it has, to any considerable extent, been posi- 
tively affirmed by many persons outside of it. When questioned by the 
curious concerning certain things pertaining to the organization, members 
would often profess to know nothing about them. Hence is supposed to have 
come the appellation so generally applied to them, Kitow Nothings, or Know 
Nothing party. Their own chosen and proper name, if we rightly remem- 
ber, was the Native American party. 

This party increased and spread rapidly, until it reached every state in the 
Union ; and it embraced many of our best and most patriotic citizens. They 
saw what many of their opponents admitted, that evils had resulted from the 
facilities afforded aliens for becoming invested with all the privileges of 
American citizens. Men differed then as they differ now, as to the jneans 
of remedying these evils. Admitting that the remedy proposed would, if 
adopted, be effectual ; there could be no reasonable hope of effecting its 
adoption. The millions of voters of foreign birth would be nearly unanimous 
in their opposition to the measure, and would overcome any supposable 
majority of native voters in its favor. But even if the contest were confined 
to our native citizens, the hope of the success of the measure would be so 
slight as to render the idea of engaging in the struggle unworthy of a 
moment's consideration. 

The first trial of the strength of Americanism in this county, was in 1854. 
A member of Congress was to be elected to succeed Reuben E. Fenton, 
whose term of office would expire in March following. The Americans nom- 
inated Francis S. Edwards, of Fredonia, and the whigs, George W. Patterson, 
of West&eid. The congressional district, composed of the counties of Chau- 
tauqua and Cattaraugus, had given large whig majorities ; but through the 
nomination of an unpopular candidate by the whigs, in 1852, Mr. Fenton, a 
democrat, was elected. It soon becoming apparent that there would be a 
great defection from the whig party to the Americans, whose candidate had 
been a whig, and Mr. Fenton having broken from his party in Congress by 
voting against the Kansas bill, Mr. Patterson declined the whig nomination, 
and, with many of his party, supported Mr. Fenton. The result was the 
election of Mr. Edwards. 


On the 2d of February, 1855, a meeting of citizens of this county opposed 
to the principles and aims of the new party, was held at Mayville, composed 
of men of both the whig and democratic parties. Abram Dixon, of Westfield, 
was chosen chairman of the meeting; George S. Harrison, of Stockton; 
Theron S. Bly, of Harmony ; and William Colville, vice-presidents ; Stephen 
Snow, of Fredonia, and J. S. Phillips, secretaries. 

The meeting was addressed by Messrs. Alvin Plumb, and Walker, of 
Westfield; Baker, of Sherman; Mason, of Harmony; and Van Ness, of 
Chautauqua. — 

The committee on resolutions, consisting of George W. Patterson, Niram 
Sackett, John H. Pray, Emory F. Warren, and John M. Edson, reported 
resolutions, which were adopted. They expressed alarm at the organization 
of secret political societies, whose members are sworn to vote in political 
matters for political offices for second degree members of this order. They 
regarded these secret workings as evidence of evil and corrupt design ; de- 
nounced the efforts that were making to discourage immigration as " unwise 
and reprehensible ;" deprecated a change in the established mode of natural- 
ization ; and declared slavery a state institution which can not exist in the 
absence of special enactments. They approved of a tariff for revenue with 
discriminating duties, affording incidental protection to the labor and products 
of our own country ; and recommended organizations in the several towns of 
those opposed to secret political societies. 

In several states, the American party had considerable strength. It, how- 
ever, gave early indications of decay. In 1856, the American vote of that 
party for presidential electors, in this county, was about 1,300. It can 
hardly be said to have survived the election of 1856. 

Present Parties. 

A history, in this place, of the two national parties, can not be given. The 
origin of the democratic party has been briefly noticed. It was opposed by 
the whig party during the existence of the latter. The principal measures 
upon which these two parties were divided, were the tariff, a national bank, 
the currency question in general, and legislation on the subject of slavery. 
The attempt to force slavery into free territory in 1854, gave rise to the repub- 
lican party, which assumed the form of a political organization in 1855. Its 
design was to resist all further encroachments of slavery upon free territory 
in the United States. The efforts to force slavery into Kansas awakened 
such an interest in this subject as had never been witnessed in this country, 
and hastened that most important event in our country's history — the attempt, 
by a resort to arms, to sever the Union. The responsibility of carrying the 
country through the perilous ordeal to which it was subjected, and the recon- 
struction of the seceding states, devolved upon the republican party. All 
these states are again members of the Union. The party suflFered a reverse 
at the last election, [1874,] which resulted in the election of a majority of 
democratic members to the present house of representatives. 



Causes of the War. 

That war was declared by the United States against Great Britain, in 
181 2, every adult reader probably knows. But there are doubtless many 
among the younger class of our people who do not know the causes of that 
war, nor its effects upon the early settlers of this county. The,y are thus 
briefly stated : 

Great Britain and France had long been at war. In August, 1804, Great 
Britain, with a view to cripple the trade of France, declared certain ports of 
France in a state of blockade, by which the vessels of other nations were 
prohibited from entering her ports, except in certain cases. This order was 
followed, on the part of Napoleon, by a decree declaring the British islands 
in a state of blockade, and prohibiting all commerce with them. This was 
intended to stop trade between Great Britain and the continent, and applied 
also to American commerce. 

Great Britain then issued another order, declaring in a state of blockade 
all ports and places belonging to France and her allies, from which the 
British flag was excluded, and all the colonies of his Britannic majesty's 
enemies. Only the direct trade between neutral countries and the colonies 
of his majesty's enemies was allowed. This measure so detrimental to neu- 
tral commerce, was followed by a still more sweeping one, on the part of 
France, declaring the British islands in a state of blockade, by sea and land ; 
and every ship sailing from ports of England or her colonies, and proceeding 
to England or to her colonies, or to countries occupied by the English, to be 
lawful prize. And every ship which had submitted to search by an English 
ship, or had made a voyage to England, or paid any tax to that government, 
was declared denationalized, and lawful prize. 

These measures were disastrous to American commerce, and unauthorized 
ty the law of nations. To be lawful, a blockade must be maintained by a 
force stationed at the enemy's ports, sufficient to make it dangerous for vessels, 
to enter. This had not been done by either party. Yet under these orders 
and decrees, or mere " paper blockades," as they were called, many American 
vessels, with their cargoes, were captured by the privateers and cruisers of 
the two belligerents, and condemned as prize. 

But there was another grievance- — the impressment of American seamen. 
Great Britain claimed the right to search our vessels on the high seas, and, if 
among the seamen any were found to be Englishmen, to impress them into her 
service. The claims of the two governments have been thus stated : " The 
government of the United States asserts the broad principle, that the flag of 
their merchant vessels shall protect the mariners. The privilege is claimed, 
although every person on board, except the captain, may be an alien. The 
British government asserts, that the allegiance of their subjects is inalienable, 
in time of war, and that their seamen, found on the sea, the common highway 


of nations, shall not be protected by the flag of private merchant vessels." 
This doctrine, it was said, was common to all the governments of Europe. 
France, as well as England, claimed, in time of war, the services of her sub- 
jects. Both, by decrees, forbid their entering into foreign employ; both 
recall them by proclamation. 

Attempts to adjust the differences between the two countries by negotia- 
tion having failed, our government, on the i8th of June, 1812, declared war 
against Great Britain; and the British minister at Washington soon after 
took his departure, bearing a letter from our government to our representative 
at London, authorizing him to propose to the British government a suspension 
of hostilities with a view to an adjustment of all difficulties. At Halifax, 
on his way home, the British minister, [Mr. Foster,] received dispatches from 
his government, dated about the 17th of June, directed to him at Washington, 
but which he there opened, informing him of the intended revocation of the 
orders in council, to take effect on the ist of August, Presuming that it was 
the object of his government to prevent or stop hostilities, he sent the 
dispatches to Mr. Baker, secretary to the British legation, still at Washington, 
to be communicated to our government. And, having had a conversation 
at Halifax, with Vice-Admiral Sawyer, naval commander, and Sir John Sher- 
broke, lieutenant-governor, he was authorized by them to say to Mr. Baker, 
that the decisions of cases of capture of American vessels should be 
suspended. Our government, however, declined the proposition, preferring 
to await the result of the proposition sent by Mr. Foster to the British 

It appears from the foregoing statement of affairs, that this triangular com- 
mercial warfare continued for many years before it brought us into a state of 
actual hostility to Great Britain. Many of our most patriotic citizens and 
statesmen believed that the differences between the two nations might have 
been settled, and probably would have been, without a resort to arms, and 
without a sacrifice of our national honor. But a majority of the people's rep- 
resentatives in Congress, who are by the constitution vested with the power 
to declare war, having thought it^proper to exercise this power, the support 
of the war was alike the dictate of duty and of patriotism. 

The Chautauqua county militia were among those who entered earliest 
into service in the war. In 1812, previous to the declaration of war, the 
militia was organized into one regiment, commanded by Col. John Mc- 
Mahan. In- June, Col. M. received orders to detach from his regiment a 
full company to be in readiness to march at a minute's warning. The regi- 
ment was called together for a draft, when all volunteered, and no draft was 
made. This company was commanded by Capt. Jehiel Moore. The dec- 
laration was made a few days after, [June i8th,] and the company ordered 
to march, and to rendezvous at Lewiston. Early in July, they joined the 
regiment there, [the i8th regiment of New York detached militia,] com- 
manded by Col. Hugh W. Dobbin, of Geneva ; Majors Burbank, of Gen- 
esee, and Morrison, of Niagara, and Adjutant Gerritt L. Dox, of Geneva. 


Nothing particularly worthy of notice occurred, until the battle of Queens- 
ton, on the 13th of October. The troops were called up at 3 o'clock in the 
morning, and marched to the river. As many as the boats would carry, 
crossed over before daylight. The boats returned, and the Chautauqua 
company embarked and crossed at the dawn of day. The movement was 
discovered by the enemy, and the cannon began to roar on both sides of the 
river. It was not yet quite light, and no enemy was visible ; but a scattering 
fire was kept up from the bushes on the side hill, and from the road that leads 
to Queenston. A part of the Chautauqua company was ordered to scour the 
hill side, which was done, but without meeting any enemy : the firing, how- 
ever, from that quarter ceased. In a description of the Queenston battle by 
an officer from this county, (probably David Eaton, of Portland,) is the 
following : 

" On returning, we found that the troops had retreated to the very verge 
of the river, and all lay flat on the ground, so as to be protected by the bank 
from the fire of the enemy; and that Col. Van Rensselaer was wounded, 
and unable to remain on his feet. He lay on the ground with the officers 
standing around him, holding a council of war. It is believed there was, on 
that side, no officer unwounded, higher in rank than captain. Van Rensselaer 
told them to remain where they were ; that we would soon be reenforced, 
and that some officer would be over to take the command. But neither 
officer nor reenforcement came. Our position was distinctly seen from this 
side ; and as we had but just ground enough to lie upon, the militia, taking 
advantage of the ' constitutional ' doctrine that they could not be ordered be- 
yond the territory of the United States, declined to come to our assistance. 
Having no hope of a reenforcement, Col. Va* Rensselaer, still lying on the 
ground, said : ' Parade your men, and go up and take that battery /' In a few 
minutes we were marching silently along the bank of the river, hid by the 
bank from the view of the enemy, but in full view of our friends on the oppo- 
site side. 

" The battery was at about two-thirds of the distance from the base of the 
hill. Marching up the river until we were just within the great chasm of the 
Niagara, we found a path which wound its way up this stupendous precipice, 
so steep, in many places, as to render it necessary to pull ourselves up by 
taking hold of the bushes, which also served to conceal us from the enemy. 
When the front of the column had gained about two-thirds of the distance up 
the hill, it came to a small level spot, and halted, to give the center and rear 
a chance to close up. On arriving at this spot, we found those in front 
huddled promiscuously together ; and the most of our company, which was 
near the center when the line was formed, happened to get on that side from 
which the path led off towards the top of the hill ; so that, when the order 
was given to advance, our company, or at least a part of it, led the van ; and 
the first Americans who set foot on Queenston Heights that day, were from 
Chautauqua. Our line was immediately formed along the bank, with this 
horrid chasm, nearly 200 feet deep, directly in its rear. When about 100 of 
our men had reached the Heights, we were discovered by the enemy ; and 
the troops stationed in the battery sallied out, and attacked us. But at the 
second fire, they retreated to Queenston, and left us in possession of the bat- 
tery. We mounted the works, swung our hats, and gave three hearty cheers ; 
when lo ! the boats were filled with troops who came over to our relief — their 


' constitutional ' scruples having subsided on seeing us in possession of the 
enemy's works ! 

" The enemy came on to the attack three times, and were as often repulsed. 
In the third attack I was wounded and retired to the rear. For about an hour 
the attack was not renewed ; and our troops remained on the ground, reen- 
forcements constantly arriving. At this time I recrossed the river. A few 
of our men recrossed the river during the day. Those who remained were 
made prisoners of war. They were, however, paroUed the next day. There 
was but one act of downright cowardice in any one from this county, that 
came to my knowledge. As this was somewhat amusing, even amidst the 
carnage by which it was surrounded, I shall briefly relate it. As the men 
were wounded, they retired to the brink of the river, where they lay on the 
ground, waiting for the surgeon to dress their wounds. When the turn 
of Sergeant **** came, the surgeon inquired where his wound was. He 
answered only by a groan. The surgeon turned him over ; no blood was to 
be seen, but he kept groaning. The surgeon supposing he was really wounded, 
unceremoniously uncoated and unpantalooned him, and examined his body all 
over ; but not a scratch was found. The poor sergeant, finding himself ex- 
posed and roughly handled, muttered out, ' I'm sick.' The surgeon then, with 
a contemptuous smile, turned to one who was really wounded, and left the re- 
doubtable sergeant to adjust his costume at his leisure. In this battle, Nath- 
aniel Bowen, of Villenova, was killed, and a Mr. Winsor died of wounds ; David 
Eaton, Alpheus Mclntyre, Erastus Taylor, and Alex. Kelley were wounded. 

"Near the close of the year 1813, the militia of the county were called 
out, en masse, for the defense of Buffalo. They promptly turned out at the 
call. The regiment was commanded by Col. John McMahan. The events 
of the battle of Black Rock, and the burning of Buffalo, are too well known 
to need recapitulation. In the summer of 18x4, the militia were again called 
out, en masse, and stationed below Black Rock, during the siege and storming 
of Fort Erie. They were not engaged in any battle, but almost every man 
was sick of ague and fever, either while on the line, or after their return home. 
A few died, among whom was Ensign Campbell Alexander, of Ripley." 

British Cruisers — Battle of Black Rock. 

During the war, our coast was infested with British cruisers with a view to 
plunder ; and the people of the county were subjected to frequent alarms. 
This being a frontier county, with a coast of 40 miles exposed to the depre- 
dations of a powerful enemy, composed of trained British soldiers and their 
savage allies, these alarms were not causeless. Indeed, several incursions 
were made by the British at different points in this county, but as often, 
perhaps, with damage to themselves as to our inhabitants. Captain Harman, 
of Ashtabula, Ohio, passing up the lake, was driven into the mouth of Cat- 
taraugus creek by the British brigs of war Queen Charlotte and Hunter, 
which fired a number of cannon shot, several of which were afterwards found 
on the shore. An express was sent to the Indians on the creek for help. 
They turned out in great numbers, and stationed themselves on both sides of 
the stream, well armed, anxious for the British to come ashore. Harman's 
boat escaped without injury. The British turned and went off, to the great 
disappointment of the Indians, but much to the satisfaction of the settlers. 


Lay's house, this side of Buffalo, was rifled by the British ; but on the 
remonstrance of the American commander to the British, the goods were 
ordered to be restored. They were accordingly put on board the British 
Queen, an armed vessel of 10 or 12 guns, manned for the purpose, and carry- 
ing a flag of truce, and were sent to Chadwick's Bay, now Dunkirk. They 
were sent ashore in a boat with 13 men under the command of a lieutenant. 
On landing, twelve of the boat crew raised their caps and bade their com- 
mander adieu, and " quit the service," leaving the oflicer and a single sailor, 
a Frenchman, to return to the vessel. While they were parleying with the 
citizens resident at the place, the neighboring militia, whom a notice of the 
arrival had attracted to the spot, not observing the flag of truce, but having 
their attention principally directed to the red coats of the oSicer and his 
remaining sailor, fired upon them, and broke the leg of the latter. The 
officer otitered a liberal reward to the citizens to row him and the Frenchman 
to the vessel. Failing to obtain assistance, he picked up the maimed man, 
and made the best of his way on board. 

Newark, in Canada, having been burnt by the Americans, it was rumored 
that the British intended to retaliate by burning Bufialo. Having already 
taken Fort Niagara, the militia of this county was called out en masse, in 
December, 1813, to repel any attack upon Buffalo. They constituted the 
i62d regiment, and numbered about 400; about 200 hundred of whom went 
under the command of Col. John McMahan and Majors Wm. Prendergast 
and Barnes. There were four companies, commanded by Captains John 

Silsby and Jehiel Moore, and lieutenants Wm. Forbes and Hale. There 

was also a company of Silver Greys, commanded by Capt. Hart. They 
were ordered to rendezvous at Buffalo, and were quartered in log huts a short 
distance eastward of the village. The militia there assembled numbered 
about 2,000 men, and were under the command of Gen. Hall. The British 
force detailed for the attack upon Buffalo consisted of about 1,500 regulars 
and 400 Indians, under Gen. Riall. 

On the night of the 30th of December, about 1 2 o'clock, the American 
camp was alarmed by the receipt of intelligence that the enemy were cross- 
ing Niagara river at Black Rock. A portion of the militia was marched 
down to oppose their landing. The main body of the British had effected a 
landing at the mouth of Conjockity creek, a mile or more below the ferry. 
Efforts were made to prevent their progress, though with but partial success. 
The militia, who had proceeded to the ground, not in a body, but in detached 
parties, were easily routed by the disciplined troops of the enemy, and driven 
back as fast they arrived on the scene of action. 

The skirmishing continued during the greater part of the night, the firing 
of which was distinctly heard at Buffalo, where the Chautauqua regiment had 
remained, under arms, paraded in front of Pomeroy's tavern, as a reserve. 

About four o'clock on the morning of the 31st, Col. McMahan's regiment 
was marched to Black Rock, and posted opposite the ferry, in the rear of the 
battery that had been erected at that point. Soon after daylight, six or seven 


boats, containing each fifty or sixty men, were seen to put oflF from the Cana- 
dian shore, with the evident intention of effecting a landing. A firing was 
kept up by the battery at the ferry, and was returned from the opposite shore. 
One of the enemy's boats was struck by a cannon shot from the American 
side, and sunk with its hostile freight. About the break of day, the Chau- 
tauqua regiment was ordered to advance. They proceeded down the river 
nearly half a mile, and met the enemy in force near the residence of Gen. 
Porter. A sharp, though unequal contest ensued, when the militia broke 
and fled, as those who had preceded them had done. During the engage- 
ment, a part of the British force had passed up under the bank of the river, 
and taken post in the road leading from Buffalo to the ferry, with a view of 
cutting off the militia in their retreat. Escape by the avenue through which 
they had arrived being thus prevented, and pressed, as they were, by the 
advance of the enemy, they were compelled to take to the woods in the rear 
of the ferry for safety, through which many of the American force, including 
a portion of the Chautauqua regiment, fled precipitately ; and such of them 
as escaped the rifle and tomahawk of the savages, who immediately filled the 
woods in pursuit, reached the main road at Buffalo and at various points for 
several miles to the eastward in the direction of Batavia, The largest por- 
tion of the whole force returned to their homes, among whom were the prin- 
cipal part of the Chautauqua militia. The remainder, who had survived, 
were afterwards quartered for several weeks at Miller's tavern, about two 
miles to the east of Buffalo. Towards noon of the 31st, the British set fire 
to Buffalo, and finally recrossed the river to Canada, the second or third day 
after that event. 

The loss to this county was severe in proportion to the number engaged. 
James Brackett, a lawyer from Mayville, was killed and scalped by the 
Indians during the retreat from Black Rock. Joseph Frank, from Busti, 
Wm. Smiley, from Ellery, Ephraim Pease and John Lewis, from Pomfret, 
Aaron Nash, Bovee and Hubbard, from Hanover, and several others, were 
killed. Maj. Prendergast had a number of balls shot through his hat and 
clothes. Capt. Silsby was severely wounded, and Lieut. Forbes had one 
man killed and five men wounded of the twenty-one under his command. 
The bodies of the killed which were found, were buried in a common grave 
near the road leading from Buffalo to Black Rock, into which eighty-ijine 
were promiscuously thrown. Among these were the bodies of the Chautau- 
qua militia. They were afterwards disinterred, and many of them claimed 
by their relatives, and taken home to be buried. The bodies of several 
others, who had been killed on their retreat through the woods, and scalped 
by the Indians, were found during the winter and spring, and committed to 
the earth. 

To the foregoing sketch of military operations along the frontier of West- 
em New York, by Judge Warren, he subjoins the following : 

" At this period, the frontier presented a scene of desolation rarely 
witnessed. The inhabitants who had escaped the tomahawk, fled into the 


interior, in the depth of winter, without shelter or means of support, and 
subsisted on the charity of their friends. The panic was general, and per- 
vaded this county, though in a degree somewhat less than in the section of 
country in the immediate vicinity of the point of attack. The only build- 
ings remaining in Buffalo were the jail, which was built of stone, a small 
framed house, and an armorer's shop. All the houses and almost every 
building between Buffalo and Niagara Falls were destroyed, as were also 
many of those on the Batavia road, for several miles beyond Buffalo." 

The following are names of the commissioned and non-commissioned 
officers of companies of Chautauqua militia, under the command of Col. 
Hugh W. Dobbin : 

Capt. Moore's Company — -July 4 to October 4., 18 12. 

Captain — Jehiel Moore. Lieut. — David Eaton. Ensign — Charles Burritt. 
Sergeants — Alpheus Mclntyre, John Ingersoll, Samuel J. Smith, John Dull. 
Corporals — Amos Wright, Jonathan S. Pattison, Daniel Densmore. Fifers — 
Arnold Russell, John Bate. 

Capt. Maoris Company — October 4 to Dec. ji, 181 2. 

Captain — Jehiel Moore. Lieut. — Samuel D. Wells. Ensign — Charles 
Burritt. Sergeants — Alpheus Mclntyre, Asa Johnson, Isaac Badgley, John 
Dull. Corporals — Hezekiah G. Canfield, Jonathan S. Pattison, Josiah Gibbs. 
Drummer — John Bartoo. Fifer — Horatio Hopkins. 

Names of commissioned and non-commissioned officers of companies of 
Chautauqua militia, under the command of Col. John McMahan : 
Capt. Silsby's Compa7iy — Dec. 20, 181J, to Feb. j, 1814. 

Captain — John Silsby. Lieut. — Charles Bemus. Ensign — Clark Parker. 
Sergeants — Zephaniah Phelps, Abijah Bennett, Peter Simmons, John Wisner, 
Wm. Russell, [substitute for H. Tinkcom,] David Bly. Corporals — Robert 
Latham, Stephen Deming, Samuel Griffith, Hezekiah Seymour, Asa Martin. 
Drummer — John Lee. Fifers — Myron Bly, Alanson Root. 

Lieut. Forbes' Company — Dec. 20, J8ij, to Feb. j, 1814. 

[This company was set off from Capt. Silsby's. Solomon Jones was 
appointed captain ; Wm. Forbes, lieut. ; and William Martin, ensign. Mr. 
Jones decHning the appointment, Forbes was the senior in command.] 

Lieutenant — William Forbes. Ensign — William Martin. Sergeants — Amos 
Bird, Phineas Palmeter, Jr., Isaac Martin, Elijah Akin. Corporals — Stephen 
Hadley, Ira Owens. 

* Capt. Adam^ Company — Dec. 20, i8ij, to Feb. j, 1814. 

Captain — Moses Adams. First Lieut. — David Eaton. Second Lieut. — 
Campbell Alexander. Ensign — William Ingersoll. Sergeants — Nathaniel 
Fay, Ja.mes Dickson, John Dull, Philip Stephens, Daniel C. Northrup, Robert 
C. Dickson. Corporals — Pliny Case, [substitute for I. Sweet,] Friend John- 
son, [taken prisoner at Black Rock,] Rufiis Perry, Wm. M. Riddle, Wilder 
Emerson, John Smith, [wounded.] Drummer — George Hall. Fifer — Bar- 
ney Turtelot. 

Capt. Tubbs' Company — Dec. 20, 181 j, to Feb. j, 1814. 

Captain — Martin B. Tubbs. Lieut. — Peter Ingersoll. Ensign — Guy 
Webster. Sergeants — Miles Webster, Joel Barrell, James Knapp, Nathaniel 


Barney, Jonathan S. Pattison. Corporals — Salmon Munger, Ira Clothier, 
Allen Denny, Asahel Burnham, Uriah Nash, Moses Hines. Fifers — Wm. 
Wilcox, Thomas Nevins. _ DrumfHers — ^John Bartoo, Samuel Nevins. 

Capt. Tubbs" Company — Aug. i, 1814, to Sept. 26, 1814. 

Captain — Martin B. Tubbs. Lieut. — Benj. Perry. Ensign — Samuel 

Smith. Sergeants — Miles Webster, Sudim Graves, Jonathan S. Pattison, 

James Knapp. Corporals — Chester Smith, Arunah Gilmore, Rufus Ransted, 

Preserved Wells, Ira Clothier. Drummer — Jno. White. Fifer — Thos. Nevins. 

Capt. McMahan's Company — August i, 1814. 
Captain — James McMahan. Lieutenant — Charles Bemus. Second Lieut. — 
Campbell Alexander. Ensign — William Ingersoll. Sergeants — Zephaniah 
Phillips, Nathaniel Fay, Isaiah Martin, Daniel C. Northrup, Reuben Ellis, 
Daniel Bennett. Corporals — Robert Latham, Stephen Dunning, Pliny Cass, 
Lorrel Nichols, Rufus Berry. Fifers — Wm. Bandel, Myron Bly. 

In the original record of the companies, we find a large portion of the 
persons enrolled, marked as deserters. Of one of the companies, more than 
one-half are so designated ; of two or three others, a considerable number ; 
and a few in the remaining ones. The greater portion of those who were 
returned as deserters, are not to be considered as really such. The state of 
their families, and the condition of affairs at and about Buffalo, were such as 
to justify a majority of them to visit their homes. Circumstances clearly 
indicate that the defection of most of them may not be justly ascribed to 
cowardice or disloyalty. Their character forbids the supposition. They 
were then and during the remainder of their lives, highly respected citizens, 
some of whom are still living. Nor did they leave clandestinely as deserters 
usually do. Judge Foote, in a note at the end of the lists, says : 

" It will be seen that nearly all the desertions were in the companies of 
Col. McMahan's regiment, in the winter of 1813-1814, in the vicinity of 
Buffalo, after it had been burned. They had notRing to do. They had no 
quarters or tents, nor comfortable rations ; and they went home openly and 
boldly, with the knowledge of the officers, without opposition, though without 
their consent." 

George W. Manly, a substitute for Asahel Russell, under Capt. Silsby, 
and discharged at or near Fort Niagara, where he remained until after the 
Buffalo battle, after which he went to the battle ground " to look for the dead 
and wounded," says : 

"There was not a house nor tent for the soldiers in the town. They could 
not procure food or lodging ; and there was not an enemy on this side of the 
river. The soldiers that went home to Chautauqua did so because they were 
obliged to ; being without money, and having no government stock on hand. 
Besides, most of them had left their families and cattle without food. The 
latter had to be kept on browse, and some of them died. The weather was 
cold, and the soldiers had to furnish their own blankets, for the want of 
which their families were suffering ; and their presence at home was necessary 
to keep their families from starvation." 

William Russell, a sergeant in Capt. Silsb/s company, thus describes the 
state of things at home on his return : 


" My wife and children met me at the gate to welcome me in, and said : 
' You will not go back again ?' I told her I should, the day after to-morrow, 
[the 3d of January,] and that I had the premise of being discharged in a few 
days. On the 6th day I returned to Buffalo with what deserters I could find, 
about ten. We were in season to help gather and bury the dead. I returned 
home the last week in February or the first in March. I found two of my 
cows lying dead, having died of starvation. Isaac Young had brought my 
wife a peck of musty meal. She boiled a quart into mush and fed it to one 
cow at night, and another quart the next morning ; but it did not save her 
life. Young promised her a peck of com per week until I returned home — 
a small allowance for her and six children^ She proceeded to get supper. 
There was a little meat, but no bread except a little piece of johnny-cake. 
I said, boil some potatoes ; but there was not one left ; all had been fed to 
the cows to save their lives, but they died. Bed time came ; when she said : 
' We will fix for bed ; I suppose you have got seasoned to lying on the floor.' 
'Yes,' I replied, 'and on the ground too.' She swept the floor, and brought 
on the bed. I told her to bring on the straw bed. She said there had been 
no straw in the tick for three weeks ; it had all been fed to the cows. * * * 
Now, Judge Foote, you can better conceive my feelings than I can describe 
them. To think of the privations and hardships we all went through, and to 
bear the name of deserters withal, makes the blood boil in my veins. Not a 
word is said about our volunteering under Gen. Peter B. Porter, and going 
over to Fort Erie ; that is all forgotten." 

David Eaton, late of Portland, under date of August 26, 1832, wrote on 
this subject as follows : 

" We all admitted and felt that the affair at Black Rock and BuflFalo was 
disgraceful to the militia, not of Chautauqua county alone, but of Western 
New York. While a part of the militia of this county remained in the vicin- 
ity of Buffalo, and another part returned, and continued in service some five 
or six weeks, I have no knowledge that any from the other counties, — Cattar- 
augus, Allegany, Niagara, •Genesee, and perhaps Orleans and Steuben — ever 
returned at all. If the odium of desertion fairly attaches to any of us, it does 
also to all of them, their oflScers included. And I strongly suspect, (though 
I do not know,) that the regiments from those counties were never mustered 
at all ; and, if so, no record was ever made of their being in the service. 
And thus they slipped their own necks out of the yoke, and left the disgrace, 
so far as appears from the returns, to be borne wholly by poor old Chau- 
tauqua. * * * If they [from those counties] did desert, officers and all, 
that is no excuse for us. I have no disposition to gloss over our conduct 
by a comparison with others, but am willing that the truth should be known. 
A part of our regiment did leare after the battle, came home, and did not 
return ; and perhaps there was no other way than to return them as deserters. 
But even in their case, something may be said in their favor. It was well 
known that Gen. McClure had just burned Newark, and everybody expected 
that the enemy would retaliate by burning Buffalo. When the mihtia of the 
western counties were called out, en masse, it was generally understood that 
it was for the express purpose of defending that place. And when they found 
that all was lost, it was not unnatural for them to suppose that their services 
were no longer needed. Col. John McMahan, who commanded the regiment 
from this county, said, he had been legally called into the service of the 
United States, and he meant to stay till he could be legally discharged. He 


did so, and did all he could to get the men back, and keep them there. He 
was, however, rather liberal in giving furloughs, and many of us took the ad- 
vantage of it, myself among the rest." 

Gen. Hall, in his report of January 6, 1814, says: "The Chautauqua 
militia, a regiment under the command of Lt. Col. McMahan, which arrived 
at Buffalo on the 29th of December, about 300 men, swelled my force to 
2,011 ; which was reduced by alarm and desertion, on the morning of the 
alarm, to less than 1,200 men. And so deficient were my supplies of ammu- 
nition, that a great part of the cartridges for Lt. Col. McMahan's regiment 
were made and distributed after they were paraded on the morning of the 
battle. * * * Col. McMahan's regiment had been a reserve in battle ; 
but when ordered into action, terror seized them — they flew in disgrace, 
though some stood by and behaved well, and endeavored to rally men." 

To the defection of the reserve, he imputes, in great part, his defeat. 

From the statements in preceding pages, it is not easy to determine what 
measure of blame attaches to the Chautauqua militia. It should be remem- 
bered that they were raw soldiers, without adequate drill, and without expe- 
rience, hurried into action, almost at the moment of their arrival, against the 
well-drilled and experienced British soldiers. There may have been Other 
difficulties which could not have been overcome by the best-disciplined 
troops. It was well for themselves and their families, that their services 
were not needed for any considerable period after the unfortunate engage- 
ment we have described. 

When the war was about to commence, many were more apprehensive of 
our inability to cope wilh the enemy on the seas than on the land. But it 
is now generally conceded that our greatest successes were achieved by our 
navy. Both the belligerents probably congratulated themselves on the re- 
turn of peace, though neither had occasion to rejoice at what had been 
gained in the contest. We doubtless convinced Great Britain of our strength 
as a nation, and our ability to defend ourselves against the encroachments 
and injuries of other powers; but our government failed to secure the only 
object fought for — to redress the grievance of the impressment of seamen on 
American vessels. The repeal of the British orders in council, of which we 
justly complained, as will be remembered, was proclaimed before the war 
had really commenced, leaving only the impressment question at issue, which 
was left as it had been, without any concession on the part of Great Britain. 
Peace, even with this grievance unredressed, was a boon, for which our 
people had reason to be grateful. Especially have we occasion to rejoice at 
the prospect of perpetual peace between two nations having a common ori- 
gin, a common language, and a common religion. 

The last battle was fought at New Orleans, in which our army under Gen. 
Jackson gained a brilliant victory, after the treaty of peace had been negoti- 
ated in Europe. Peace, however, was not proclaimed in this country until 
February following. 



Its Origin. 

An enumeration of all the events which led to the war of the rebellion, is 
incompatible with the design as well as the prescribed limits of this work. 
Yet, as it seems proper that some statement of the causes of a war should be 
transmitted with its history, we preface our brief sketch of the rebellion with 
the mention of a few of the antecedents of the war in which many of the 
citizens of Chautauqua county bore an honorable and a conspicuous part. 

Our late civil war may be justly ascribed, in great part, to that grand politi- 
cal heresy named in the South state rights ; by which is meant the right of a 
state to nullify an act of Congress which state authorities may declare uncon- 
stitutional — a doctrine expressly asserted in the original draft of the Ken- 
tucky Resolutions of 1798, and which, for a time, was accepted by a majority 
of the people of the North as well as the South — a doctrine which involves 
the right of a state to secede from the Union. In 1832, South Carolina, 
displeased with a protective tariff, passed an ordinance of secession ; but by 
concessions to her prejudices and demands, she was induced to repeal her 
ordinance, and consented to remain in the Union. The cause of the late war 
was the evident determination of the Northern states to prevent the further 
extension of slavery. The effort to introduce slavery into Kansas had proved 
unsuccessful. The election of Mr. Lincoln was regarded by the South as a 
death-blow to their favorite project, unless they could separate themselves 
from the Union. 

The republican party had been formed in 1855, upon the issue of slavery 
extension. In 1856, threats of disunion, in case of the election of Fremont, 
were uttered by the leading statesmen of the South ; and the election of Mr. 
Lincoln in i860 was made the occasion for carrying their meditated project 
into effect. South Carolina took the lead in the secession movement. A 
state convention was called to meet on the 17th of December. Before the 
end of November, similar calls were issued in Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, 
Virginia, Florida, and Louisiana; and their legislatures assembled in Decem- 
ber and January. Before the meeting of Congress in December, the move- 
ment for immediate secession was confined to the cotton and Gulf states. 
The secession of Tennessee, Texas, Arkansas, and North Carolina was for 
a time delayed. 

Congress met December 3, i860. In his message, President Buchanan 
ascribes the occurrences at the South to " the long continued and intemperate 
interference of the northern people with the question of slavery." He says 
it would be " easy for the American people to settle the slavery question for- 
ever, and to restore peace and harmony. * * * All that is necessary, 
and all for which the slave states have ever contended, is to be let alone." 
He denies the right of secession as a constitutional right, and says : " Seces- 
sion is neither more nor less than revolution. It may, or it may not, be a 


justifiable revolution ; but still it is revolution." He discusses the question 
as to the power of Congress to coerce into submission a state which is 
attempting to withdraw, or has withdrawn from the confederacy ; and con- 
cludes, " that no such power has been delegated to Congress or to any other 
department of the federal government. * * * War would present the 
most effectual means of destroying the Union, and banish all hope of its 
peaceable reconstruction. * * * Congress possess many means of pre- 
serving it by conciliation; but the sword was not placed in their hand to 
preserve it by force.'' 

The argument of the president against the power to coerce a state, seems 
to have been based upon the official opinion of Attorney-General Black. 
The president may employ the land and naval forces to aid him in executing 
the laws. He can thus enforce the collection of the duties within the proper 
port of entry, but he is not confined to the custom-house nor any particular 
spot. He says : 

" To send a military force into a state to act against the people, would be 
simply making war upon them. Existing laws put and keep the government 
strictly on the defensive. Force can be used only to repel an assault upon 
the public property, and aid the courts in the performance of their duty. 
* * * If war can not be declared, nor hostilities carried on against a 
state, by the central government, then it seems to follow that an attempt to 
do so would be ipso facto an expulsion of such state from the Union. Being 
treated as an alien and an enemy, she would be compelled to act accordingly. 
And if Congress shall thus break up this Union, will not all the states be ab- 
solved from their federal obligations ? Is any portion of the people bound 
to contribute their money or blood to carry on such a contest ? * * * 
If this view of the subject be as correct as I think it is, then the Union must 
utterly perish at the moment when Congress shall arm one part of the people 
against another for any purpose but that of merely protecting the general 
government in the exercise of its proper constitutional functions." 

On the 2ist of December, i860. South Carolina passed the secession ordi- 
nance; and on the 24th, Gov. Pickens, by proclamation, declared South 
Carolina to be " a separate, sovereign, free and independent state, having a 
right to levy war, conclude peace, negotiate treaties," etc. It is worthy of 
note, that the secretary of war, John B. Floyd, of Va., had placed in the 
arsenal at Charleston about 70,000 stand of arms ; and the arsenal was put 
in the care of the governor of the state, by which means the arms got into 
the hands of the conspirators ; thus showing the complicity of the secretary 
in the treason. The two South Carolina senators had resigned their seats. 
Cobb, secretary of the treasury, resigned December loth; and Senator Cass, 
of Michigan, on the 14th. The resignation of the latter was believed to 
have been caused by the president's unwillingness to resort to coercion, even 
to protect the public property. 

Serious apprehensions for the safety of Major Anderson and his men in 
Fort Moultrie, were entertained. His garrison consisted of only sixty effec- 
tive men; and the fort was an indifferent and insecure one. Unsuspected by 
the South Carolina authorities, and without the knowledge of the president, 


and having, moreover, been denied reenforcements, on the night of the 
26th of December, he left Fort Moultrie, and occupied Fort Sumter, which 
had been prepared for him. The evacuation of Fort Moultrie surprised 
the South Carolinians and the president : the former, because they consid- 
ered the president under a pledge to prevent such a movement ; the latter, 
because he had instructed Major Anderson to pursue a course which should 
guard against a collision of troops with the people of that state. He had 
enjoined him "not to take up, without necessity, any position which could 
be construed into the assumption of a hostile attitude ; but to hold posses- 
sion of the forts, and, if attacked, to defend himself" 

From the feelings and expressions of the people in and about Charleston, 
and from the preparations for military movements, Anderson had reason 
to expect either an attack in an almost defenceless fort, or an early occupa- 
tion of Fort Sumter. Should the latter take place, he could not maintain 
his position a single day ; and having no expectation of reenforcements, he 
thought it his duty to change his position. This movement, however, was 
construed into a threat of coercion, and was immediately followed by prep- 
arations for resistance. 

Commencement of Hostilities. 

The South Carolina convention which had been called to meet on the 17 th 
of December, i860, elected three commissioners "to treat with the United 
States " for a peaceful settlement. They arrived at Washington the 26th, 
and, in obedience to their instructions, demanded of the president the un- 
conditional evacuation of the forts in the harbor, in case of his refusal to 
order Anderson back to Fort Moultrie. The post-office and the telegraph 
offices were taken under control of the state authorities ; and possession was 
taken of the custom-house and of Fort Moultrie and Castle Pinckney by the 
state troops, who were readily supphed by the arms and munitions which Sec- 
retary Floyd had placed in the arsenal there. Of the interview between the 
commissioners and the president, it needs only to be said that it was fruitless. 

F^rly in January, 1861, the steamer. Star of the West, left New York, by 
order of the war department, then conducted by Joseph Holt, of Ky., with 
provisions and munitions and 200 troops for Fort Sumter. The Charleston 
authorities having become apprised of this, they made preparations to resist 
the passage of the steamer to her destination. When within about two mUes 
of Fort Sumter, a masked battery from Morris' Island opened fire upon her. 
She was struck several times, and was compelled to return without accom- 
plishing her mission. 

Early in February, the secretaries of departments from the seceding states, 
and their senators and many of their representatives, had resigned their seats. 
In January, the seven states which united in forming the Southern Confed- 
eracy, had adopted their ordinances of secession ; [South Carolina, Dec. 20, 
i860; Texas, Feb. i, 1861.] 

On the 4th of February, the members of the sofifcem convention met at 


Montgomery, Ala., for the purpose oi forming a government. The delegates 
had been chosen by the several state conventions. The constitution of the 
United States, with some alterations and additions relating to slaves and 
slavery, was adopted as the constitution of the confederacy. On the 9th, the 
convention chose Jefferson Davis to be provisional president, and Alexander 
H. Stephens, vice-president. 

Sundry peace measures were proposed in Congress, but without effect. 
Also a "peace convention," proposed by the state of Virginia, in which 
twenty-one states were represented, met at Washington on the 4th of Feb- 
ruary, and continued its session until the 27 th. The seceding states took no 
part in it. It was without any practical result. 

The war was commenced by the bombardment of Fort Sumter, April 1 2, 
x86i. The batteries of Sullivan's Island, Morris' Island, and other points, 
were opened on the fort at 4 o'clock in the morning. Fort Sumter returned 
the fire, and a brisk cannonading was kept up for some time. In answer to 
the Confederate General Beauregard's demand to surrender the fort, Major 
Anderson replied, that he would surrender when his supplies were exhausted ; 
that is, if he were not reenforced. On the next day he surrendered the fort. 
After the surrender, bells were rung and cannons fired in Charleston. No 
lives, it was said, were lost in the bombardment, though several of Ander- 
son's men were wounded. The rebels also pretended that they had 
suflfered no loss. This was at first believed. It was afterward stated on what 
was considered reliable authority, that about 300 were killed in Fort Moultrie 
alone. This statement was corroborated by a northern man who had been 
forced into the confederate service, and who was in Fort Moultrie during 
the bombardment. Major Anderson and his men left on the 14th for New 
York, on the steamer Isabel. The necessity of the surrender appears from 
Major Anderson's dispatch to the secretary of war : 

" Sir : Having defended Fort Sumter 34 hours, until quarters were en- 
tirely burned, main gates destroyed by fire, the gorge wall seriously injured, 
magazine surrounded by flames, and its door closed from the effects of heat, 
four barrels and three cartridges of powder only being available, and no 
provisions but pork remaining, I accepted terms of evacuation offered by 
Gen. Beauregard, being the same offered by him on the nth instant, prior 
to the commencement of hostilities, and marched out of the fort on Sunday 
afternoon, 14th instant, with colors flying, drums beating, bringing away 
company and private property, and saluting my flag with fifty guns." 

It was believed that the confederates intended to march on Washington 
with a large army; and detachments of cavalry were stationed on roads 
outside of the city, and volunteer companies were in the capital. Action 
was immediately taken in many of the states for raising troops. The services 
of many thousand volunteers were promptly offered. 

On the 15th of April, 1861, President Lincoln issued s. proclamation calling 
for 7 5, 000 men, whose first services would "probably be to repossess the 
forts, places, and property which had been seized firom the Union." He 
stated that the utmcwKare would be observed, to avoid injury to the 


property or persons of peaceful citizens of any part of the country. And he 
commanded the persons composing the combinations against the government 
to disperse, and to return to their homes within 20 days from date. He also 
called a special session of Congress, to meet on the 4th of July next, to deter- 
mine such measures as the public safety and interest might seem to demand. 
This proclamation was, within a few days, followed by another, declaring a 
blockade of the ports of all the seceded states. 

Two days after orders for troops had been issued by Gov. Andrew, of 
Massachusetts, two regiments, collected from different parts of the state, 
appeared at the capitol, and reached New York city, en route for Washington, 
before a regiment of this state was ready to march. Many banks and wealthy 
individuals offered large loans of money to the government. Public meetings 
were held in almost every village to raise money and other means of support 
for the families of the volunteers. 

At Fredonia, a public meeting was held on the evening of the 20th of 
April, and was effectively addressed by Oscar W. Johnson, Frederick A. 
Redington, George Barker, Lorenzo Morris, Ezra S. Ely, and Orson Stiles, 
all of Fredonia, and Geo. C. Cranston, of Sheridan. A series of patriotic 
resolutions were adopted, and a finance committee was appointed to take 
charge of and to disburse the fund to be raised for the relief of the famiUes 
of the volunteer soldiers. The names of those who subscribed to this fund 
at this meeting, and the sums they respectively pledged, were as follows : 

George Barker, Orson Stiles, Stephen M. Clement, John B. & Heman D. 
M. Miner, [firm,.] Scott Aldrich, Geo. H. White, Lewis B. Grant, Geo. W. 
Lewis, Calvin Hutchinson, $100 each; Joel R. Parker, $125 ; Censor o^c^, 
James P. MuUett, Taylor & Jennings, Geo. N. Frazine, Alva Colbum, 
Henry C. Frisbee, John B. Forbes, A. N. Clark & Co., Luther Crocker, J. 
N. Greene, James O. Putnam, Frederick A. Redington, R. U. Wheelock, 
Leveret B. Greene, Duane L. Gumsey, David Barrell, Geo. D. Hinkley, each 
$50 ; W. W. Lewis, $35 ; Erastus Holt, Charles E. Washburn, John M. Van 
Kleek, Thomas W. Bristol, Aaron L. Putnam, Salmon Hart, Nathan A. Put- 
nam, Caleb Stanley, Geo. W. Briggs, Isaac A. Saxton, Delos Beebe, Charles 
J. Orton, W. W. Scott, Preston Barmore, John Hamilton, Jr., E. M. Spink, 
Ezra S, Ely, L. A. Barmore, Emory F. Warren, Oscar W. Johnson, J. B. 
Putnam, Aaron O. Putnam, Charles F. Matteson, C. W. Burton, Simeon 
Savage, Spencer Allen, Stephen Snow, Daniel J. Pratt, each $25 ; Stephen 
O. Day, Allen Hinkley, Obed Bissell, Wm. B. Archibald, Ralph H. Hall, 
Abner N. Clark, Jesse E. Baldwin, Julius J. Parker, John C. Mullett, R. E. 
Post, D. O. Sherman, Lorenzo Morris, H. Bouton, each $20. Total, $2,870. 

Movements in the North. 

At Jamestown, a mass-meeting was held on the 29th of April, which was 
stated to be the first large movement of the people in that section of the county. 
The occasion was honored by the closing of store^^ business places, and 
a grand display of colors. A magnificent flag thl^Btd seen service in the 


navy, was run up on a staff at the stand, comer of Pine and Third streets. 
Hon. Samuel A. Brown was chosen president of the meeting ; and Horace 
Allen, Jehlel Tiffany, Levi Barrows, Sardius Steward, D. G. Powers, Daniel 
Williams, John A. Hall, Emri Davis, David Wilbur, H. N. Thornton, John 
Markham, S. E. Palmer, vice-presidents. The meeting was addressed by the 
president on the nature of the nation's crisis and the duty of her citizens. 
He introduced, successively, as speakers, Hon. R. P. Marvin, Rev. Messrs. 
S. W. Roe, H. H. Stockton, of Panama, T. H. Rouse, L. W. Norton, Henry 
Benson, and J. Leslie. They were followed by Capt. James M. Brown, of 
company B., and Hon. Madison Bumell. A subscription for the volunteers 
was then opened and a generous fund raised. After which, short speeches 
were made by Rev. Isaac George, and Messrs. Wm. H. Lowry and Theodore 
Brown. Also a committee of ladies was appointed to provide for the ward- 
robe and other wants of the volunteers : Mrs. A. F. Allen, Mrs. D. H. 
Grandin, Mrs. R. P. Marvin, Mrs. Lewis Hall, Mrs. O. E. Jones, Mrs. J. H. 
Clark, Mrs. C. L. Harris, Mrs. Orsell Cook, Mrs. C. L. Jeffords, Mrs. Wm. 
Post, Mrs. W. Barker, Mrs. S. Seymour. 

Another meeting was held at Jamestown, Friday evening, July 25th, fol- 
lowed by two others on Saturday and Monday evenings. In the Journal, 
from which the following account is taken, the proceedings were thus 
introduced : 

Three Huge Meetings in Jamestown — Prodigal Outpouring of Money and Men 
for the Good Cause — Grand Speeches from Orators and the People — 
Poland, Carroll, Kiantone, Ellington, Busti, Harmony, and the county 

The editor says : We hardly know where to commence the narration of 
the exciting events of the past week. Our people have been wrought up to 
a pitch of enthusiasm and patriotic ardor, that, in some respects, can find no 
parallel in previous experiences. * * * Three meetings, such as this 
place has never seen before, have been held. The meeting of Friday even- 
ing, July 25th, exceeded the expectations of the most sanguine. Every seat 
in Jones' Hall was filled before dark, and all the standing room was packed 
full before the meeting commenced. Probably hundreds were turned away 
from the stairs, which also were crowded. 

Hon. Samuel A. Brown was chosen to preside, and J. E. Mayhew made 
secretary. The meeting was addressed by Rev. L. W. Norton, Capt. Tuck- 
erman, Capt. A. J. Marsh, of company K., 49th regiment, Hon. Madison 
Burnell, and John F. Smith, Esq. Subscriptions for money were again taken 
for the families of volunteers. Upwards of $500 was subscribed; In the 
meantime lists were open for vplunteers to subscribe. Then came one of 
the most remarkable and exciting scenes ever witnessed in this county. 
Capt. Marsh, Capt. John F. Smith, Rev. Henry Benson, Madison Bumell 
and others, gathered in front of the platform receiving the names of subscrib- 
ers, their amounts, andJlfc^names of recruits, exhorting in the most thrilling 
and patriotic tone. '^^^Kp the ball rolling, as each noble fellow walked to 



the stand, and laid himself a live offering on his country's altar, three cheers 
were given to each by the excited audience. 

Col. Henry Baker was called to the stand, and made most touching and 
patriotic remarks. The old man, trembling and weak, told how he "went to 
the defense of his country when but i6 years old;" that he had three boys 
in the army now ; that he hated to let 'them go ; but he " could not blame 
them, for their 'dad' went when he was only sixteen." He did not know 
that he should ever see the boys again. One of them was badly wounded 
and a prisoner — if he was alive — the second was sick in the hospital. Then 
the old man broke clear down, and sobbingly declared that his only regret 
was, that he had not six boys more to send ; and closed with the most 
touching benediction on the old flag and on the country. Many wept with 
him, sharing alike his emotion and his devotion to his country. 

Wm. H. Tew, from the back side of the room, said he wanted the thing to 
move a little faster; and he offered $2 to every man who would enlist, in ad- 
dition to the gross amount subscribed by him before. O. E. Jones offered 
$5 to every man. Col. Allen pledged $io to every man ; Solomon Jones, 
$5 ; and others enough to make $25 to every man — making $50 bounty to 
every one. Midnight arrived ; and the enthusiasm of the audience was un- 
abated. Nine volunteers had been enrolled ; and it was moved to suspend 
operations until the next evening. The offers mentioned above were extended 
until the next night. 

The meeting on Saturday evening was, if possible, more enthusiastic than 
the former one, and was more fertile in practical accomplishments of the end 
in view — enlistments. The speakers were Rev. Messrs. S. W. Roe, P. Byrnes, 
and H. Benson, and Mr. Bumell and Capt. Smith. When the roll was 
opened, volunteers came in squads and platoons. Thirty names were re- 
ceived in addition to those previously obtained. The meeting adjourned 
while the excitement was high, to Broadhead Hall, Monday evening. 

The meeting on Monday evening was as well attended as the others. It 
was addressed by Rev. T. H. Rouse, Major Wm. O. Stevens, Theodore 
, Brown, Qr. Master Knapp, Col. A. F. Allen, Capt. Tuckerman, Rev. H. 
Benson, and others. Seven more volunteered. At a late hour the meeting 
adjourned, sine die. At this series of meetings, the names oi forty-six patriots 
were enrolled, and $2,600 were pledged to be raised for them. 

In Westfield, on Saturday evening, April 20th, a meeting of the citizens 
was held in Hinkley Hall to consider measures for raising volunteers, and 
for the support of their families. The hall was densely packed with persons, 
from the s^ppl^^outhnto the tottering, gray old man, each eager to contribute, 
in some way, to Vhe~ defense of his country. Hon. George W. Patterson 
was called to the chair, and addressed the meeting in a stirring and patriotic 
manner. E. W. Dennison was cliosen secretary. Messrs. Austin Smith, 
Joshua R. Babcock, and Alpheus U. Baldwin, were appointed a committee 
to prepare resolutions expressive of the sense of U|Mpeeting. Hon. Henry 
A. Prendergast, of Ripley, being present, beinfl^Hed for, addressed the 

f U^^ei 


meeting in an earnest and patriotic manner, and was greeted with enthusiastic 
applause. The resolutions reported by the committee, approved the action 
of the president in calUng out troops to aid in executing the laws and repos- 
sessing the forts and other places and property seized by the insurgents ; 
invited all true patriots able to bear arms to volunteer their services ; and 
pledged the means necessary for the support of the families of those who 
were absent in the service of their country. The resolutions were adopted. 

Rev. Jeremiah C. Drake, pastor of the Baptist church, was called out, and 
made a thrilling speech. He excited the wildest enthusiasm, and was often 
interrupted with loud applause. He was folUowed by Messrs. H. C. Kings- 
bury, John C. Long, — Adams, Geo. W. Palmer, and Capt. Thomas Baker, 
of company C, who expressed a readiness to lead his company wherever 
duty should call. They all spoke with great ardor, and took decided ground 
in favor of sustaining the government at all hazards. The chair, on motion, 
appointed M. C. Rice, E. W. Dennison, and Wm. Hynes, a committee to 
solicit subscriptions to procure a complete officer's outfit for Capt. Baker, as 
an expression of the appreciation of the citizens of Westfield of his patriot- 
ism in proffering his services for the defense of the government. A call for 
volunteers was favorably responded to by a large number of young men. A 
subscription for the benefit of the families of volunteers was circulated, and 
upwards of $1,000 signed on the spot; and many agreed to furnish military 
■suits for those who volunteered. 

The circumscribed limits of our history forbid a particular account of war 
movements throughout the country. The foregoing sketch of the proceedings 
of the meetings in this county, is a fair specimen of the feeling that pervaded 
the free states. Never, in any country, was the spirit of patriotism more 
clearly displayed or more highly intensified. Its genuineness was evinced 
throughout the North, by the immense sacrifices of the people for the defense 
and preservation of the Union. Party lines seemed, for a time, at least, to 
be obliterated, and all classes manifested a determination to suppress the 
rebellion at all hazards. 

Further Action of the Government. 

On the 29th of April, the president called out more troops, as follows: vol- 
unteers for three years' service, 40,000 ; regulars for five years' service, 
25,000 ; seamen for five years' service, 18,000. 

Although Maryland was not among the seceding states, the rebel element 
prevailed in it extensively. The Massachusetts volunteers, passing through 
Baltimore, were assaulted by a mob in that city. They .eccupied eleven cars. 
Nine cars succeeded, with some difficulty, in reaching the d^pot on the other 
side of the city, amidst the hooting, yelling, and loud threats of the mob. 
The crowd, unable to exasperate the volunteers, hurled stones, brickbats, and 
other missiles, in showers against the cars, smashing the windows and wound- 
ing some of the trooD|g|||^he remaining two cars of the train, containing 
about 100 men, cut ^^^Bn the main body, were soon encompassed by a 




mob of several thousand, and attacked ; and some of the soldiers had their 
muskets snatched from them. The Massachusetts men, finding the cars 
untenable, alighted, and formed a hollow square, advancing with fixed bay- 
onets, upon all sides in double quick time, all the while surrounded by the 
mob — swelled by the addition of thousands — yelling and hooting. The 
military still abstained from firing upon their assailants. The mob then 
commenced throwing missiles, and occasionally gave a fire with a revolver or 
a musket. Two soldiers were killed and several wounded. The troops, at 
last, exasperated by the treatment they had received, commenced returning 
the fire singly, killing several, and wounding many of the rioters. The 
volunteers, at last, succeeded in reaching the d^pot with their killed and 
wounded, and embarked. The calm courage and heroic bearing of the 
troops gained them much honor. Effecting their passage through crowded 
streets, and opposed by overwhelming odds, was a feat not easily accom- 
plished by a body of less than loo men. 

Patriotism was not confined to the masses of our citizens ; it found unequiv- 
ocal expression in those who were intrusted with the administration of the 
government. Of this we have an admirable specimen in the instructions of 
Secretary Seward to Wm. H. Dayton, the new minister to France. A few 
of the concluding paragraphs are given below. In regard to the answer of 
Mr. Faulkner, Mr. Dayton's predecessor, to M. Thouvenul, the French home 
minister, relative to the adoption of coercive measures, in which Mr. Faulk- 
ner expressed his opinion that a modification of the constitutional compact 
would settle the difficulty, or a peaceable acquiescence made to a separate 
sovereignty, the secretary says : 

" The time when these questions had any pertinency or plausibility has 
passed away. The United States waited patiently while their authority was 
defied in turbulent assembly and insidious preparations, willing to hope 
that mediation on all sides would conciliate and induce the disaffected parties 
to return to a better mind ; but the case has now altogether changed. The 
insurgents have now instituted revolution with open, flagrant and deadly 
war, to compel the United States to acquiesce in the dismemberment of the • 

" The United States have accepted this civil war as an inevitable necessity. 
Constitutional remedies for all complaints of the insurgents are still open, 
and will remain so ; but on the other hand, the land and naval forces of the 
Union have been put into activity to restore federal authority, and save the 
Union from danger. You can not be too decided or explicit in making 
known to the French government that there is not now, nor has there been, 
nor will there be, any or the least idea existing in the government of suffer- 
ing a dissolution of this Union to take place in any way whatever. There 
will be only one nation and one government, and there will be the same 
republic and the same constitutional Union that has already survived a dozen 
national changes of government in almost every other country. These will 
stand hereafter as they are now, objects of human wonder and human 

" You have seen, on the eve of your departure^i|^Iasticity of the national 
spirit, the vigor of the national government, ani^H| lavish devotion of the 



national treasures to this great cause. Tell M. Thouvenal, with the highest 
consideration, that the thought of the dissolution of this Union, peaceably 
or by force, has never entered the mind of any candid statesman here, and 
it is high time that it be dismissed by statesmen in Europe. I am, etc., 

"Wm; H. Seward." 

Suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus. 

For some time after the commencement of the war, the rebel authorities 
seemed to anticipate the plans of our government and the movements of our 
armies. It was presumed that information of the same was secretly com- 
municated from Washington by persons sympathizing with the enemy. A 
man having been arrested as a traitor by Gen. Keira, and put into the custody 
of Gen. Cadwallader in Fort McHenry, a writ of habeas corpus was obtained 
from Chief Justice Taney to procure the release of the prisoner. Gen. C. 
refused to produce the prisoner, responding that he was acting under the 
orders of the president, who was authorized by the constitution to suspend 
the writ in case of rebellion or invasion. The power of the president to 
suspend this writ without the consent of Congress was questioned by many, 
among whom were some of the friends of the administration, who, however, 
justified the exercise of the power by the executive, on the ground of neces- 
sity. The safety of the Union would be in jeopardy if spies were released 
on bail, and permitted to renew and continue their traitorous employment. 
Hence it was deemed right and just to exercise a doubtful power, rather than 
that traitors should triumph through the action of federal judges in sympathy 
with the rebellion ; and the case of Jackson at New Orleans was cited in 
justification. The views of the president on this subject were subsequently 
given by himself, in the following extracts from his message to Congress at 
its special session in July : 

" Soon after the first call for militia, it was considered a duty to authorize 
the commanding general, in proper cases, according to his discretion, to sus- 
pend the privilege of the habeas corpus, or, in other words, to arrest and de- 
tain, without resort to ordinary processes and forms of law, such individuals 
as he might consider dangerous to the public safety. This authority has pur- 
posely been exercised but very sparingly. Nevertheless, the legality and pro- 
priety of what has been done under it are questioned, and the attention of 
the country has been called to the proposition, that one who is sworn to take 
care that the laws be faithfully executed, should not himself violate them. 

" Before this matter was acted upon, the whole of the laws which were re- 
quired to be faithfully executed, were being resisted and failing of execution, 
in nearly one-third of the states. Must they be allowed to finally fail of exe- 
cution, even had it been perfectly clear that, by the use of the means neces- 
sary to their execution, some single law, made in such extreme tenderness of 
the citizens' liberty, that practically it relieves more of the guilty than the 
innocent, should, to a very limited extent, be violated ? 

" To state the question more directly : Are all the laws but one to go un- 
executed, and the government itself to go to pieces, lest that one be violated? 
Even in such a case.dBQuld not the official oath be broken if the govern- 


raent should be overt^Bfti when it was believed that, disregarding the single 


one would tend to preserve it ? But it was not believed that this question 
had been presented. It was not believed that any law was violated. The 
provision of the constitution is, the writ of habeas corpus shall not be sus- 
pended except when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may 
require it. It was decided that we have a case of rebellion, and the public 
safety does require the qualified suspension of the privilege of the writ which 
was authorized to be made. 

" Now it is insisted that Congress, and not the executive, is vested with 
the power. But the constitution itself is silent as to which or who is to 
exercise the power ; and as the provision was plainly made for a dangerous 
emergency, it can not be believed that the framers of the instrument 
intended that, in every case, the danger should run its course until Congress 
should be called together, the very assembling of which might be prevented, 
as was intended in this case by the rebellion." 

Enlistments were proceeding rapidly. In our own county, company after 
company was announced as ready to leave for their destination. About the 
middle of June, 1861, there had been about 225,000 men mustered into 
service, and were under pay — about 30,000 of them from this state. 

It was a cause of regret as well as discouragement to the fri^ends of 'the 
Union, that so many of their fellow-citizens not only manifested great indif- 
ference in regard to the result of the war for its preservation, but were 
actually engaged in efforts to prevent the successful prosecution of the war. 
In June, 1861, a petition was circulated in the city of New York which 
many had been led to sign under false pretenses, and from which they wished 
to erase their names. A search for the petition was made by the police, who 
found and seized it in the office of a Wall street broker. The following is a 
copy of it : 
'' To his Excellency Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States : 

" The undersigned, citizens of New York, beg leave to present to you, 
most respectfully and earnestly, the following considerations : — 

" While they hold themselves ready to sustain and defend their govern- 
ment, and you as its legal head, they respectfully suggest that the only 
remaining position for you to prevent the horrors of civil war and preserve 
the Union, is to adopt the policy of an immediate general convention of all 
the states, as suggested in your Inaugural. This course would secure a 
peaceful solution of all our national difficulties ; and if any state should 
refuse to join said convention to amend the constitution, or 3id]ust a. peaceable 
separation, it would stand unanimously condemned before the civilized world. 

" Earnestly deprecating civil war among brethren, we implore and beseech 
you to adopt this course, which, you may rest assured, is the real voice of the 

About ^ve hundred names had been appended when the police took pos- 
session of it. It was carried to the chief's office, where it was left to allow 
all whose names had been obtained by fraud to erase them. The petition, it 
will be seen, not only proposes a dissolution of the Union, but condemns 
every state which refuses to sanction this design. 

In his message to Congress, at its special meetug in July, the president 
recommended, that there be placed at the control 4^b government, at least 


400,000 men and $400,000,000, with the view of " making this contest a 
short and decisive one." And there appeared throughout the North, a dis- 
position to comply with every requisition for all the men and money neces- 
sary to subdue the confederates. The session lasted but nine days. Among 
the bills passed, were the following : To legalize the past action of the 
president ; to authorize the president to call out 500,000 volunteers ; a bill 
appropriating about $266,000,000, principally for the prosecution of the 
war ; an act to confiscate property used for insurrectionary purposes. The 
confiscation act provided that — 

" In case of any insurrection against the government that can not be sup- 
pressed in the ordinary course of law, and property used or given by per- 
mission of its owner to aid and abet the insurrection, shall be lawful subject 
of prize and capture wherever found ; and that it shall be the duty of the 
president to cause it to be seized, confiscated, and condemned; and that when 
any slaveholder shall employ or permit the employment of his slave in aiding 
or promoting an insurrection, the master shall forfeit all right to such slave ; 
and the slave shall be free." 

This bill was opposed as contrary to the provision of the constitution, which 
declares, that " no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or 
forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted." It is believed no 
case involving the principle assumed in this bill, has ever been decided in 
the court of the United States. 

The preceding pages are but an introduction to the history of the war of 
the rebellion. Nor will the reader expect to find, in the few pages which 
can be devoted to this subject, more than a mere outline of the history of 
a war which furnishes material for a number of volumes of the capacity of 
this, which embraces a hundred different topics which claim a notice in 
this work. 

When the war broke out, many of our wisest men anticipated a short 
struggle of sixty or ninety days. Some imagined that the first call for 75,000 
men would not need to be supplemented by more than one or two calls for an 
equal number. Few supposed that several calls for huTidreds of thousands 
would be found necessary to quell the insurrection. Meeting after meeting 
was held in nearly every town for raising men and providing for the support 
of their families. Nor were our male citizens alone active in labor in pro- 
moting the war for the Union ; equal zeal and activity were manifested by 
the women. Societies of various names were seen springing up in all parts 
of the North, through which material aid was rendered. Sanitary committees 
were appointed ; relief circles, aid societies, and other associations were 
formed, and in great 'part conducted by ladies ; and through them contri- 
butions were made of money, clothing, hospital supplies, and whatever was 
required for the comfort of soldiers and their families. Fairs also were held,, 
the proceeds of which were appropriated to this grand object of benevolence 
and humanity. Not a small portion of the labor of females wjis the pre- 
paring of bandages, lint, and savory food, for the wounded and the sick in. 
the hospitals. 'M 



Instead of a war of only two or three months, as some expected, the coun- 
try was destined to a sanguinary contest oi four years, which was maintained 
at an expense of life and treasure scarcely equaled, in the same space of 
time, in any country during the present century. Our armies, during those 
years, experienced alternations of success and reverse, until the resources of 
the enemy had been nearly exhausted. The successes of Grant, Sheridan 
and others, and the triumphal, resistless march of Sherman through the South 
to the seaboard, gave signs of the rapid approach of peace. The object of 
the labors and the prayers of the friends of the Union was at length attained. 
But although the Union has been preserved, the sad results of the war have 
not entirely disappeared. Let every friend of a united republic contribute 
his influence to hasten the time when a perfect reconciliation between the 
parties lately at variance shall have been effected, and when they shall be 
not merely members of the same great political family, but in heart and 
feeling brethren. 

The number of men furnished for the war by Chautauqua, as nearly as 
can be ascertained, is about 2,300. The enlistments from the several towns 
were nearly as follows : 

Arkwright, 33. . Busti, 81. Carroll, 42. Charlotte, 42. Chautauqua, 115. 
Cherry Creek, 62. Clymer, 61. Dunkirk, 233. Ellery, 31. Ellicott, 299. 
Ellington, 52. French Creek, 51. Gerry, 37. Hanover, 169. Harmony, 
163. Kiantone, 17. Mina, 41. Poland, 71. Pomfret, 161. Portland, 66. 
Ripley, 42. Sheridan, 46. Sherman, 70. Stockton, 61. Villenova, 84. 
Westfield, 93. Total, 2,293. 


The Chautauqua Gazette, the first paper published in the county, was 
started at Fredonia, in Jan., 181 7, by James PercivaL It was afterwards 
issued by Carpenter & Hull, and by James Hull, until 1822, when it was 
suspended. In 1823, it was revived by James Hull, and continued until 
1826, when it was united with the Peoples Gazette, from ForestviUe; and its 
name was changed to Fredonia Gazette. It was published a short time by 
Hull & Snow, and removed by Mr. Hull to Dunkirk, and in a few months to 
Westfield, and united with the Chautauqua Phoenix. 

The Fredonia Censor was commenced in 182 1 by Henry C. Frisbee, who 
continued its publication 17 years. In 1838, it passqd into the hands of E. 
Winchester, and was published by him 2 years, and by R. Cunningham i 
year. In 1 841, it was bought by Willard McKinstry, and published by W. 
McKinstry & Brother, [A. McKinstry;] and at present by W. McKiilstry 
& Son, [Louis McKinstry.] 

The Western Democrat and Literary Inquirer was started at Fredonia in 
183s, by Wm. Verrinder. It was issued successively by Randall, Crosby & 


Co., and Arba K. Maynard ; and by the latter it was removed to Fan Buren 
Harbor in 1837, and issued as The Fan Buren Times. It soon passed into 
the hands of W. H. Cutler, and was continued about 2 years. The Settler 
was issued a short time in 1840, from the Censor office, by E. Winchester. 
The Frontier Express •vi^'i started in June, 1846, by Cuder, Cottle & Perham. 
In 1849, it was changed to The Fredonia Express, and published by J. P. 
Cobb & Co., and afterwards by Thomas A. Osborne & Co. In 1850, it was 
changed to The Chautauqua Union, and was pubUshed a short time by E. F. 
Foster. The Fredonia Advertiser was started July 14, 1851, by Tyler & 
Shepard. It was afterward published by Levi L. Pratt and J. C. Frisbee, 
and later by L. L. Pratt. It is now published by Benton & Cushing, at Fre- 
donia and Dunkirk. The Botanic Medical Journal was published a short time 
at Fredonia. The Pantheon was published at Fredonia a short time. 

The Jamestown Journal was commenced in June, 1826, by Adolphus 
Fletcher, and continued by him until 1846. It was then issued by his son, 
John W. Fletcher, for two years, when it passed into the hands of F. W. 
Palmer, who continued at the head of the establishment until 1858, having 
been associated, in the meantime, \vith Francis P. Bailey, Ebene2er P. Upham, 
and C. D. Sackett. From 1858 to 1862, it was published by Sackett & 
Bishop; and after the death of Mr. Sackett in 1862, it was published by 
Bishop Brothers. After the death of Prentice E. Bishop, in 1865, by Cole- 
man E. Bishop until 1866 ; then by Bishop and Alex. M. Clark, until June 
I, 1868, when Clark became sole proprietor. Jan. i, 1870, he started the 
Daily Journal, C. E. Bishop, editor; and in Aug., 187 1, sold a half interest 
to Davis H. Waite ; and in March, 1875, his remaining interest to Mr. Waite, 
who, in April, 1875, started the Weekly Grange, an agricultural paper. All 
still continue. The Chautauqua Republican was started in Jamestown in 
1828, by Morgan Bates. Richard K. Kellogg, Lewis C. Todd, Charles 
McLean, Alfred Smith, and Wm. H. Cutler, were successively interested in 
its publication until 1833, when it passed into the hands of S. S. C. Hamil- 
ton ; and its name was changed to the Republican Banner. It was soon after 
removed to Mayville, and in a few months discontinued. The Genius of 
Liberty was started at Jamestown in 1829, by Lewis C. Todd, and continued 
about two years. The Liberty Star was started at Jamestown in 1847, by 
Harvey A. Smith. In 1849, it passed into the hands of Adolphus Fletcher, 
and was changed to the Northern Citizen. In 1853, John W. Fletcher 
became proprietor; and in 1855, it was changed to the Chautauqua Demo- 
crat, under which name it was issued by Adolphus Fletcher; James Parker, 
editor; from i860, by Fletcher & Co., A. B. Fletcher having been a partner; 
from 1862, by Davis H. Waite and A. B. Fletcher, until 1866; from 
1866 to 1872, •by A. B. Fletcher, when E. Anderson became a part- 
ner of Fletcher. A daily Democrat was soon published, and the firm 
was dissolved in 1873. The Daily and Weekly Democrat are both 
continued by Mr. Fletcher. The Undercurrent was published at Jamestown 
a short time in 1851-52, by Harvey A. Smith. The Jamestown Herald ^■3.% 


Started in August, 1852, by Dr. Asaph Rhodes. In 1853, Joseph B. Nessel 
became proprietor, removed it to Ellington Center, and changed its name to 
the Ellington Luminary. A Swede paper was started in 1874. 

The Chautauqua Eagle was commenced at Mayville in 1819 by Robert 
J. Curtis and continued about one year. The Mayville Sentinel was started 
in 1834, by Timothy Kibbe, and the next year passed into the hands of 
Beman Brockway, who continued it ten years. In 1845, it was sold to John 
F. Phelps, by whom it is still published. The Republican Banner, formerly 
Chautauqua Republican, published at Jamestown, was removed to Mayville, 
and published there a few months. The Tocsin, a temperance paper, was 
published at Mayville, by Lloyd Mills, a short time, about 1845. In Octo- 
ber, 1868, Wright L. Patterson commenced the Chautauqua Republican, and 
issued 18 weekly numbers. In September or October, 1870, Byron W. 
Southworth moved the Sherman News to Mayville, changed its name to 
Chautauqua News, which was continued until March, 1874. The Chautau- 
qua Whig was started at Dunkirk in August, 1834, by Thompson & Car- 
penter. About 1844, its name was changed to the Dunkirk Beacon ; and it 
was discontinued a short time afterward. The Chautauqua Journal was 
started at Dunkirk in May, 1850, by W. L. Carpenter. In a short time its 
name was changed to the Dunkirk Journal, and was issued by him until 
18 — , when it passed into the hands of Isaac George, who published it for a 
time. It has for several years been published by W. McKinstry & Son, of 
Fredonia, its present proprietors. The Dunkirk Press and Argus, a continua- 
tion of the Western Argus, removed from Westfield in 1858, was published 
several years. The Panama Herald was commenced in August, 1846, by 
Dean & Hurlbut, and continued by Stewart & Pray until 1848. 

The Western Star was started in Westfield, 1826, by Harvey Newcomb, 
and published two years. It was soon after revived, as the Chautauqua 
Phoenix, by HuU & Newcomb. In 1831, its name was changed to the 
American Eagle; and it was issOed by G. W. Newcomb. In 1838, it was 
changed to the Westfield Courier, and was issued a short time by G. W. 
Bliss. The Westfield Lyceum, started in 1835, was published a short time 
by Sheldon & Palmer. The Western Farmer was started at Westfield in 
1835, by Bliss & Knight, and was continued about two years. The Westfield 
Advocate ytas commenced in May," 184 1, and in a few months was discon- 
tinued. The Westfield Messenger was started in August, 1841, by C. J. J. & 
T. Ingersoll. In 1851, it passed to Edgar W. Dennison, and was changed 
to the Westfield Transcript, which, in 185-, passed to Buck & Wilson, who 
continued it one year. The Westfield Republican was commenced April 25, 
1855, by M. C. Rice, by whom it was continued until 1873, when it passed 
to Joseph A. & C. Frank Hall ; and in a few months C. Fr^k Hall, its pres- 
ent publisher, became its sole proprietor. The Western Argus was started 
at Westfield in 1857, by John F. Young. In about one year it was removed 
to Dunkirk, and changed to the Dunkirk Express and Argus, edited by 
James S. Sherwood, and continued about a year. 


TTie Peoples Gazette was started at Forestville in 1824, by Wm. S. Snow. 
In 1826, it was united with The Chautauqua Gazette at Fredonia. The 
Western Intelligencer was published at Forestville a short time in 1833. 

The Silver Creek Mail was started in 1848, by John C. Van Duzen. It 
was changed, in 1852, to The Home Register, and was published by James 
Long. In 1854, Samuel Wilson became proprietor, and changed it to The 
Silver Creek Gazette, and continued it until 1856, when it was discontinued. 
In August of that year, it was revived as The Lake Shore Mirror, by H. M. 
Morgan, and was afterward published by George A. Martin. 

The Ellington Luminary, changed from The Jamestown Herald, and re- 
moved from Jamestown in 1853, was continued until 1856. The Philoma- 
thean Exponent was issued at Ellington by the students of the academy in 

The Western New Yorker was started in 1853, in Sherman, edited by 
Patrick McFarland ; discontinued in 1855. The Sherman News was com- 
menced some years ago, (the year not ascertained;) and in 1870 was re- 
moved to Mayville, its name changed to Chautauqua News, and published 
there about twc^years. 


Reunion at Fredonia. 

The nth day of June, 1873, will never be forgotten by those who were 
so fortunate as to be present at the Reunion of " Old Settlers," at Fredonia. 
It was an experiment, and many entertained doubts of its success. An 
earlier day for the meeting had been announced ; but a later day was fixed 
upon as more likely to secure a fuller attendance. 

At an early hour of the day, the people from all parts of the county, and 
not a few from other counties and states, former residents of Chautauqua, 
came together to exchange salutations once more with their old pioneer 
neighbors and friends. The streets were soon thronged ; and the air was 
made vocal with joyful greetings, as friends met friends, after years of 

The exercises were appointed to be held at Union Hall, which, after it 
was opened, was filled in a few moments, without any apparent diminution 
of the crowd outside. As far as possible, those over 80 were seated in front; v 
those between 70 and 80, next ; and so on till most of the young folks were 
driven out, and the platform overlooked a sea of gray heads. The crowded 
room was called to order at 10.45 ^- "i-' ^.nd A. C. Gushing, Esq., president 
of the village, delivered the following Address of Welcome : 

" If out of the abundance of the heart the tongue always found utterance, 
I might hope that my lips on this occasion would be touched with a little of 


that inspiration, flowing from earnest and profound feeling, which sometimes 
lends eloquence to those who, like myself, possess neither utterance nor the 
power of speech. 

"Friends of to-day, friends of former years, friends whose venerable heads 
are now white with the snows of more than seventy winters, friends who have 
clasped hands in genial companionship with our fathers, we bid you welcome 
here to-day. If but few of those who started with you on the march of life 
are left to extend their hearty greeting, we, their descendants, who stand in 
their places, receive you to our homes and our hearts with grateful recogni- 
tion, as the representatives of a generation whose hardy virtues, courage and 
endurance laid the foundation of all the advantages, all the prosperity we now 
enjoy. It is the seed sown by your hands in the solitudes of the forest amid 
hardships, privation and toil, which we reap in the glorious harvest of a high 
cultivation, surrounded by its comforts, its luxuries, and its refinements. 

"And an honorable welcome, a welcome tender, kind and true as their own 
brave loving hearts, to the noble women, who in those early years, stood side 
by side with husbands, brothers and sons, sharing their hardships and light- 
ening their toils with pleasant smiles and encouraging words — women as 
heroic and self-sacrificing as those whom poets and historians have made 
immortal, although their virtues are written only in the hearts of those who 
love them. • 

" Some of you present to-day have witnessed the wonderful transformation 
which, within the allotted time of man's existence, has changed the whole 
face of the county. You retain vivid recollections of the early homes of the 
pioneers, and of the struggles and privations they endured. You also have 
pleasant remembrances of happy days and the warm friendship existing be- 
tween neighbors, though living miles apart, and making visits through the 
woods with ox-teams over roads marked only by blazed trees — softer memo- 
ries of quilting frolics where they ate pumpkin pie and doughnuts, and 
' courted their sweethearts — pretty girls — ^just fifty years ago.' But many of 
your number have not been spared to note the march of improvement which 
has caused the ' wilderness and the solitary place to rejoice and blossom as 
the rose,' has tracked the once pathless forests with roads on which the iron 
horse obliterates distance ; has raised beautiful temples to the living God, 
where once stood the humble meeting-house of the early worshipers ; has 
built costly edifices of learning, the elegance of the structures only inferior 
to the grandeur of the objects to which they are dedicated ; has peopled the 
county with a busy and prosperous population ; has dotted it with thriving 
towns and villages, the seats of wealth with all its attendant luxuries and 
elegancies ; has broken the silence of the solitudes with the ceaseless roar of 
machinery, the blast of the furnace, and the hundred inventions of science 
and art. 

" Yes, my friends, we are proud of our old Chautauqua. Her hills and 
plains are dear to us. We love her clear lakes and sparkling rivulets. Gen- 
■^ erous nature has indeed been bountiful, and we feel that our ' lines have been 
laid in pleasant places.' We modestly exult in the high character for intel- 
ligence and enterprise borne by her people. Nor in looking over the long 
list o* names made prominent in our country's history, need we blush for the 
place held there by Chautauqua county. Amid that array in positions of 
high trust and responsibility stand honorably conspicuous many of her citizens. 
Of offices of highest dignity and honor bestowed by our state, she holds a 
full and worthy share. Some of her sons have been called to fill high and 


exalted positions in the councils and conduct of national affairs. She claims 
as hers the venerated names of some, who, having dropped the harness of 
earthly toil, now rest from their labors and sleep in honored and honorable 

" We are assembled to-day in commemoration of the merits and memories 
of these and such as these, the early founders of our county, to whose firm 
courage, perseverance and energy we owe, under God, all the blessings with 
which we are so richly endowed. * * * To our departed pioneer heroes 
we render not worship, but the affectionate remembrance and profound 
veneration which their merits and our deep obligations demand. To the 
veteran band, whom it is our privilege still to retain in our midst, we can 
only say, that the tribute of applause and grateful respect which we tender 
to them and to their departed companions, in the perils and hardships of 
pioneer life, Sows straight from earnest hearts, and is the utterance of 
honest lips. 

" The establishment of an annual festival, which shall call friends together 
in hospitable and pleasant reunion, we conceive to be a happy idea, and a 
laudable attempt to keep bright the links of social intercourse between those 
who once may have been close companions, or old neighbors, but are now 
sundered by the changes of time and circumstance. Each passing year, we 
trust, shall again bring us together, at the period of the Old Settlers' Annual 
Festival, and tighten the bands of good fellowship and unity. Like the 
patriarchs of old, we will spread our yearly ' feast of fat things,' and, with 
old friends and neighbors, drink ' the wine of gladness.' " • 

After his address, for the purpose of organization, Mr. Gushing " nominated 
a gentleman as president of the day who has often held positions of dignity 
and responsibility in the state and county, and who has ever discharged his 
duties to the approbation of all — Hon. Geo. W. Patterson, of Westfield." 

The nomination was adopted unanimously. Gov. Patterson was conducted 
to the chair, and responded as follows : 

"Mr. Chairman, and Fellow- Citizens : For the honor which the commit- 
tee of arrangements have conferred upon me in offering my name as pre- 
siding officer, I tender my grateful acknowledgments. With my fellow-citi- 
zens from other localities I wish to congratulate you, one and all, that the 
people of Fredonia have invited you, not only to this reunion, but to the 
hospitality of their homes. Great credit is due them for their efforts which 
will be appreciated. 

" Fellow-citizens : It is about seventy years since the first white man settled 
in the county. * * * In July, 1802, the first infant child was bom at 
Westfield. I had hoped to have the first bom of the county here ; I passed 
him to-day in a private conveyance — (voice in the audience — " He is in the 
village.") Bring him up. (Orson Stiles : " We will ; he is being escorted in 
by a four-horse team.") His name is John McHenry. 

" I know something of the hardships and privations of the early pioneers, 
although but little of the full reality. In 1822-3-4, I built fanning mills in 
Ripley, where I tried to raise the wind, with what success many of you know. 
There may be gentlemen here who settled in Chautauqua in 1804 and' 1805. 
Just think of the improvements which they have witnessed. Not a foot of 
land was then owned, except one farm. The first title given was to Alexander 
Cochran, of Ripley, in 1804, but contracts were recorded prior to that. The 
history of Westfield shows that for some families that came in during those 


years, the first table spread was a stone on a stump. It is comparatively but 
a few years since land-holders owned their land in fee simple. I see before 
me faces that then hardly expected to own lands in fee simple. As late as 
1841, when I took charge of the land-office at Westfield, there was due 
$1,500,000, and 95, 000 acres of untaken land. To-day there are a hundred 
men before me that could pay that debt. I know not the arrangements of 
the committee, but suppose others are to follow me, and will yield the floor.'' 

At the conclusion of Gov. Patterson's remarks, Mr. Stiles spoke in behalf 
of the multitude outside, suggesting that the afternoon session be held in the 
park ; and he would arrange for seats immediately. The suggestion was 
adopted unanimously. 

C. F. Matteson, chairman of committee of arrangements, announced the 
following named gentlemen as vice-presidents and secretaries : 

Vice-Fresidents — Levi Baldwin, Arkwright ; Eliakim Garfield, Busti ; 
Nathan Cleland, Charlotte; Thomas A. Osborne, Chautauqua ; Alva Billings, 
Cherry Creek; Edwin Eaton, Carroll; Nehemiah Royce, Clymer ; Walter 
Smith, Dunkirk; Abner Hazeltine, Ellicott; Charles B. Green, Ellington; 
Abijah Clark, Ellery ; Silas Terry, French Creek; Sidney E. Palmer, Gerry ; 
Amos R. Avery, Hanover ; Daniel Williams, Harmony ; Aaron J. Phillips, 
Kiantone; Luke Grover, Mina ; Joseph Clark, Foland; Elisha Fay, Fort- 
land; Wm. Risley, Pom/ret; Charles B. Brockway, Ripley ; Jonathan S. 
Pattison, Sheridan; Piatt Osbom, Sherman; Harlow Crissey, Stockton; 
Obadiah Warner, Villenova; Thomas B. Campbell, Westfield. 

Robert Miles, of Warren, Pa., who settled within a mile of the Chautauqua 
county line in 1797, was also made a vice-president. 

Secretaries — C. E. Benton, of the Advertiser and Union; Louis McKins- 
try, of the Fredonia Censor; A. B. Fletcher, of ih^ Jamestown Daily Demo- 
crat; Davis H. Waite, of \h^ Jamestown Daily Journal ; C. F. Hall, of the 
Westfield Republican; John F. Phelps, of the Mayville Sentinel; D. A. A. 
Nichols, reporter for Young's History of the County. 

Rev. T. Stillman, D. D., was called upon to offer prayer, upon the conclu- 
sion of which Judge Foote said he had a favor to ask. He wanted all 
present to join with him in singing the first verse of old " Coronation : " 
" All hail the power of Jesus' name ! " etc. 

Judge Foote, in the interval of business, addressed the meeting. He 
spoke of his " love of old Chautauqua," and of his endeavors to preserve its 
history, pointing to the twenty-six large folio volumes of historic scrap-books on 
the stage as evidence of his labor. He spoke with deep feehng and earnest- 
ness. Among other things, he said : " I want a history that commemorates 
your virtues and hardships before I came into the county. I love these gray 
heads, many of -them I have known since I came into the county. I pro- 
posed that hymn because I know you are a Christian people. We all believe 
alike in the foundation — Christ Jesus. I reside in New Haven, but live in 
Chautauqua. Here I am to be buried — have so provided in my will. This is 
the last meeting for many of us, but no matter, if we are ripe for the harvest." 

The chairman introduced to the audience the first man born of Chautau- 


qua "dust." The Fredonia Musical Association then gave "Auld Lang 
Syne" with excellent effect, under lead of Prof. Riggs — Mrs. E. F. Swart at 
the organ. 

For the purpose of estimating how many decades of ages could be accom- 
modated at the first table, those over ninety years old were called on to 
stand up, then those over eighty. The following named responded : 

Those over po — Elijah Fay, of Portland; Bartlett Luce, of Pomfret ; 
Timothy Goulding, 91, of Sheridan; Charles F. Arnold, 93, of Sheridan. 

From 80 to po — Isaac Bussing, Pomfret, 89 ; Ama Wood, Pomfret, 82 ; 
Charles P. Young, Ripley, 82 ; Allen Denny, Stockton, 82 ; Samuel Rock- 
wood, Sheridan, 86 ; John Seymour, Pomfret, 80 ; Stephen Ross, Arkwright, 
87 ; Rev. John P. Kent, Lima, 80 ; Hugh Harper, Charlotte, 85 ; Ezekiel 
Gould, Chautauqua, 84; Aaron Smith, Stockton, 80; Jeremiah Curtis, Stock- 
ton, 80 ; Darius Knapp, Pomfret, 84 ; David Griggs, Pomfret, 84 ; Silas 
Spencer, Westfield, 84 ; Abram Dixon, Westfield, 86 ; Beqj^min H. Dick- 
son, Ripley, 81 ; Chester Brown, Pomfret, 86 ; Naomi Miller, Stockton, 83 ; 
David Parker, Perrysburg, 80; Orpha Burritt, Fredonia, 81; D. J. Matteson, 
Fredonia, 81 ; Mr. Lazelle, Stockton, 85 ; Henry Smith, Charlotte, 82 ; Thos. 
Magee, Hanover, 87 ; T. B. Campbell, Westfield, 85; J. Ackley, Pine Grove, 
Pa., 83 ; Abner Hazeltine, Jamestown, 80 ; Joseph Davis, Pomfret, 80 ; 
Polly Wilson, Pomfret, 80; Samuel Cleland, 85 ; John Cleland, 81 ; Nathan 
Cleland, 78, of Charlotte, and Oliver Cleland, 79, of Berlin, O. ; Hoel 
Beadle, Westfield, 80; James Billings, Chautauqua, 82; with others subse- 
quently recorded, making upwards of forty. 

Of those between 70 and 80 years of age, the record, though said to be 
incomplete, shows nearly 150. 

Gov. Patterson then announced that it was time to go to dinner. He had 
his grandfather's time-piece with him, which was never wound up but once, 
and that was ninety years ago, but it had always kept time, and does now 
just as accurately as it did then. There was some curiosity manifested to see 
such a wonderful time-piece, which was only satisfied when the Governor 
held out his old sun dial. Newell Putnam, of Conneaut, O., said, " Here is 
one that had to be wound up once in a while, but it is a hundred years old, 
and keeps time yet," and sent up a venerable silver watch for exhibition. 

Mrs. A. C. Russell, of Dunkirk, then came upon the stage in ancient costume 
and sang a solo, which she said Judge Foote taught her forty-five years ago. 
The bonnet worn by Mrs. Russell, was the same that was made in Fredonia, 
in 1805, for Mrs. Thomas Fargo. 

The president, vice-presidents, and all present over 80 years old, were then 
invited to form iij procession for dinner ; and they passed out of the hall to 
where the Stockton military band was in waiting to escort them to the 
academy, in which the collation was served. Judge Foote and lady, though 
yet under the age of 80, were given a place among those who headed this 
noble band of octogenarians. 

The meeting, in charge of Mr. C. F. Matteson, chairman of the committee 


of arrangements, continued in session during the absence of the officers. 
Several letters responding to invitations to attend the "Old Settlers' " gather- 
ing, some of which, with an interesting paper written by Mr. Wm. Risley, of 
Fredonia, were read by Judge Emory F. Warren and the chairman. 

Rev. Dr. Stillman, of Dunkirk, then addressed the meeting, giving his 
recollections of coming to the county in 1830, when he was 32 hours staging 
and footing it from Buffalo to the Haskins tavern in Sheridan, 40 miles. 
The United States mail from Buffalo for all the west was then carried by 
•stage, usually in two bags ; one large for the west distributing office ; one 
small for the way offices, both bags occupying only part of the space under 
the driver's seat. Now it is no uncommon thing, any day, to see fifteen 
tons of westward mail on the platform at Dunlcirk for the illimitable west. 
For several years of his early residence at Dunkirk, he had authority from the 
postmaster to bring down the mail to that village when it reached Fredonia 
behind time ; a^ he had carried it many a time in his hat without incon- 
venience. Now a single business house receives a daily average of letters 
the whole village used to receive in a week. Dr. S. gave also a list of the 
prices of the various kinds of tavern beverages, copied from M. W. & T. G. 
Abell's bar book, showing the enormous amounts paid by the citizens for 
strong drink, but omitting the names of the persons charged ; saying, how- 
ever : " Nearly every man in town was charged with grog on that book." 

At I o'clock, the elder guests having got through, their juniors — between 
70 and 80 years of age — formed in line for the tables which were reset for 
them in the academy; and the meeting adjourned to the Common, tore- 
assemble at 3 o'clock. The intervening time was spent in exhibiting the 
numerous relics which many were impatiently waiting for an opportunity to 

After the persons of 70 years had dined, the tables, which accommodated 
about 150 at once, were set aboilt twice more ; and victuals were also 
passed round in baskets to the crowd outside, unable to enter, for an hour 
and a half There had been prepared forty pans of baked beans, with a 
proportionate quantity of meats, breadstuffs, pies, cakes, etc. If any went 
away hungry, it was not from a lack of provisions, as there were many left ; 
nor from inattention on the part of the committee in charge, whose chairman, 
G. D.Hinkley, and secretary, J. C. Mullett, were highly commended for 
their skin as engineers of a public collation. The committee's task was an 
arduous one, but was well performed. In addition to the collation, several 
hundred persons were made welcome guests at the homes of citizens. 
Probably considerably more than 1,000 persons were fed at the academy ; 
and still there were provisions left, many baskets fulL , 

An old fashiotud dinner was served during the intermission. At about 
2 p. m.. Gov. Patterson and wife, Judge Foote and wife. Judge Warren and 
wife, Sam. Cleland, and the mother of Horace White, Oliver Cleland, and 
Polly Wilson (the Polly that was hired girl for Zattu Gushing when the tim- 
ber on the land where Union Hall now is was being cleared off), Mrs. Judge 


Hazeltine, seated themselves on such slab benches and stools as some of 
them had sat upon in " auld lang syne " at the old Wilson table placed upon ' 
the stage of Union Hall. The table was set with the old china and pewter 
dishes ; and the bill of fare comprised such solid food as boiled pork (with 
the fat in) and greens, Indian bread and pudding, a johnny cake baked on a 
board, pies and cakes from the old recipes of '76, and tea and coffee — all of 
which seemed to be relished. The feelings of the guests were expressed by 
Gov. Patterson in the following sentiment : " The early settlers of Chautau- 
qua and their entertainers at Fredonia — may all live and prosper ; " to which 
Horace White responded : " The venerable pioneers of Chautauqua, whose 
enterprising, sterling virtues and industry have brought the country from its 
wilderness to be the most flourishing in the state in its agricultural interests.'' 
A Silver 'Creek miss, dressed as Sally of yore might have been, did the 
serving satisfactorily. 

Afternoon Session. — After music by the two bands, President Patterson 
requested the attention of the multitude reassembled, when A. C. Cushing, 
Esq., offered a resolution to appoint a committee of seven, of which the 
president was to be one, to agree upon a permanent organization, and upor 
the next place of meeting. The chair appointed E. F. Warren, Alvin Plumb, 
J. L. Bugbee, Obed Edson, Abner Hazeltine, and C. F. Matteson. . 

Gov. Patterson here exhibited a revolutionary soldier's canteen. It is made 
of a section of an ox horn made tight at each end with wooden stoppers. 
He said they could all see by that what the old settlers meant when they 
talked of taking a " pretty good horn." > 

A noteworthy feature of this assemblage was the exhibition of relics, which, 
in respect to their number, variety, rareness, and antiquity, have probably 
never been equaled on a similar occasion, in any part of this or in any other 
state. Of the oil portraits and photographs, there were about 100. Of the 
relics, the mention of them, with the briefest description, occupied four 
columns of a county paper, and were several hundreds in number. Believing 
that nothing done or exhibited at the meeting would be read with deeper 
interest, it was intended to select from the long list a considerable number 
for insertion in the History; but the difficulty of making a proper discrimina- 
tion in the selection, and the want of space, forbid the carrying of 'this in- 
tention into effect. A small number only are given : . 

Two volumes of the earlier newspapers of the county, between tfe years 
1 81 7 and 1827 ; and several New England papers of 1780-90 ; also a copy 
of the Connecticut Courant, of Oct. 29, 1764, in which is the following 
paragraph : 

" A surprising concatination of events in one week. Published a Sunday ; 
married a Tuesday; had a child a Tuesday; stole a horse a Wednesday; 
banished a Thursday; died a Friday; buried a Saturday — all in one week." 

An old fashioned side-saddle, by Mrs. Barmore, the history of which she 
can trace back 130 years. How much older it is she does not know. 

A chair by Buell ToUes, of Sheridan, brought into the county by his father 


in 1826, and over 100 years old. Although old style, it is very easy sitting. 
Also the old fashioned tinder-box. The process of striking fire with the old 
flint was many times repeated, to the great curiosity of the young folks, while 
the old ones would exclaim, " How many times I have done that." Also a 
pewter platter over 100 years old ; also the old fashioned foot stove that used 
to keep the church pews warm, nearly 100 years old. 

The identical axe that cut the first tree felled in Fredonia, by John Bartoo, 
of Forestville. It was one of the tools Col. Bartoo used to build a mill dam 
and saw-mill for Hezekiah Barker. 

^ pewter basin by Mrs. Joy Handy — part of the outfit of the wedding of 
the Major's grandparents. When New London was burned during the Revo- 
lutionary war, this basin was hid with other valuables under a stone wall, and 
thus saved ; also a chopping knife belonging to the same outfit, and a toilet 
spread made by an immediate descendant of Pocahontas, 60 years ago. 

Plated sugar tongs, 100 years old, by Miss Jane Osborne ; also two needle- 
books, 150 years old — regular "grandma's" style; also Thomas Osborne's 
(her father,) commission as captain in 1806 ; also a summons to her father to 
attend the Great Wigwam of Tammany, Oct. 12, 1809, and the cockade 
worn by him in the war of 18 12. 

A canteen of the war of 1776, by Wm. B. Griswold; it was carried by 
Stephen Bush, of Ct., afterwards of Sheridan, and also in the war of 1812, 
by Wm. Griswold and Nicholas Mallett, both of Sheridan. 

The old pocket compass owned by Capt. Robert Kidd, presented by Dr. 
L. Clark, of Mayville ; also a razor owned by Jonathan Clark in the 1 7th 
' century. 

A splint-bottomed, high-backed chair, 100 years old, by Rowland Porter. 
Another by Mrs. E. S. Kellogg — an arm chair, (green,) a portion of the first 
parlor suit made in Oneida county, in 1780. Another of 18 11, by H. H. 

A bed pan of Mrs. Edmund Day, of Dunkirk, 200 years old ; it wis 
brought here by Eli Drake — one of the first settlers. 

An Ulster Co. Gazette, oli Jan. 4, 1800, in mourning for George Washing- 
ton, by Mrs. J. D. Andrews. 

Mrs. T. W. Stevens presents a needle-book in daily use 60 years ago ; a 
pieca of Capt. Phineas Stevens' dressing gown — Capt. S. was a surgeon in 
Burgoyn'e's army in 1775 ; a wallet worked before 1770; worked embroidery 
done before the Revolution; and patterns and bobbins for lace making in use 
during the Revolution. 

Mrs. Woodward Stevens presented baby clothes made over 100 years ago, 
the mitts "grandmother" Durkee was baptized in, in July, 1782, and a girl's 
and boy's cap. 

A pardon aud amnesty document, granted to a Scotch refugee by the King 
of France, July 18, 1619, number 65, was sent from Berrien Springs, Mich., 
by Worthy Putnam. He discovered it curiously. There had come to his 
family a Scotch mirror of antique and curious framework, but as it was 


unfashionable, as his wife thought, she took a fancy to have its heavy and fine 
plate reframed, and accordingly sent it to the cabinet-maker for that purpose. 
The workman, in taking off the backboard, found this document neatly 
folded and safely ensconced between the board and mirror plate. That 
important state paper of regal execution and authority, had safely rested in 
its ingenious and unique hiding place, probably more than 200 years. What 
motive induced the holder of this paper to conceal it so securely, is not ap- 
parent, but that there was some strong inducement to this end is quite certain. 
The document is written in French, executed entirely by the pen, neatly and 
elegantly, and on paper of the manufacture of the i6th century, of itself 
curious. It is much discolored by time, and the texture become fragile, yet 
the writing is distinct, and the ink stains have a remarkable integrity. This 
relic of the Bourbon dynasty, and the manner of its concealment and pre- 
servation, give to this aged regal document a curious interest. It was a part 
of an heirloom in the family of Maj. Samuel Sinclair, of Sinclairville, until 
1847, when it came into the possession of Mr. Putnam. 

An Indian snow shoe taken from a Massachusetts tribe of Indians about 
200 years ago, and kept in the Aldeh family. 

A two-gallon ship pitcher. 

St. Jerome's Translation of the Bible, printed in 1501 ; a " Bibliotheca,'' 
1509, by Geo. W. Lewis, and other old books by Prof A. Bradish." 

A 'true pattern of the "mutton leg sleeve," as worn in 1832, by Mrs. D. 
R. Barker. 

Aaron Smith, of Stockton, presented a Bible 107 years old, that was his 
grandfather's, his vest 53 years old, a wooden block of 12 sides made by ' 
Ebenezer Smith 85 years ago, a concordance belonging to his great-grand- 
father 154 years ago, the powder horn Rev. Ebenezer Smith carried in the 
French and Indian war the year before Gen. Wolfe was killed. 

A cannon ball, (a ten-pounder,) a relic of the battle of Lake Erie, picked 
up from the bottom of the lake in 1834, by James H. Lake. 

Yam spun on the first cotton spinning machine in the United States, made 
by S. Slater, about 80 years ago, at Pautucket, R. I. It was presented by 
N. Draper ; also a power-loom shuttle. 

A conch shell dinner horn, 150 years old, by A. Eaton. 

Patterns for walking mud shoes brought here in 1822 — ^used before; pre- 
sented by Miss Anna Jones. Also a Bible printed in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, in black letter; three Philadelphia Repositories of 1801-2-3; a 
drawing book of 1799. 

A powder horn of 1776, by Mark Markham, of Villenova, marked "Benj. 
Markham — his horn.'' 

Copy of Blue Laws of Connecticut, by Mrs. Eliza Greene. 

A very large pair of shears, on which is sunk the number 1428, supposed 
to be the year when it was made ; presented by Willis Royce, of Ripley. 
It can be traced back four or five generations. If a genuine article, it must 
be a trans-Atlantic product. 


A teapot 50 years old, by Mrs. Timothy Goulding, of Sheridan ; a linen 
apron 115 years old; also an old fashioned bonnet — in fashion in 1828 — a 
real curiosity. 

Flax raised by John Pellett, in the Wyoming Valley, Pa., 1778, owned by 
A. T. Mead, of Portland; also cloth, (silk,) made in England in 1650 that 
has been through nine generations. At the time of the Wyoming massacre 
it was buried and lay in the ground five years. 

The Evening Session. — The tables of relics were taken out of Union 
Hall so as to leave the whole space in the evening, but every nook and cor- 
ner was early filled with people; although a large share of the crowd had gone 
home at the close of the afternoon session, not half of those who remained 
could gain admission. 

As advertised, the evening was principally devoted to ancient harmony, 
and the Fredonia Musical Association, under the lead of Prof Riggs, made 
it very enjoyable. Montgomery, Coronation, New Jerusalem, andjhe other 
old tunes were interspersed with remarks by various speakers. 

Hon. Orson Stiles, in behalf of the committee of arrangements, returned 
thanks to all who had aided in making this reunion a great occasion they 
would be glad to remember all their lives. It had cost the committee some 
work and more anxiety, but whether a success or a failure, was then demon- 
strated. ' He hoped that this was but the beginning of similar meetings, and 
continued eloquently upon the duty of recreation, and our glorious county 
and country. 

Judge Hazeltine gave a history of his advent in the county in 18 15. Most 
of the way from Buffalo was traveled on the beach of the lake. When at 
Cattaraugus creek, he was taken prisoner by the Indians, growing out of a 
trouble between Capt. Mack, tavern-keeper at Irving, and one May bee, 
nearly opposite him, as to which should control the ferriage. The Indians 
sided with Maybee. He was finally ferried over by Capt. Strong, father of 
the well known N. F. Strong. The next day he arrived at Fredonia, a 
hamlet of a dozen houses. But when he inquired for Jamestown, they 
knew nothing about it, but had heard of a place called The Rapids. After 
two days of severe travel, he found the place by way of Cross Roads and 
Mayville. Now it takes one or two hours. There were then 3,000 or 4,000 
people scattered over the county ; and the present village of Jamestown had 
fifteen families. The Judge continued for some minutes recounting the 
noble traits of character of the pioneers as he knew them — such men as 
Thomas McClintock, James Prendergast, Judge Cushing, Dr. White, the two 
Ortons and the Barkers. It was no occasion for wonder that, under a kind 
Providence, the county had prospered after its settlement. 

Judge Hazeltine then moved a vote of thanks to the citizens of Fredonia 
for inaugurating the reunion, and entertaining the guests so hospitably ; 
which was unanimously adopted. 

Mr. A. C. Cushing tendered the thanks of the committee and citizens to 
Gov. Patterson for his very satisfactory services as presiding oflicer. 

OLD settlers' festivals. 207 

Gov. Patterson in response gave, among some interesting reminiscences, 
that relating to the history of the big black walnut tree at Silver Creek. [A 
history of this wonderful tree had been written, and is elsewhere inserted.] 
In 182 1, he took a westward trip to Indianapolis. There were but two log 
huts there then. For forty miles his road was marked trees. There was not 
a post coach west of Buffalo, nor a mail carrier except on horseback or on 
foot. This was fifty-two years ago. Now look at Ohio. Railroads and tele- 
graphs were not known, and there were no canals. But he looked for greater 
improvement for the fifty years to come. But one thing we shall not be 
excelled in — lightning will not carry their messages faster than it does ours. 
He again express.ed his pleasure at the success which had crowned the efforts 
of Fredonia to inaugurate this reunion. It was a thousand times better 
than the managers could have expected. 

The Cornet Band then gave " America " with fine effect, and the meeting 
adjourned sine die. 

Reunion at Forestville. 

It was hardly to be expected, that, within three months after the great 
gathering at Fredonia, so large a number of the settlers could be collected in 
a comer town, bounded on only two sides by other towns of the same county, 
and the other two sides by other counties and the lake. But the event 
showed that the spirit manifested on the first occasion had not subsided. 
Considering the additional fact that it was announced only as a " Hanover 
Reunion," it exceeded the most sanguine expectations of its projectors. The 
number of persons on the ground — though not all at any one time — was 
estimated at 3,000 to 4,000 ; by some at a much higher number. The 
reunion was held at the Driving Park, a mile and a half north firom Forest- 
ville — a beautiful location, comprising twenty-four acres, half woods ; and to 
a large portion of the trees were attached the horses of those who came. 
The day was clear and pleasant, and, as will be recollected, was the anniver- 
sary of Commodore Perry's victory over the British fleet on the neighboring 
lake, just sixty years after its occurrence, September 10, 1813. 

But few relics were exhibited, excepting a set of china, presented by 
Nathan P. Tanner, made to order for his father in Canton, China, eighty- 
five years ago. 

At 11.30 a. m.. Dr. Avery, from the stand, nominated Wm. D. Talcott, of 
Silver Creek, president of the day ; and A. R. Avery, J. S. Pattison, N. P. 
Tanner, E. Jewett, Uriah Downer, Artemas Clothier, Benj. Horton, and 
Alanson Tower were chosen vice-presidents ; and A. G. Parker, secretary. 

An appropriate prayer was offered by Rev. A. Frlnk, of Corry, Pa., who 
was an early resident of the town. His first sermon was preached in the old 
brick school-house in Forestville, since demolished. 

Rev. H. P. Shepard, brother of Mrs. C. D. Angell, followed with the 
reading of an address of welcome, written by Mrs. Angell. 




Fervid summer heats are over, 
Drouths, consuming blade and clover — 
All the land its thirst is slaking. 
And to beauty new awaking. 

Gathered is the harvest golden, 

Into garners new and olderi. 

And the haymow's fragi'ant treasure 

Heaped and pressed in bounteous measure. 

Luscious fruit in rare deposits 
Gleam in careful housewife's closets ; 
All the summer sunbeam's flushes, 
'Prisoned in their ruby blushes. 

Restful days of rare September, 
Glowing like some ruddy ember 
That on hearthstone prostrate lying, 
Warms and brightens in its dying. 

Restful days! whose sunny gladness 
Takes no tinge of coming sadness, 
Days of all the year most fitting 
For this welcome and this greeting. 

How shall we our homage render? 
How pay tribute true and tender 
Unto those, who, long abiding 
Slow release, are gently chiding ? 

Unto those who toy and linger 
With caressing, patient finger 
Over tasks of homely beauty 
Wrought by them in tireless duty? 

Long they bore life's heat and burden. 
With no meed of praise or guerdon, 
But their souls in hope possessing 
Waited for the promised blessing. 

While with faithful hands and willing 
Their allotted tasks fulfilUng, 
Falt'ring in allegiance, never 
To their stem and proud endeavor — 

Forests felling, highways breaking, 
Gardens from the deserts making, 
Wild morass and swamps reclaiming. 
All the tangled wildwood training, 

Rank and stubborn growths subduing, 
Wells of living water hewing — 
By no pain or sickness daunted. 
By no fruitless visions haunted, 

By no false ambitions goaded, 
Nor by festering cares corroded. 
Strong in purpose — pure in living, 
All of self to duty giving — 

Men of grand heroic daring, 
Shrinking from no burden-bearing. 
By their self-denial shaming 
All our feeble, shallow aiming, 

By their rigid, stern unswerving, 
Us to nobler action nerving, 

By their calm and patient doing 
High resolves in us renewing, 

Lo ! they stand before the portal 
Of the golden gate immortal, 
And the fruits of toil and reaping 
They bequeath unto our keeping. 

Goodly acres, broad and teeming. 
Vineyards on the hillside gleaming. 
Grassy uplands gently swelling, 
Crowned by many a peaceful dwelling. 

Tastefiil homes and schools and churches, 
Streamlets spanned by graceful arches. 

Maple shadowed drives enclosing, 

Towns in forest shade reposing. 

Railroads Unking lake and ocean, 
Harnessed lightning's fiery motion. 
Docile, wait to do our pleasure. 
Bear our words and bring our treasure. 

'Heritors of untold treasure, 
Without price, or stint or measure. 
Let us show, by worthy living. 
How we prize this princely giving. 

Let this day and place be holy. 
Come with reverent hearts and lowly. 
Bid no thought unworthy enter 
Where our love and duty center. 

Here shall children's happy faces. 
Maiden's sweet and tender graces, 
Manhood's strength and youth's ambition. 
All unite in loving mission. 

All unite to crown with glory. 
Heads with many winters hoary, 
Counting all our labor leisure 
If it brings you aught of pleasure. 

All with outstretched arms receive you. 
And a thousand welcomes give you ; 
To our hearts and homes we take you. 
Proud, our honored guests to make you. 

With us — aye — but yet not of us. 

Far removed, beyond, above us, 

On the top of Pisgah standing, 

All the "promised land" commanding. 

Wiapped in beatific vision, 

Of those deathless fields Elysian, 

Waiting for the summons thither. 

What should tempt your footsteps hither? 

Ah! in guise of strangers hidden. 
Angels to our feast are bidden. 
Entertaining them beside us 
Unaware, they lead and guide us. 

Low we bend to take your blessing. 
While our words to you addressing, 
Lay your hands but lightly on us, 
Let your mantle fall upon us. 


Several letters from persons abroad, former residents of Hanover, in reply 
to invitations, were read. An Historical Address was delivered by Henry H. 
Hawkins, Esq., of Silver Creek. It gave a history of the town from its early 
settlement to and including the war of 18 12, and evinced much study and 
research on the part of the writer. It was replete with entertaining and 
valuable facts, interesting especially to the citizens of Hanover, and largely 
so to the people of the county generally. It was the intention of Mr. 
Hawkins, if another such occasion should occur, to bring the history 
down to the present time. It is hoped that a similar occasion will again be 
presented ; and that, whether it shall be or not, he will proceed in preparing 
the sketch, for preservation, leaving to time and circumstances its future use 
and disposal. Certain it is, there is not another citizen in the town who can 
do the subject better justice. 

As there was but a single session, only a few speeches were made, and 
these by gentlemen not citizens of the county, though all of them had been. 
President Talcott introduced, first, " the venerable man, known to so many, 
who had taken so deep an interest in the preservation of the county history 
— the Hon. Elial T. Foote." Judge Foote was greeted with three cheers 
as he advanced to respond. He said he was a weak, feeble old man. Dea- 
con Brownell, the pioneer justice, the Camps, Mixers, and others of the 
earlier settlers whom he remembered, had been taken to the neighboring 
cemetery. A few like Capt. Pattison, even older than himself, still survived. 
Although reduced in flesh from 250 to 165, a mere skeleton of his former 
self, it was impossible for him to express the pleasure it gave him to meet 
them to-day — the last occasion that he expected to enjoy that happiness. 
He had onced hoped to write a history of the county, (too old now,) and 
had carefully collected much information which Mr. Young was using for the 
history now in preparation. He hoped all that could would aid the author 
in making the history what it should be. He wanted the history of the good 
old men who settled Hanover preserved. The gathering further reminded 
him of Perry's victory on Lake Erie sixty years ago. God's providence was 
in that victory and the battle of Lake Erie. He also complimented Mr. 
Hawkins. Although differing with him as to the first settlement in the 
county, he was very thankful that he had prepared that paper, which he 
regarded as extremely valuable. 

A. W. Young, the writer of the County History, and Dr. Jeremiah Ells- 
worth, of Corry, Pa., followed Judge Foote. As the remarks of the former 
were in great part personal, and related to his connection with the work he 
had undertaken ; and as the speech of Dr. Ellsworth, though highly interest- 
ing, was a review of pioneer experience and mode of living, which, it is 
believed, will be found faithfully presented elsewhere in this work ; and, 
further, as the matter of this volume has already far exceeded the space 
assigned to it, the remarks of both these speakers are necessarily omitted. 

The band followed with " Old Hundred," and the audience joined in sing- 
ing the old familiar words : " Praise God, from whom all blessings flow ;" 


after which was dinner. Mr. F. D. Ellis had the general management of the 
table arrangements, and succeeded finely. After dinner the bands of Forest- 
ville and Silver Creek, who had participated in the stand exercises, continued 
their music for some time ; the old folks sho.ok hands again; the young folks 
drove on the track ; and all went on merrily until " milking time," when the 
grounds were speedily vacated. 

Reunion at Jamestown. 

The second reunion of the " Old Settlers " of Chautauqua county was held 
at Jamestown on the 26th of June, 1874. Great preparations had been 
made by the citizens to meet the highest expectations of those who had for 
weeks and months been waiting for the " good time coming." _ High arches 
of evergreen spanned several streets ; and the decorations upon the streets, 
the Hall, and the Opera House, in which the public exercises were chiefly 
held, were elaborate and in good taste. The ladies had not been wanting in 
efforts to assure success to the reunion. The citizens of Jamestown did 
themselves much honor by the generous supply of provisions for the table, 
and their kind attentions to their guests. 

That this festival, in all its features, surpassed _ that of the preceding year, 
will hardly be affirmed. In numbers it far exceeded it. And a greater 
number of persons were fed. About four thousand people, it was said, were 
seated at the dinner-tables, and the provisions that were left, were estimated 
to be sufficient for at least half as many more. The arrangements for num- 
bering the pioneers, and taking their names, were defective or not fully 
carried out. Nor were they systematically classified in respect to their ages, 
as at the former reunion. No one probably will say that, on the whole, it 
was not outdone by the Fredonia meeting. 

At the hour appointed, the meeting was called to order by Col. Augustus 
F. Allen, chairman of the committee of arrangements ; and by his request, 
Hon. Abner Hazeltine, of Jamestown, took place on the stage as president of 
the meeting, and R. W. Kennedy, of French Creek ; Wm. Blaisdell, of Cherry 
Creek ; and D. H. Waite, of EUicott, as vice-presidents. 

The president then briefly addressed the meeting, cordially welcoming the 
citizens, and especially the pioneers of the county to the place on this occa- 
sion. He drew an interesting contrast between the present, and " sixty 
years ago,'' when he settled in Chautauqua county. The whole region was 
a dense forest, with only here and there a settler. Where there was a heavy 
growth of forest trees, are now rich fields and large houses, smrounded 
by all the evidences of prosperity. This region was settled by poor people, 
but by their energy and perseverance, they have greatly advanced in wealth, 
and prosperity. He said : "We have reason to thank them for clearing up 
this county. Let us not forget, in praising our forefathers and foremothers, 
to give thanks to the Great God. I will now ask the Rev. Isaac Eddy, of 
New Jersey, who is the son of the first preacher in Jamestown, to in- 
voke the Throne of Grace." 


After the conclusion of the prayer, and music by the full choir composed 
of the several church choirs, who sang " Still the Cymbals" 

The president introduced the Hon. Richard P. Marvin, who, as the Judge 
announced, would preside during the remainder of the reunion services. 
The following is only a part of Judge Marvin's address : 

" We are here in honor of the ' old settlers ' of the county. It is the 
festival of the reunion of those who survive, and a day for the commem- 
oration of the virtues of the departed. ' Old Settlers,' ' Early Settlers,' how 
reduced your ranks ! How few of your early companions are here ! You 
have no cause for mourning, rather cause for thankfulness in the reflection 
that they acted well their part while here, and that a kind Providence has 
spared you that you may see this day — to meet here your children and their 
children, and thousands of others to whose happiness your labors and priva- 
tions paved the way. They meet you here with greetings, with warm de- 
sires to contribute to your happiness while you may remain with them. 
They honor you, they know something, they know not very much, of the 
great battle you, the 'old settlers,' fought with the difficulties surrounding 
you. They, and your descendants have a clear knowledge, a happy percep- 
tion, of the great victory you obtained ; the great conquest you made, for 
they are in the full enjoyment of the fruits of the victory. I speak of your 
encounter with difficulties as a battle, and your success as a victory, and 
well I may, for to me it has always seemed that a courage, equal to that 
which has produced the ancient and modem heroes of Earth, was required 
to influence you, in early manhood, with your young bride, and those of 
middle age with their wives and little ones, to leave their homes in the old 
settlements and come into the wilderness to make for themselves and fami- 
lies a home. This county was literally a wilderness. The land was covered 
with a dense forest of trees, tall and large, and the axe was the first and only 
tool required. 

" The first labor was the construction of the log house. I shall not pause 
to describe it or its location by the bubbling spring. I have no time to speak 
of the absence of roads and mills. Let us enter at once, as they did, upon 
the campaign and begin the battle. The ' old settler,' then a sturdy youth, 
armed for combat with a single weapon, the axe, more useful and more effec- 
tive than the battle axe of the knights and warriors of other times. He 
takes a view of the field of battle, as did Napoleon the field of Waterloo. 
The enemy to be slain may be numbered by thousands. , He approaches 
one of them, a majestic oak, elm or maple, observes its tall and beautiful 
form, walks around it, measuring with his eye its circumference, takes notice 
of its inclinations, and decides where to lay it upon the earth. He is stripped 
for the combat, he is ready to begin, and he delivers the first blow. The 
wound is scarcely skin deep, and could the oak think and laugh, well might 
he do so in derision of his puny assailant. But blow follows blow. The 
weapon is wielded with skill and a will, and in time his majesty comes crash- 
ing to the ground. Another, another and another is in the same way at- 
tacked and subdued, and the sun smiles upon the earth and the labors of the 
puissant warrior. The battle is continued for days, weeks, months, years, and 
embraces many other phases before tlfe earth is prepared for the uses of man. 

" I now ask the young man of the present day to go where he can find ten 
acres of the original forest in the county, and say whether he has courage to 
make the attack, single handed and alone. Young men, I do not question 


your general courage ; many of you have proved it on the battle-field in 
presence of the cannon's mouth ; but how many of you will, for a liberal re- 
ward, undertake the conquest of ten acres of dense forest ? I venture to 
answer, very few of you. Your courage would fail. How many of our young 
women would be willing to accompany their husbands into such a wilderness, 
and submit to the hardships incident to such a settlement ? I will not press 
the question ; but I recommend that you cultivate the acquaintance of the 
aged mothers — early settlers still with us, and learn their story. You will 
find it quite as interesting and far more valuable than any of the dozen 
novels you have been reading during the last six months. They will tell you 
of the big and little wheel, and the loom, very interesting and useful furniture 
in the house, for which you have substituted the piano and the harp. They 
will tell you about their comfortabfc apparel, provided at home by their own 
labor, their calico dresses of the newest style requiring six yards, and how 
happy they felt in them. You still wear calico, and really appear very pretty 
in them, but tell the old ladies that the patterns used for a dress are from 
twelve to sixteen yards. Tell them also that you do not feel quite comfort- 
able and happy unless you are dressed in silks, the pattern for a dress being 
from twenty to thirty yards, and the good old ladies may open wide their 
eyes, and exclaim, ' What is the world coming to !' How can the young men 
ever think of marriage. But, young ladies, let me whisper in your ear the 
answer to be given. It is that since the early days of these, now ancient and 
worthy dames, the steam engine has been invented by which, supplied with 
water that costs nothing, heated to a temperature producing steam, the work 
of a thousand men and women is performed, and that this engine, made of 
iron, has actually driven from the field all the big and little wheels and do- 
mestic looms, and so greatly reduced the hard labor of men and women, that 
your husbands of the present day are able to provide for you more dresses of 
greatly enlarged patterns, and by the steam engine argument, you may, in a 
measure, allay their fears, and the apprehensions of the young men, if they 
are apprehensive, which I doubt. 

"Though the early settlers labored hard, and suffered many privations, it 
would be an error to say that they were not happy — husbands, wives and 
children. Ask any of the aged survivors, and they will say, with probably a 
few exceptions, that they were happy. Happiness does not so much depend 
upon what we have, as upon what we expect to have. They were satisfied, 
contented, not impatient. They mingled amusement with profit. Most of 
them took with them into the wilderness a rifle, and they knew how to use 
it, and the boys all learned the art. Game was plenty, and the good house- 
wife knew how to make a savory pottage fit for a king. Why say king ? 
Much better to have said her husband, herself, her children, and a neigh- 
bor who should happen in, at the right time. The streams were alive 
with the speckled trout, the same for which the epicures of the present day 
pay a dollar a pound, (though their creditors, sometimes, go unpaid.) The 
boys knew how to angle for, and take these spry, shy inhabitants of the rapid 
brooks, though I wUl venture the opinion that not one of them had ever read 
or seen, or heard of the book of the celebrated philosopher, Sir Izaak 
Walton, upon the piscatory art 

" In this county there was, and is, i large and beautiful lake, and several 
smaller lakes, all peopled with fish of the most delicious species. The early 
settlers resorted to them for recreation and for food. We might make a long 
catalogue of the pleasures and amusements of the men and boys ; but the 


women must not be neglected. They participated in all the happiness 
resulting from the success and prosperity of their husbands, and they knew 
all that their husbands knew, and they were constantly consulted. No good 
husband in those days ever thought of concealing anything from his better- 
half. It would, I fancy, have hardly been safe for him to attempt conceal- 
ment, and if he had he would have failed. She was his companion, 
counselor, help-meet. The women had their visitings, their tea parties, in 
a neighborhood of ample extent, say a dozen or more miles. They gossiped, 
told each other the news as they do now, and everjiave, and ever will, and 
woe be to the scurvy cynic who ever has attempted or shall attempt to deny 
or abridge this happy privilege. The young folks had their pleasures, and as 
the settlements thickened up, they had their balls, as they were then called, 
though I believe there are half a dozen names for the same thing now-a- 
days. And I will hazard the opinion that the net results of these gatherings, 
and convivial feasts, were quite as great as those of the present day, to wit, a 
certain number of weddings. 

" The early settlers confided in each other. There were probably not a 
dozen padlocks in the county when the population was ten thousand. The 
doors of the houses, barns and granaries were left unfastened at night. 
Their natures were not poisoned by the evil passions which now produce so 
much unhappiness ; envy was unknown. All rejoiced in the success and 
prosperity of their neighbors. All were ready to lend a helping hand to all. 
If a family was burned out, the neighbors met, and in two or three days a 
new house made its appearance. It was soon furnished, largely by contribu- 
tions, and the family were soon again comfortably settled. 

" Some of the boys, whose fathers were in better circumstances than their 
neighbors, being owners of the only horse in the neighborhood, spent a large 
portion of their time in taking to the mill, a distance of many miles, all the 
grists of all the neighborhood, and the rule was that the owner of the grist 
should labor for the owner of the horse and the father of the boy during the 
absence of the horse, and this was generally about two days, as the boy 
spent one night at the mill, the kind miller furnishing for him a bed com- 
posed of the grists at the mill, and the boy took with him his own lunch. 
The load for the horse was two bushels, surmounted by the boy. One of 
these boys is now a wealthy citizen of Jamestown. 

" But to conclude this address already too much extended. The first set- 
tlers entered this county then a wilderness, without roads, without anything 
which lab'or and civiUzation produce. By their labor and enterprise, and 
the labor and enterprise of those who came after them, the county has 
become a land flowing with milk, if not with honey, and its butter and cheese 
are certainly more valuable than the honey of the Land of Canaan. If 
those in middle life and younger, now in the county, shall acquit themselves 
and perform all their duties, and with the like integrity, as faithfully as the 
early settlers have, then the reputation of the county will be maintained, 
otherwise not." 

At the close of the exercises in Institute Hall at nobn, the Old Settlers in 
attendance formed themselves in an immense procession, and, headed by the 
band, marched to the Opera House, where everything was in readiness to 
receive them. Since morning, matrons of the tables, with their busy assist- 
ants, had been at work fiimishing and decorating their tables, and, when 
completed, they presented a sight such as never was seen in Jamestown 


before, and probably never will be again. Twelve tables, 40 feet long, ex- 
tended the entire width of the building, and groaned under their weight of 
crockery, provisions and beautiful flowers, which the skillful hands of the 
ladies had artistically arranged. Around each table stood ten young ladies 
ready to attend to the wants of all who should be so fortunate as to obtain 
seats at their tables. Each set of waiters had some distinguishing feature in 
her dress ; some wearing jaunty little caps, and others with different colored 
ribbons arranged upon tbeir persons. The ante-rooms, where the food was 
stored, and the rooms in which tea, coffee and chocolate were made, pre- 
sented sights that were wonderful. Bread, cakes, pie, etc., were stored, 
layer upon layer, and heap upon heap. Never did our people see as much 
food as this together at one time. Tea and coffee were prepared in huge 
caldrons, and its quality was of the best, causing many an old lady's eye to 
sparkle with delight, as she put in their cups the favorite beverage, prepared, 
as she expressed it, "jest right." 

Dinner time came; and the old settlers poured into the house, and were 
quickly seated at the tables. Hundreds of old men and women were there 
with gray heads ; many of them white as snow. Though stooping under the 
weight of years, a merry, pleasant expression was upon every face. When 
the seats at the tables were all filled. Rev. Mr. Robinson, at the request of 
the president, invoked the Throne of Grace. Then six hundred mouths were 
opened, and the old people, with a will, fell to dispatching the good things 
set before them by the nimble waiters. How many times the seats at the 
table were filled can not be told, as the people were constantly coming and 
going ; but it is believed that more than three thousand were fed. 

The oldest settlers' table was indeed a curiosity. It was reserved for the 
most aged people present, set with old fashioned dishes, with old fashioned 
food cooked in an old fashioned manner, and waited upon by young people 
dressed in the costumes of the olden time, and direct descendants of the first 
settlers of Chautauqua county. This table was under the supervision of 
Mrs. O. E. Jones. One noteworthy feature of the food was a cake made by 
an old lady one hundred years old. 

Dinner over, the old people adjourned to Institute Hall, to spe^k to their 
former comrades, and relate reminiscences of early times. They were briefly 
addressed by Mr. Cleland, of Charlotte, and Mr. Fay, of Portland. 

The rostrum was then cleared, and Miss Calista Jones introduced her old 
fashioned school. Old fashioned desks were placed upon the stage, and at 
the raps of the long, wicked looking ruler in the hands of Miss Jones, who 
was dressed in ancient costume ; a troop of ragged, mischievous children 
trooped up on the stage, and took their seats in that manner so peculiar to 
the district school of years ago. Classes in " readin,' spellin' and 'rithmetic " 
were called up to recite, and stood there in a row ; the great over-grown 
"booby," the sore toed one, the smart girl and dull one, all were there and 
in a manner that recalled vividly to the minds of many their own school 
days in the little red house, where the rudiments were instilled into their 


minds, and where the happiest days of their existence were passed. Miss 
Jones has been a teacher for over thirty consecutive years; and there is 
scarcely a man or woman whose childhood was passed in this place, who has 
not, at one time or another, been under her tuition. She is now a teacher in 
the Jamestown Union School and Collegiate Institute. 

Rev. Mr. Frink was called for, and responded with a fife in his hand, 
which his father had played on through the Revolutionary war ; and though 
advanced in years, with fingers stiflF, breath short, and lips that sometimes 
failed to do their office, he played one or two airs that he learned when a 
boy. They were received with applause. 

After remarks by Rev. Mr. Stillman, old " New Jerusalem" was sung by 
the choir, the audience standing and joining with the choir. 

The singing was followed by brief speeches from Dr. Ellsworth, of Corry ; 
Hon. Alvin Plumb, and a Mr. Taylor, a school teacher in Jamestown forty- 
five years ago. And after singing " Coronation," in response to a call from 
Judge Foote, further speaking was done by Oliver Pier, the " Leather Stock- 
ing" of Chautauqua county, Judge Edson, and Rev. Mr. Kent. The re- 
marks of all were interesting ; but the want of room forbids their insertion. 

One fact, however, stated by Mr. Plumb, should not be omitted. In the 
account of the receptions of Gen. La Fayette in this county, given in pre- 
ceding pages, no mention was made of the fact, that Congress voted him, 
for his services in the Revolutionary war, $200,000, and a township of land. 

Mr. Pier, it may be added, in relating his early hunting feats, said he had 
killed 1,322 deer with one gun, which had required, during its use, three new 
stocks and hammers. 

On motion, it was resolved, that thanks be tendered to the officers of the 
meeting ; also to the people who had so generally contributed to the success 
of the enterprise, especially to the ladies, for the excellent preparations they 
had made. The audience then joined in singing " America," and then the 
meeting adjourned to meet at the Opera House in the evening. The 
adjournment gave all opportunity tg^witness the grand parade of the fire 
department, at six o'clock, when the entire department, with bands of music, 
formed into order on East Fourth street, and took up the line of march pre- 
viously laid out. Of this we can only say, that it was an elegant display ; 
and that Jamestown may be justly proud of her fire department. 

The evening exercises at the Opera House were well attended. By eight 
o'clock the house was well filled. A large number of the older people 
present, took their seats on the stage. A great part of the evening exercises 
was the reading of letters from persons invited who were unable to be pres- 
ent. After a song, Mr. Cleland, one of the four brothers, took the stand, 
and related many pleasing reminiscences of early life in the county. In 
response to repeated calls. Rev. Hiram Eddy, formerly of Jamestown, took 
the stand, and delivered an interesting address. Jamestown had given him 
a start in the world ; and he would ever regard his mother town with love 
and reverence. Mr. Eddy said he and an older brother cut the first tree that 


was ever felled on " English Hill," and built a cabin. Among the reminis- 
cences of his early life in that town, was his having worked in the old woolen 
factory, with the now Hon. T. R. Hazard, for twenty-five cents a day. After 
some well chosen remarks by Judge Marvin, Davis H. Waite, editor of the 
Jour7ial, read a valuable paper, giving a history of James Prendergast. 
Deacon Higby Danforth recounted some incidents in the early history of 
Busti. Judge Marvin then arose, and said that, by request, the audience 
would sing " Auld Lang Syne," when the meeting would be adjourned. At 
the close of the singing, Corydon Hitchcock called for three hearty cheers. 
With these, the second reunion of the old settlers of Chautauqua county was 

A large collection of relics was placed for exhibition in the Union School 
building, which attracted the attention of a great portion of the people 
present. A few only of the relics can be mentioned : 

Portrait of Deacon Samuel Foote, father of E. T. Foote. Born in New 
Haven, Conn., 1770. Settled in Sherburne, N. Y., 1798. Came to Ellicott 
in 1826, and died January 25th, 1848, aged 78 years. Portrait of Anna 
Cheney, first wife of E. T. Foote, and one of the founders of the Methodist 
church of Jamestown. Born in Dover, Vt. Came to Ellicott in i8r2. 
Married in Jamestown, 1817, and died in Jamestown, 1840, aged 40 years. 
Portrait of first wife of Hon. E. T. Foote, painted in 1836. Exhibited by 
Mrs. Palmiter. A portrait of Ruby, wife of Wm. Sears, and daughter of 
Ebenezer Cheney, bom in Dover, Vt., 1787, removed to Pomfret in 1811. 
On the death of Mr. Sears, she was married to Charles Arnold ; died in 
Hartfield, 1858, aged 71 years. 

From Mrs. C. Jones — Pocket handkerchief over one hundred years old. 
From Mrs. Job Davis — Snuff handkerchief over fifty years old ; muslin cap 
over one hundred years old ; also mits over one hundred years old, and vest 
over fifty years old. From Miss Belle Marvin — A quilt designed and quilted 
by Mrs. David Newland in i82r. Also a quilt pieced by Miss McHarg in 
i8r2, the calico costing from cents to one dollar per yard ; also 
baby dress sixty years old. One muslin and one cambric dress, handsomely 
embroidered, made in 18 10. D. H. Marvin's baby cloak; .landscape and a 
fruit piece done in fancy work sixty years ago. 

From Gideon Sherman — Corset over one hundred years old ; also a 
sword picked up in Rhode Island after the British were driven out. From 
Hon. R. P. Marvin — Laws of England, published in 1642, and a law book 
in 1746. From Mrs. H. P. Buck — Sugar bowl two hundred years old. 
From L. L. Mason — Original warrant for hanging witches in Massachusetts, 
1692. From Levant Mason — Shoe buckle, hour glass and spectacles over 
one hundred and fifty years old. From Vernon Morley — Bake kettle used 
in 1800 for johnny cakes ; horn spoon. 

From Mrs. A. F. Allen — A chest which was filled with valuables and 
hidden in the woods for three months to prevent its being confiscated by 
tories. From Hiram Thayer — Plow brought into this county fifty-two years 


ago by Isaac Eames ; has been used on Mr. Thayer's farm every year since. 
From R. P. Marvin — Tea-table one hundred years old; silver, china and 
glass ware used by Mrs. Newland, of Albany, sixty years ago. From Miss 
Belle Marvin — Horn spoon and ladle, over one hundred years old. 

From C. L. Bishop — An account book of John Bishop, one hundred and 
sixteen years old ; a singing book over one hundred years old ; several 
school books over fifty years old ; a piece of shew bread from the Jewish 
Synagogue of Poughkeepsie ; a piece of a gun barrel used in the Revolu- 
tion ; a poisoned dagger brought from Borneo, in 1 816, by the American 
consul ; several relics of the Boston and Chicago fires ; two pictures of 
Jamestown before the fire in 186 1 ; a ring and staple from Libby prison, 
used during the war ; a tooth of a mastodon found over thirty feet under the 
ground ; three specimens of Continental currency; a collection of old coins, 
all of them used six hundred years B. C. ; the only remaining pieces of an 
American flag, the first one captured by the rebels at Fort Sumter ; a smok- 
ing pouch, pipe, two arrows of Wahassett, chief of the Sioux tribe of Texas ; 
a copy of the Ulster County Gazette in mourning for General Washington, 
January 4, 1800. 

From Ezekiel Gould — A pewter basin brought from England one hundred 
and twenty years ago. From Chas. Mitchel, of Auburn prison — Three pic- 
ture frames, two containing 5,000 and one 2,456 pieces ; a work-box contain- 
ing 13,287 pieces. 

From Mr. and Mrs. Alex. T. Prendergast — Case of coins in circulation in 
Jamesto^vn from 1812 to 1835; cane with carved horn handle made and 
presented to Judge James Prendergast by an Indian chief 60 years ago ; early 
settler's cane ; a pair of tongs been in use over a century ; first dinner kettle 
brought to Jamestown ; pocketbooks brought from Scotland over 125 years 
ago ; a very old mahogany table imported from France by Captain Norton ; 
cane made from a deck plank of Perry's flag ship Lawrence; sun dial from 
Scotland over 125 years old ; an almanac of 1794 ; an old watch brought to 
Jamestown in 18 10; a cravat, diamond pin and brooch and cue worn by 
Judge James Prendergast at one of Washington's receptions in New York 
city ; cherry stand, the first article of furniture manufactured in Jamestown, 
made for Judge Prendergast by Captain Phineas Palmeter ; portraits of Judge 
Martin Prendergast, Judge Matthew Prendergast, Judge James Prendergast, 
Hon. Jediah Prendergast and Hon. John J. Prendergast; infant dress of 
Alex. T. Prendergast, 65 years old; wedding bonnet 27 years old; old style 
cap ; old fashioned pocket ; old style bonnets ; Spanish lace veil'wom by 
Mrs. Judge Prendergast ; log cabin campaign handkerchief and badge. 

From Martin Prendergast — Shawl worn by Mrs. Dr. Wm. Prendergast in 
1815 ; dress waist worn by Mrs. E. Prendergast before 1805 ; Mrs. Dr. Wm. 
Prendergast's dress waist made in 181 7; sword and uniform wosn by Col. 
Wm. Prendergast in the war of 18 12. 

From Mrs. A. Hazeltine — A plate imported for a marriage outfit in 1760 
by Caleb Hayward, Mrs. Hazeltine's grandfather. From Col. A. F. Allen — 


Hand sword taken from the hand of a dead rebel after the battle of Cairo, 
evidently very old, sent to Col. Allen as a tooth-pick. From unknown par- 
ties — First seat of the old Pine street school house, where Mr. and Mrs. 
A. F. Allen first met. From Mrs. Seymour — Tea-cups and saucers of three 
generations, 1773, 1804 and 1823. Leaf from the cypress tree under which 
Lord Packenham died, 1830. Punch bowl used at a Congregational church 
raising in Jaflfrey, N. H., on the day of the battle at Bunker Hill. 


This remarkable phenomenon occurred in 1806, when there were but few 
settlers in this county. And of the large number who witnessed it before 
coming, there are few now living who can give a minute and correct descrip- 
tion of it. Nor will its like again occur in the United States, during the 
life-time of the youngest person now living. 

The eclipse was calculated to be total in such parts of New York, New 
England, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, as were situated between 41 deg. 35 min., 
and 43 deg. 5 min. north latitude. Gen. Simeon De Witt, of Albany, in 
giving an account of the eclipse, observed : " Fortunately, on the morning of 
that day, [June r6th,] the atmosphere was very clear. The eclipse began at 
9 h. 5 min. t2 sec, a. m. ; the beginning of total obscuration was 11 h. 8 m. 
6 s. ; the end of total darkness, 11 h. 12 m. 6 s. ; and of the eclipse, 12 h. 
33 min. 8 s. ; end of total eclipse, 4 m. 5 s." 

At Cooperstown, N. Y., the following description of this sublime phe- 
nomenon was given : 

" The atmosphere at this place, on Monday last, was serene and pure. The 
sun was majestically bright, until 50 minutes past g o'clock, a. m., when a 
little dark spot was visible about forty-five degrees to the right of the zenith. 
The shade increased until rg minutes past 10, when stars began to appear, 
and the atmosphere exhibited a gloomy shade. At 12 minutes past 11 
o'clock, the sun was wholly obscured, exhibiting the appearance of a black 
globe, or screen, with light behind it, the rays only of which were visible, 
and which were too feeble to occasion sufficient light to form a shade. Many 
stars now appeared, although less numerous than are usually seen in clear 
evenings. TTiere was now " darkness visible " — a sort of blackish, unnatural 
twilight. The fowls retired to their roosts, and the "doves to their windows." 
The birds were mute, except the whip-poor-will, whose notes partially cheered 
the gloom. The dew descended, and nature seemed clad in a sad, somber, 
and something like a sable livery. 

"At 14 minutes past ii, a little bright point appeared to the left of the 
sun's nadir, similar to the focus of a glass when refracting the rays of the 
sun. Sudtienly a segment of the circle of that glorious orb emerged, and 
seemed to say, ' sit lux,' and was instantly obeyed, ' lux fuit,' as quick as 
thought A small pin could be discovered on the ground. A more wonderful 
and pleasing phenomenon can hardly be conceived. The doves left their 


retirement ; the whip-poor-will's melody ceased ; and the face of nature again 
smiled. But some stars were still visible, and Venus displayed her beauty 
until 1 2 o'clock. At 40 minutes past 1 2, the sun shone in full splendor, and 
in turn eclipsed the moon and all other heavenly luminaries by its glorious 

Rev. Dr. Nott, President of Union College, in his account of the eclipse, 
says : 

"At the instant the last ray was intercepted, and the obscuration became 
total, a tremulous, undulating shadow, a kind of indescribable, alternate 
prevalence and intermixture of light and shade, struck the earth, and played 
on its surface, which gave to the most stable objects the semblance of agita- 
tion. It appeared as though the moon rode unsteadily in her orbit ; and the 
earth seemed to tremble on its axis. The deception was so complete, that I 
felt instinctively, and in spite of the instincts of my reason to the contrary, 
a tottering motion. Some who were present, I observed, took hold of what- 
ever was near them for support, while others leaned forward, and insensibly 
flung themselves into an attitude which indicated that they found it difficult 
to stand. * * * 

" The scenes described at the commencement of the total obscuration 
reappeared when the first rays of the sun were reappearing ; the same ap- 
parent agitation of the surface of the earth ; the same apparent struggle 
between light and darkness; the same separation between light and shade 
into distinct and alternate arches, and the same motion reversed ; for now 
the arches of light seemed to crowd those of shade inward ; and the whole 
movement was from the horizon towards the center, which continued about 
the same time, and disappeared in the same manner, as above described." 

In the city of New York, a sudden and dismal gloom overspread the face 
of nature ; the thermometer indicated a fall of the quicksilver 18 degrees, 
and the atmosphere was sensibly cooler. Not a cloud was to be seen. 



For convenience of reference and for other purposes, separate historical 
sketches of the several towns are given, alphabetically arranged. 

In collecting the materials for this history, it was found that many of the 
present settlers were desirous to know the dates of settlement of their ances- 
tors and certain other old settlers. But on inquiry it was found, that the 
oldest remaining settlers differed much in their recollections ; and that their 
statements were not reliable. It was then concluded to refer to the books of 
the Holland Land Company, in which is found the precise date of the article 
of every original purchaser who bought his land on credit. The record of 
original purchasers by deed prior to the destruction of the land-office at May- 
ville in 1836, is not to be found, the books having been destroyed. 

But it is to be observed, that the date of contract does not in all cases 
determine the date of settlement. Some settled on their lands by permission 
of the agent of the Land Company, a year or two years before their articles 
were executed, or before the townships were surveyed into lots. And there 
were others who took their articles a year or two years before they settled on 
their lands. Hence, the time of settlement of a considerable portion of 
those whose names are found in the lists, must remain in doubt. A majority 
of them, however, it is presumed, entered upon their lands as soon as they 
could erect their cabins and bring on their families. 


Arkwright was formed from Pomfiret and Villenova, April 30, 1829. A 
part of Pomfret was annexed in 1830. It comprises the territory of township 
5, range 11, according to EUicott's survey of the Holland Purchase. Its sur- 
face has been described as an elevated upland, broken and hilly in the south- 
west, and rolling in the north-east. Its highest summit — near the center — is 
said to be 1,000 to 1,200 feet above Lake Erie, and is probably the highest 
land in the county. It is watered chiefly by the tributaries or head waters 
of the Canadaway creek, which crosses the west line of the town into Pom- 
fret nearly three miles north from its south-west corner, and the head waters 
or branches of the Walnut creek, which leaves the town about one mile west 
of its north-east corner. On its east border is Mud lake, which covers about 
10 acres. The soil is a clay and gravelly loam. On Canadaway creek, in 
the south-west part, is a cascade with a perpendicular fall of 2 2 feet. 


Original Purchases in Township j, Range ii. 
1807. November, Zattu Gushing, 63 ; [articled to Uriah L. Johnson.] 

1809. June, Benj. Sprague, 56. August, Augustus Bumham, 60. Ed- 
ward McGregor, 62. September, Oliver Taylor, 55. October, Aaron Wil- 
cox, 56. November, Nathan Eaton, 64. Benj. Perry, 64. 

1810. January, Horace Clough, 42. May, Augustus Bumham, 56. 
181 2. March, Robert Cowden, 54. 

1814. October, Moses Tucker, 62. November, Daniel Harris, 53. 

181 5. October, Robert W. Seaver, 37. 

1816. February, Abiram Orton, 55. December, Thaddeus Barnard, 16. 

181 7. March, Robert Cowden, 53. April, Jabez Harrington, 39. 

18 1 8. March, Silas Matteson, 8. 

1821. July, Isaiah Martin, 3. October, Bela Kingsley, 13. Hiram 
Kinsley, 13. 

1822. March, Simeon Smith, Jr., 39. Caleb Weaver, Jr., 39. April, 
David Weaver, 31. John Weaver, 32. Bethnel Harvey, 12. Oct., Ashbel 
Scott, 10. Nov., Asahel Bumham, 26, 27. Moses and Aaron Luce, 18. 

1823. July, Sylvester Gould, 42. August, Stephen Chase, 2. Novem- 
ber, Orestes Thatcher, 18. 

1824. September, Simeon Clinton, 21. October, Benjamin White, 28. 
Arna Wood, 51. 

1825. Sept., Shephen Chase, 2d, 9. Oct., Ellsworth Griswold, 25. 

1826. January, Andrus M. Huyck, 16. July, Wm. F. Peebles, Jr., 33. 
October, Zephaniah Briggs, 42. Abijah Mason, 8. 

1828. January, Benjamin Perry, 47. 

The first settlement in Arkwright, according to the State Gazetteer, was 
made in the north-west part of the town in 1807, by Abiram Orton, Benjamin 
Perry and Augustus Bumham, from the eastern part of the state. From the 
Holland Company's land-office books it appears, that the lands of these set- 
tlers were not articled until 1809. They were, however, probably contracted 
for and settled in the year first mentioned. Aaron Wilcox is said to have 
settled in 1809, and Nathan Eaton in 1810, though the articles of both are 
dated in 1809. Uriah L. Johnson, Benjamin Sprague, and Jonathan 
Sprague, are said to have settled at the center of the town in 181 1. Johnson 
and B. Sprague first bought, and, it is believed, occupied, lands in the north- 
west part of the town, but afterwards, probably in 18 11, settled permanently 
near the center. 

Abiram Orton came from Oneida county, and settled in the north-west 
part of the town, probably on lot 64, near Pomfret. He was for several years 
an associate judge of the county. He was twice married, and died in 1837, 
having had no children. His widow resides on the fann. Aaron Wilcox, a 
native of Conn., removed with his family from Madison Co., N. Y., to Chau- 
tauqua, 1809 ; and, after a year's residence at Fredonia, settled in the town 
of Arkwright, on lot 56, which he bought in October, 1809, and on which he 
resided until his death, in 1833. His children were William, Azariah, 
Betsey, Oliver C, Lydia G., Ursula, Thomas R., and Harvey R. 

Nathan Eaton, also probably from Oneida or Madison county, bought on 
lot 64. A daughter of his married Asahel Bumham, whose son Asahel 


resides at Sinclairville ; and another son, Eaton, lives in Arkwright. Benj. 
Perry, before mentioned, was a lieutenant in the war of 1812 ; afterwards a 
colonel of the militia. Of his three sons, George W. resides in Ripley. 

Daniel Saunders was an early settler on lot 56, though he was not an 
original purchaser ; he still resides there. He had no sons, but 6 daughters : 
Lois Ann, wife of Marshal Parsons ; Mariett, wife of Silas Matteson, of Dun- 
kirk; Clarissa, unmarried; Jane, wife of Morgan Rice; Amarett, wife of L. 
Courtney Baldwin ; and Hope, unmarried. Robert Cowden settled on lot 
54, articled in 1812. A son, Alia, lives in Harbor Creek, Pa. ; Levi, on the 
homestead. Moses Tucker settled on lot 62, bought in 1814. His son 
Chauncey was a lawyer in Fredonia, since at Buffalo, and is deceased. 

Alia and Zebina Willson, and Robert Cowden, who married their sister, 
came from Madison Co., and settled in 18 11, on lots 53 and 54^ and their 
father, Reuben Willson, about 181 7, settled near them. He had thirteen 
children, all of whom are dead except Adine, who lives on a part of his 
father's homestead, and Mrs. Cowden, who resides with her son, Levi Cow- 
den, on the old homestead where they first settled. 

In the south-east part of the town, James Black, from Wayne county, at 
the age of 19 or 20, bought a part of lot 10, adjoining a piece previously 
taken up by Wm. Scott. Each built a cabin* in the usual pioneer style ; the 
doors being made of a board brought by Mr. Scott two miles on his back. 
They married two sisters, daughters of Elder Dibble. They were surround- 
ed by forest, infested with wolves and bears, sometimes approaching too near 
their cabins for the safety of their children when out at play. By persevering 
industry they have secured to themselves good farms and an ample com- 
petence. James T. Black, a son of James, is married, and lives on a farm 
adjoining his father's. Charles S., another son, lives at home with his 
parents. Mr. Scott died in 1866, leaving a daughter and two sons : Warren, 
who resides in the east part of the town, and David, who lately lived on the 

Isaiah Martin, from Broome Co., settled first in the south part of the 
county, at an early day. He soon removed to Pomfret, and commenced the 
erection of a cotton factory on the Canadaway creek, near where Scotrs 
tavern now is, but gave up the enterprise, and bought in 1821, in the south- 
east part of this town, in the wilderness ; built a cabin and cleared a farm ; 
built a good house, and for many years kept a tavern and a store, with 
asheries. He had seven sons, none remaining in the town, except George 
W., who resides on the old place. 

The first dirt/i in this town is said- to have been that of Horatio N. John- 
son, son of Uriah L. Johnson, May 11, 181 1; the first marriage, that of 
Asahel Bumham and Luania Eaton, May 11, 1815 ; and the first death, that 
of Augustus Burnham, in 1813. [A marriage is thought by some to have 
occurred earlier than 1815.] 

The first school, says the Gazetteer, was taught by Lucy Dewey, near the 
center, in the summer of 1813. A reliable old settler is confident that a 


school was taught by Horace Clough in the winter of 1811-12 ; and that the 
same school was taught by Parthenia Baldwin in the summer of 181 2. 

The first imi was kept by Simeon Clinton, in 181 7, at the center, so called, 
though about a mile north of the geographical center; subsequently kept by 
J. Bartholomew, who also kept a post-office ; both of which have been discon- 
tinued there. Aaron Town's inn and Arkwright post-office are kept about 
2 miles south-east from the former place. 

The first saw mill was built in 18 18, by Abiram Ortott and Benjamin 
Perry, on Orton's land, near the town line, near the north-west corner of the 
town, on a small branch of the Canadaway creek. A saw-mill and an oil- 
mill on Walnut creek, in the north-east part of the town, was owned by 
Andrus M. Huyck, and perhaps built by him. It came into the hands of 
Edward B. Kingsley, who has kept a saw-mill in operation there until the 
present time. Two other saw-mills, one or two miles above, on the same 
stream, are yet standing, one of which, at least, is kept running a part of the 
time. Asahel Burnham pretty early built a saw-mill in the south part of the 

town. A mill is still run there by Thayer. Another built by S. A. 

Stoddard, half a mile above, has been discontinued. A mill was also built 
by Joel White, south of the center; no longer in use. K steam saw-mill 
built by Marvin Snow, at the old center, five or six years since, was removed 
by him, a year or two ago, a few rods down the stream, and rebuilt. Ezra 
Scott built a steam saw-mill, three or four years ago, which is still in 
operation. A grist mill, the only one, it is believed, built in this town, was 
near the west line of the town of Pomfret. Scarce a trace of it remains. 

An oil-mill was built in the abbey by Wm. Mason and Leonard Love, 
about thirty-five years ago. It soon passed into the hands of Andrus M. 
Huyck, who ran it successfully for a number of years. 

In the soutli. part of the town, Horace Clough settled on lot 42, bought in 
1810. He married Polly Crouch (?), and had 2 sons, Horace P. and Mellin 
H, who reside in Pennsylvania. He married, second, Parthena Baldwin, 
by whom he had 3 sons, Barclay and Luther, in California, and Casper, 
deceased ; and 4 daughters, Esther, Lucy, Mariett, and Helen, the last 
deceased. [Mr. Clough, it is said, subsequendy removed, and settled near 
the north line, in or near the town of Sheridan.] 

Jesse Reed, from Windsor Co., Vt., came with his wife to Arkwright, and 
settled on lot 43, cutting his way three miles through the woods. His cabin 
was one of the rudest of the rude ; and his pioneer experience was of the 
rougher kind. He had 2 children : Euphame, who is married, and went to 
Michigan ; and Stephen W., married, and lives on the homestead. 

In the south-east part of the town, David Abbey settled early on lot 3, 
where he still resides, with his son, Chauncey. His sons were James P., 
Chauncey, and David. James P. resides on lot 12, where he has resided 
many years. Chauncey is an extensive and a successful farmer ; and he has, 
for many years, been an extensive dealer in cattle. He has acquired an 
ample fortune. He was elected eight times to the office of supervisor. 


Leonard Sessions, from Broome county, came to Arkwright in 1828, and 
settled on lot 4, where he now resides. A son, Holland, is on the farm ; 
Henry, in VUlenova, whose son Lawrence is a merchant at Hamlet. He 

h?d 4 daughters : Esther, Cordelia, J , and Lydia, deceased. None of 

them reside in town. 

In the north-east part of the town, Silas Matteson settled on lot 8, bought 
March, 1818. A son, SUas, is a detective at Dunkirk. Harvey Baldwin 
settled on a part of the same lot, about 1834, whence he removed, in 1872, 
to Sheridan Center. He had several children, of whom two sons only are 
living : Albert, who removed to the West ; and Horace, who lives with his 
father in Sheridan. 

Bela Kingsley, from Onondaga Co., in the spring of 1822, settled on lot 
13. He opened a road for his team of two yoke of oxen, and built a log 
cabin, and covered it with hollowed basswood logs, leaving a hole for the 
escape of the smoke. He had a wife and several sons, Edward, the oldest, 
being about r4 years old. Though far from an inhabitant, they were not 
long at a time alone. Almost every night, their cabin floor of split logs was 
covered with weary travelers looking for lands. Mr. Kingsley soon enlarged 
his house with similar material. Three years after, he built a small frame 
house and commenced innkeeping. On the 4th of July, the young people, 
with ox-teams, on foot, and otherwise, collected there for an " Independence 
ball," the house having but one room. He kept tavern, cleared and cultiva- 
ted his farm, and enjoyed his home, until the New York & Erie Railroad 
was run through it. He then sold out, and removed to Laona, where he 
soon died. Edward B. remained in the town, purchased a place in the 
" Abbey," near Mr. Huyck's, where he still resides, having been to\vTi collec- 
tor 5 years, clerk i year, justice 4 years, and assessor 13 years. He was 
about 15 years of age when he came in with his father, and soon began to 
assist in chopping and clearing. This labor he continued until he had be- 
come a professional chopper. About the time he became of age, he chopped 
thirteen months continuously. The day after he reached his majority, he 
commenced chopping for himself; and in just two weeks, (12 working days,) 
he chopped 3 acres, the timber all in good order for logging. His common 
average was an acre in four days. He also gained notoriety as a marksman. 
More bears than one that had fled for safety to the highest branches of a tall 
tree, he brought down dead with a musket ball, after others had fired repeat- 
edly without effect. 

He relates the following bear story : Two young men, [Perley and Hiram 
KinsTey,] settled on a part of the lot [13] on which Bela Kingsley settled, and 
about^ the same time. They kept " bachelor's hall." Perley, returning from 
a tramp one afternoon through the woods, espied a bear and two cubs playing 
in the road a few rods before him. He seized a club, and got near them 
before they discovered him. The cubs fled and ascended a large hemlock 
Jto the top ; the old bear ran into a swamp, out of sight. He hallooed, and 
ffeljought to his assistance a man from the other side of the swamp, who kept 


; • f 

^ ^cllc^ M'n^ 

KWRIGHT. \ 225 

watch until Perley had rallied the Heighbois, who came with dogs ana mvis- 
. kets, Edward B. Kingsley, then about i§ years old, among ftem. Some ha^"^ 
fired when he arrived, the two young b^rs still sitting undisturbed in the top 
of the tree. Kingsley charged his musket, aj^, at the first fire, brought onie < 
bear down, dead. While he was re-loadinjBthers were firing, but, as be- 
fore, without effect. '^Re fired agafti, and brofight the other cub down, 
wounded, but not dead. The dogs, ho#ever, soon dispatched him j and the 
boy went home the hero of the day. '' ' W ^ 

In the easi part of the town, Aaron Town, from Genesee Co., settled in 
1826 on lot 12, and subsequently purchased the tavern stand at the Summit, 
"which he kept for many years, and which is now kept by his son Oliver M. 
He has raised 5 sons and 3 daughters, all living and having families. Martin 
H., the second son, resides at the Summit; is a justice of the peace^j^Myhich 
office he has held for nearly four fiiH- teniSsij fed has been postmaster fopf 
eighteen years, to the pi^ent time. Benjamin Jones, in 1832, settled tem- 
porarily on lot 23, and went thence to the center of the town, where he re- 
sides with his daughters. He was a justice of the peace 1 2 years, and town 
clerk nearly 21 years. 

At the first town meeting, held in the house of Simeon Clinton, May 2, 
1830, the following named officers were chosen : 

Supervisor- — William Wilcox. Town C/b-A-r-Aa^pn -Foster. Assessors — 
Andnis M. Huyck, pairiel Harrington, \^if^^^^txy\ Gpmmissioners, of 
Highways — Isaac ITiompson, Jod White," ^1AiJ8i>n Viii "Vliet.' Collector — 
Daniel Weaver.- Overseers of the Poor — Silas Ma^ Charles Crawford. Com- 
missioners of Schools-^— Isaac Bumpus, Ira Whife,' IjCwis K Danforth. In- 
spectors of Schools — Andrus M. Huyck, Tiniofliy Cole, James Sprague. 
Constables — Edw. B. Kingsley, David; Weaver.' JtisSies (^ the Feace-^lsaac 
Bumpus, John G. Cuttis, LeWis E.Dafjforth. "^ .' ; - 
Supervisors from, 18 30 to^'t^jgi. " 

William Wilcox, 1830 to 1,836, and 1844 to *^2^^ years. Levi Bald- 
win, 1837 to 1840, '42, '53, '54, '57 — 8 years. Lie^^^^Miforth, 1841, '43. 
Chauncey Abbey, 1855, '56, '58, '59, and 1862 tcrS§^-8 years. John C. 
Griswold, i860, '61, '(i&, '68. . Delos J. Rider, 1867. Oscar H^, fltoUck,^ 
i86g. L. Courtney Baldwin, 1870. Leander S. Phelps, 1871, '72. George 
W. Briggs, 1873, '7^ '75. 

B10GRAPHICAL AND Genealogical 
Levi Baldwin, son of Isaac and Parthena Baldwin, was' bom in Pawlet,. 
Vt., Jan. 26, 1802. He came with his father to Sheridan in 1812, and 
resided there until after his marriage". . He was marded Oct 23, 1831, to 
Eliza Ann Putnam, and settled iii ArkWrighjfjbn lot 55, near where he npw 
resides. His wife died Nov. 10, yf^Z- Ete ^aarried for a second wife Mrs. 
Eleanor B. Phelps, March 26, i8fi6. He h^ held the office of supprvisor 8- . 
years, and been a justice of the peace fof Several terms, add town superin- 
tendent of schools ; and has held various other offices^ the duties of all of 


which he has discharged faithfully and to the satisfaction of his fellow-citi- 
zens. He had three children by his first wife, all sons., i. Oliver T., who 
went to California in his twentieth year, where he married Nancy Wright, and 
settled finally in San Francisco^ where he now resides. 2. Z. Courtney, who 
married Amoret Saunders, and 'settled on the south part of lot 55, adjoining 
his father's, where he now resides. 3. Orville £>., who married Eglantine 
Dawley, and is a druggist in Fredonia. 

Simeon Clinton, born in Saratoga Co., Feb. 3, 1779, removed from 
Otsego Co. to Arkwright, near the center, on lot 37, in 18 13. He attained to 
considerable prominence, and took an active part in getting the town set off. 
He was a surveyor. About 50 years ago, he is said to have made the first 
survey and plot of the village of Dunkirk, and afterward of Sinclairville. He 
kept the first tavern in town. He was the first postmaster, and held the 
office for 20 years ; and was town clerk and justice for a number of years. 
He was killed by lightning while in the act of closing a stable door. A son 
of Mr. C. was prostrated by the stroke, but soon recovered. The house also 
was struck, but without much damage. He had a son and 5 daughters, the 
three youngest being triplets i only one of them living, who is the wife of 
Milton Cole, of this town, whose son, Charles Cole, is the present town 
clerk, [Feb., 1875.] Mr. Clinton was nearly 80 years of age. 

Samuel Davis, from Madison Co., came to Chautauqua Co. as teamster 
for Zattu Cushing, in February, 1805, and was one of the number coming 
from Buffalo on the ice, who narrowly escaped being drowned by the break- 
ing away of the ice, as related by O. W. Johnson, Esq., in his " Memoir of 
Judge Zattu Cushing." [See Historical Sketch of Pomfret.] After their ar- 
rival at Fredonia, Davis took a job of clearing ten acres for Cushing, for the 
performance of which he received the lot of land where Linus Sage now lives. 
He built a small log house, and the next spring brought in his family. 

Andrus M. Huyck settled early on lot 16, bought in 1826. In the 
spring of 1827, he built a log house, into which he moved his family, consist- 
ing of a wife and two sons, Shadrach and Oscar. There was no settler near 
him; but so rapidly did new settlers come in, that they put up a small log 
school-house in season for a school the next winter ; and in a few years a 
commodious frame house was erected. The school prospered, and took the 
name of the " Abbey School." It became quite a popular institution, having 
fiimished many good and successful teachers. Mr. Ht^ck was himself a 
successful teacher, and exerted a favorable inftuence in the cause of education, 
as well as in the community and in the church. He was for several years a 
commissioner or inspector of schools, and for two or three terms a justice of 
the peace. Mr. Huyck Xia^ 4 sons, Shadrach, Oscar H., Elijah and Avery ; 
and 2 daughters, Tamar-' and. Hester; all of whom have families — three 
living in the Abbey dbtrict, and three in the West. Oscar H. is a justice, 
having held the office several terms ; and has served one term as supervisor. 
Avery, the youngest son, now living with his father, was for three years in 
the Union army, and in several battles, without receiving personal injury. 


BUSTI. 227 

William Wilcox, son of Aaron, elsewhere mentioned, was bom in Sims- 
bury, Conn., May i, 1790. He came with his father to this county in 1809, 
and subsequently purchased a part of lot 48, on the north line of the town. 
He was married, in 18 17, to Esther S. Cole, who came from Vermont in 
1815. He felled the first tree on his land, which he improved and occupied 
57 years. As a citizen, he enjoyed the esteem and confidence of the com- 
munity. He was elected, in 1830, the first year after the formation of the 
town, as its supervisor, and held the office by reelection until 1836, and from 
1844 to 1852 — in all, for 16 years. He was also a member of assembly, in 
1837, with Alvin Plumb and Calvin Rumsey. [Family sketch not received 
in season for insertion here.] 

Methodist Episcopal Church. — A class was formed in the " Abbey," by 
Elder David Preston, in June, r830. It consisted of 8 members : Ira 
and Elizabeth Richardson, John Franklin, Reuben and Fanny Howe, Caleb 
Weaver, John Lafferty, and Isaac Bumpus." Of those who joined soon after, 
were : Andrus M. Huyck, Wright Lewis, Hiram Lewis, Wm. McClanathan, 
R. McClanathan, Caleb Weaver, and probably the wives of some of them. 
A portion of its members were from the adjacent towns of Sheridan, Han- 
over, and Arkwright. Mr. Huyck has been a class leader most of the time 
since its organization. The class increased to the number of 60 the first 
year. Although it has continued to prosper, no church edifice has been 
built ; meetings having been generally held in the district school-house, the 
present house having been, in its construction, designed partly for that 

A Christian Church was formed in the south-west part of the town ; but 
the date of its organization has not been ascertained. 


BusTi, named from Paul Busti, general agent of the Holland Land Com- 
pany, was formed from EUicott and Harmony, April 16, 1823. It comprises 
the west half of township i , range 1 1 , excepting the four north lots which 
were in 1845 annexed to Ellicott ; and three-fourths, or six tiers of lots, firom 
tp. I, r. 12 ; together with that portion of tp. 2 lying south of the lake, and 
between Ellicott and Harmony. It contains an area of 29,152 acres, or 
about 45^ square miles. It is drained by several small streams which flow 
into the lake, and by the branches of the Stillwater, which passes through 
Kiantone into the Connewango. 

Original Purchases in Township r, Range 12. 

1810. April, Samuel Griffith, 4. May, Tho. Bemus, r2. December, 
Jonas Lamphear, 48. 

181 1. March, Wm. Matteson, Jr., 40, [Ellicott.] May, Jedediah Chapin, 
4. Palmer Phillips, 11. October, Nathaniel Fanner, 15. 


1 812. February, Joseph Phillips, 11. March, Anthony Fenner, 6. 
Thomas Fenner, Jr., 15. April, Theron Plumb, 7. August, Barnabas Well- 
man, Jr., 38. Reuben Landon, 7. 

[814. May, Arba Blodgett, 25. Elisha Devereaux, i. July, Asa Smith, 
2. October, William Bullock, 17. 

1815. April, Peter Frank, 5, 6. June, Josiah Thompson, 28. Cyrenus 
Blodgett, 33. Ford Wellman, 47. November, Josiah Palmeter, 15. 

1 816. April, Harris Terry, 63. October, Harris Terry, 47. 

1817. September, Nicholas Sherman, 16. Lyman Crane, 8. 

1818. September, William Gifford. October, Samuel Hart, 8. 

1822. September, Ransom Curtis, 39. November, Peleg Trask, 17. 
Jared Famam, Jr., 34. 

1823. June, Joseph Taylor, 39. October, Ethan Allen, 45. Silas C. 
Carpenter, Isaac Foster, 54. 

1824. February, John Badgley, 43. March, Ford Wellman, 54, [Har- 
mon}'.] July, Elijah B. Burt, 37. October, Barnabas Wellman, 31. No- 
vember, John Kent, 30. December, Samuel Darling, 35. 

1825. January, John Buck, Jr., 20. February, Xavier Abbott, 10. 
March, Jairus Buck, 19. June, David Hatch, 7. August, Wm. Nichols, 38. 
George Martin, 13. 

1826. November, Benjamin A. Slayton, 43. 
r82 7. September, Alexander Young, 24. 

The State Gazetteer names John L. Frank as the first settler in Busti, on 
lot 61, 1810, and Lawrence Frank as settling the same year on lot 62 ; and 
Heman Bush and John Frank, from Herkimer county, and Theron Plumb, 
from Mass., on lot 60, in 18 £i. The land records, however, show as pur- 
chasers, Russell Dyer, of lot 47, tp. i, r. 11, and James Slade and Hezekiah 
Seymour, of lot 38 — all as early as September, 1808 ; and Laban Case, of 
lot 36, in June, 1809. Aaron Martin purchased lot 44, in April, 1810 ; 
Lawrence Frank, lots 62 and 63, and Heman Bush 60, in 181 1. The only 
other Frank who appears on the Company's books as an original purchaser 
in range 11, is John Frank, Jr., who bought a part of 61, and who, in' his 
own handwriting, states that he came to Busti, Feb. i, 181 2 ; that his 
brother Nicholas came in 181 6, and that his brother Stephen left Busti in 
1817, and died at Fort Pekin, Tennessee, on the Mississippi river, on his 
return from New Orleans; his family then residing near Vincennes, Ind. 
John L. Frank, yet living, [1874,] and other early settlers, concur in the fact 
of his having settled in Busti in 1811. Hence there is some doubt as to who 
was the first settler in Busti, and as to the date or year of his settlement. 
[See sketches of Frank families.] 

In the south-east part of the town, Wm. Steams settled on lot 35, which, 
after his death, was owned by his son, John R.,who also is dead. It is now 
owned by John Barlow. James Davidson, a son-in-law of Wm. Steams, is on 
land adjoining, on the south. Timothy Tuttle was an early settler on lot 50 ; 
the farm now owned by his son Edwin. Wm. Northrop and his sons Joseph, 
John and William, from England, settled south of Busti Comers, on lot 57, 
on which the father and two of the sons, Joseph and John reside. William, 
Jr., owns a farm on lot 58, and lives at the Comers. 

BUSTI. 229 

In the north part of the town Xjmg in township 2, range 12, Gideon 
Gifford early bought parts of lots i and 2, where he resided till his death, 
March 19, 1856. His sons, Walter C, Matthew C., and Daniel, inherited 
the estate. Matthew is not living. Uriah Bentley settled, in 1810, onlot 16. 
[See Biographical and Genealogical Sketches.] Daniel Shearman settled on 
16, and died on the farm on which he first settled. [See Family Sketch.] 
George Stoneman settled early on lot 16, and held for several years the office 
of justice of the peace. He had sons : George, a graduate of the military 
academy at West Point, and a general in the regular U. S. army, who was 
in actual service in the late war ; Richard, dead ; Byron ; and one in the 
West. Jeremiah Giflford, a cousin of Gideon Gifford, from Washington Co., 
settled on lot 23, where now his son John lives. Other sons, William and 
Henry, reside at Mayville ; Horace, son of William, lives at Jamestown. 
Abraham Sherman settled on lot 23. His sons, Abraham and Merritt, reside 
on the farm. A. Phelps, an early settler on lot 41, died at Ashville. Thomp- 
son Cowan was an early settler on lot 8, where Charles Douglas lives. He 
died leaving six sons, John, Charles, Samuel, Ransom J., Fortes, and James, 
all of whom reside in Busti. Samuel Smiley, on lot 16, where his son Madi- 
son lives. He had a large family. Of his sons, William, John and Samuel 
reside in town. 

In the north-east part of the town, range 11, Zadoc Root settled on lot 47, 
and lived there until his death. He had sons, Zadoc and Philander, both 
deceased, and William, who resides on lot 55. Ephraim Wilcox settled early 
on lot 63, on which he still resides. Of his sons, Francis S. lives in Elli- 
cott ; Amos P., on the homestead ; Leander and Abraham, at Busti Comers. 
Solomon Hastings settled early on lot 38. A son is with him on the farm ; 
a daughter is the wife of Dr. A. Ward, of Jamestown. Harlo Mitchell set- 
tled on lot 45, near where he now resides. David Boyd, where his son 
Martin lately resided. Aaron Martin settled on lot 44, where he died, and 
where his grandson Lorenzo lives. He had sons : Capt. William, in Kian- 
tone ; George, who settled on lot 13, r. J2; was a justice of the peace for 
two or three terms. He had several daughters, none now residing in town. 

In the vicinity of Busti Corners, Heman Bush, from Litchfield, N. Y., 
came to Busti in June, r8i2, having previously, [1810,] bought a part of lot 
60; April, 181 1, lot 61, on which he settled; and in October, 18 12, lot 59. 
He kept a tavern, and conducted a store and an ashery for many years, and 
died. May, 1839, aged 62. His widow, whose maiden name was Abigail 
Frost, died in 1872, aged about 90. His sons were Heman C., Selden F., 
Hiram, Solon, Solomon, and Stephen. Heman, Solomon, and Stephen 
removed to California ; Hiram died in Busti ; Selden is in Iowa ; and Solon 
at Busti Corners. A daughter married John Campbell, who resides on the 
farm of her father. They had a son Heman, deceased ; and Woodley, a 
Baptist missionary in Hindpostan. Aaron Bush settled early on lot 53. 
He had a large family. Of his sons, Moses, the only one living, resides in 
Ellicott. Asahel Andrews settled on lot 60, and died there. His sons were : 


Enos, who removed West, and is dead ; D^los, who resides a mile north-east 
from Busti Comers; Charles, deceased; Merrills, removed West; and 
George, who lives at Busti Corners. David Hatch early purchased a large 
tract, and settled on lot 6i. The land is still owned by his heirs. A son, 
Solomon G., lives in Ellery. Lorenzo Matthews first settled on lot S, tp. i, 
r. 12; removed to lot 62, r. 11, where he died. His sons were: John, 
deceased; David, who resides in town ; and Jonathan P., in Kansas. Hen- 
drick Matteson settled on lot 62, r. 11, and died in Herkimer county. A 
son, Albert, resides in Sugar Grove ; and Philo and Monroe reside in Busti. 
His widow lives with Philo. 

In the north part of township I, Stephen A. Douglas was an early settler 
on lot 15, where he now resides. His sons are : Stephen, deceased ; Charles ; 
Silas, a lawyer in Buffalo ; Lathan, on the farm with his father. James Cale, 
from Sugar Grove, in 1817 or 1818, resided on lot 7, and in other places, and 
died in town. His sons, Jesse, James, and Harry, reside in town ; and 
Stephen, in Penn. Amariah Carrier, on lot 15, and died in Erie Co., N. Y. 
His sons were : Jesse and David, both dead; Robert is in Iowa ; Henry, dead; 
Amariah, in Jamestown ; Edwin Douglas now owns the farm. 

In the north part of toumship i, range 12, Jonathan Palmer settled early 
on lot 8, previously owned by Reuben Landon. Whitman and Amos, twin 
sons, reside in town ; Whitman on the home farm. Jonathan, the eldest son, 
and Henry, are dead ; and Denison lives in Pennsylvania. Nicholas Sher- 
man settled on lot 16, where he died. His sons, Winslow and Daniel, reside 
in town; the latter on the homestead. Alexander Young, in 1826, on lot 24, 
where he died. His sons were : James, deceased ; Jonathan, who resides in 
EUicott ; and Ira, on the farm owned by his father. Obed G. Chase on lot 
24 ; removed a few years ago to the Corners, where he now resides. He has 
2 daughters : Elizabeth, wife of John Hatch, of Portland ; and Adelia, wife 
of Charles Moore, of Jamestown. Joseph Sherman, on lot 32 ; the land 
previously owned by John Deming. He died on the farm, which is owned 
by his son Joseph Sherman. Benj. Cook came to Busti, in 183 1, on lot 40, 
where he died. He was the father of Judge Orsell Cook, of Jamestown, who 
is the present owner of the farm. Jonas Lamphear on lot 48, bought in 
1810 ; the land now owned by John Boomer, previously owned by John 
Kent, son-in-law of Lamphear. John Stow was an early settler on lot 17, 

where Broughton W. Green resides. Wemple came early on lot 47, where 

now his sons Peter C. and Rial C. reside. Wm. Nichols settled on lot 38, 
bought in 1825, where he still resides; had 2 sons: Lyman, deceased; and 
Levant, who is with his father on the farm. Barnabas Wellman, a native of 
Conn., moved with his family to Busti in i8ri, and settled in the north-west 
part of the town, on lot 38. He had 5 sons : James, Homer, Barnabas, 
Ford, and Leander C, who settled in the neighborhood ; all of whom died 
leaving families. Homer had 4 sons : Homer H. ; Orrin O., who died in 
Busti ; Dewitt C. ; and Ardillo, who lives at Ashville. 

In the south part of the town, Daniel Hazeltine settled early on lot 3, the 

BUSTI. 231 

land since owned by S. & W. Gates, now by Horton White. His sons were : 
Abner, Laban, Daniel, Abraham, Edwin, Pardon, and Hardin. Laban, 

Daniel, and Abraham died at Jamestown ; Pardon in . Ezra, a son of 

Edwin, resides in Warren, Penn. Asa Smith settled on lot 2, which he 
bought in 18 14. His sons were: Ammi, who resides in Penn.; Albert M., 
deceased ; Aaron J., Jasper, Lewelljoi J., and Edgar, in Busti. Clark 
Smith, a brother of Asa, came in 1816, and settled on lot 2. His wife was 
Rhoda Allen. His sons were : Oliver, Ransom J., Ezra, Sheldon, Harvey A., 
deceased; and Julius C, hardware merchant and postmaster at Busti. Of 
the others, only Ransom resides in town. John Broadhead on lot 18. He 
was a Methodist preacher. He removed to the West, and after a few years 
returned, and lives with his son-in-law, Nathan Breed. His sons are : Jabez, 
Fletcher, Jonathan, and James ; the last only resides in Busti ; the others 
gone west. Hiram E. Knapp settled on the farm originally bought by Palmer 
Phillips, lot II. He has two sons, Edwin and Lafayette. John Gill, on lot 
3, and died on the farm on which Mark Jones resides. Gill has a son, Giles 
T., in the West. Levi Jones on lot 12, where he died. A son, Edward, 
lives in EUicott. Zenas K. Fox, on lot 11, where he still lives. He has 3 
sons : Almon, a Congregational minister, in the West ; Alfred, who resides 
on a part of his father's farm, a Methodist preacher ; and Albion, in Ten- 

In the south-west part of township i, Arthur P. Nichols settled on lot 44, 
where he now lives. He has a number of sons, some of whom reside in the 
town. Hiram L. Barton, about 1823, on lot 34, where he died. His sons 
are : Livingston, on the old farm ; Allen, near the same ; De Warren, not in 
Busti. W. Seabury settled early on lot 33, where he died, and where his 
sons Pliny and Newell reside. Jeremiah Woodin, on the north part of lot 
41; died in Harmony. His sons were : Abraham, who died in Mich.; Isaac, 
who resides in Ellicott ; Samuel P. and Hiram J., both of whom died in 
Busti ; and John P., who lives in Indianapolis, Ind. Arba Blodgett settled 
on lot 25, bought in 1814, and died on the farm, leaving two sons, Loren, 
now in Washington, D. C; and William, who died in Sugar Grove. Cyrenus 
Blodgett, in 1815, bought on lot 33, and settled on 25 ; removed to Sugar 
Grove, where he died. He had 2 sons : Alanson, a physician in Penn.; and 
Alden, who died at Sugar Grove. Wm. Bullock, in 1814, purchased on lot 
14. His wife is a sister of Palmer Phillips. They had four sons : Irvin, not 
in the town ; Alvin, in town ; Arba, in Sugar Grove ; Chester, in Meadville. 
The father served in the war of 18 12, and is a pensioner. A daughter is 
the wife of David Albro. 

In the west part of the town, Jesse Foster early resided where his son 
Jacob now lives, and died on lot 29, where his widow resides. 

In the central -gaiX. of the town, Nehemiah Mead settled on lot 21, where 
he died many years ago. He had 4 sons : William, who removed to Minn.; 
Ira G., and Thompson G., on the homestead ; and Francis, in Minn. Joseph 
Ayres, on lot 30 ; was a justice of the peace. His sons are: Charles ; Alfred; 


Conway, who served in the late war, as lieutenant and captain of the gth 
cavalry, and was killed ; and Sereno, now in New York. William Robbins 
was an early purchaser on lot 29, where he died, and where his youngest son 
Orrin resides. Other sons, John and Ira, live in town. David Palmeter, 
on lot 14, in 1814. Sons : Orlando, in Ohio ; Dewitt C, dead ; Preston, in 
Union, Penn.; Josiah, in Ohio. The father is dead. Josiah Palmeter, on 
the same lot in 1811 ; was a justice, and lives in Minn. A son, Theron, is 
also in Miim; Washington, in Ellicott. 

A tannery was built by John Frank in 181 2. The first vats were troughs 
made of logs. It was burned, and rebuilt, and continued until about ten or 
twelve years ago. No other tannery, it is believed, was ever in this town. 

A last factory was established by Mr. Frank, which was destroyed by fire, 
and not rel^uilt. A trip-hammer was built by Giles Chipman and Lyman 
Fargo, and continued several years. 

Uriah Hawks, a little later, built a chair and spinning-wheel factory at the 
same place, which also was discontinued, on account of the difficulty in main- 
taining dams on the stream. 

The first blacksmith in town is said to have been Patrick Camel, at the tan- 
nery. Next, Chipman Sc Fargo commenced business near Camel's, and after- 
wards removed their business 60 rods south, and added to it the manufacture 
of edge tools with a trip-hammer. Present blacksmiths are Walter Stevens 
and Wm. Howe. 

The first store at the Comers was kept by Van Velzer, about 1830. The 
next, by Ransom L. Blackmer ; and next by Valentine C. Clark & Co. 
Present merchants — Adelbert P. Simmons, Exiwin Davis & Co., and Andrew 
F. Husband & Co. Grocers — Martin F. Flagg & Co. Hardware — Julius 
C. Smith. Boot and shoe-makers — Michael C. Frank, Davis Frank, Frank- 
lin Hosford. Carriage-makers — Wm. Jones, Eli Whiting, Wm. Peckham. 
Early carriage-makers were Giles T. Gill and Haskell. 

Stephen J. Brown, probably the first physician who settled at Busti, came 
about the year 1837, and practiced there about 20 years. Before his death 
Dr. Beimett came and practiced a few years. Dr. Martin came in 18 — , and 
is the present physician. Since he came, Drs. Alex. Boyd and John Lord 
were here several years. 

The first saw-mill at the Comers was built by Heman Bush, where a mill 
is now owned by Alonzo C. Pickard. A clock factory was built at the same 
place about 1830, by Samuel Chappell and James Sartwell, who continued 
the manufacture for several years. After its discontinuance, a grist-mill was 
built on the same site by Heman Bush ; and another afterwards by Francis 
Soule. Both are now owned by Alonzo C. Pickard and Mark Jones. A 
saw-mill was built near the south line of the town, by Elisha Devereaux, 
where a mill is still in operation, on Stillwater creek. Another was built 
near the east line of the town, by Samuel Hall, on the farm now owned by 
his son John A. Hall. Another was built by George Stoneman, at the lake, 
where a mill is still mnning. Orrin Stoddard erected a steam saw-mill at the 


>-/<v^^ J '4 c^-Sr(jLyy 


BUSTI. 233 

Comers about 15 years ago, which is now owned by Reuben Green. A 
planing-mill was attached, but soon discontinued ; and a basket-factory and a 
shingle machine have taken its place. 

The first town meeting was held at the house of Heman Bush, Tuesday, 
March 2, 1824, and the following named persons were elected town officers : 

Supervisor — Daniel Shearman. Town Clerk — Emory Davis. Assessors — 
David Hatch, Homer Wellman, Samuel Garfield. Commissioners of High- 
ways — Thomas Danforth, David Boyd, John Deming. Overseers of the 
Poor — Heman Bush, John Gill. Commissioners of Schools — David Hatch, 
Daniel Shearman, Clark Smith. 

Names of Supervisors from 1824 to 1875. 
Daniel Shearman, 1824 to '28, and 1833 — 6 years. Emri Davis, 1829 to 
'32, and '34, '35, '40, '47 — 8 years. Pardon Hazeltine, 1836 to '39 — 4 years. 
Henry C. Shearman, 1841, '42, '44, '45. Lorenzo Matthews, 1843, '48, '49, 
'5°; '53- Stephen J. Brown, 1846. Theron Palmeter, 1851, '52, '54. John 
B. Babcock, 1855. Emri Davis, Jr., 1856 to '58, and '61, '62 — 5 years. 
John A. Hall, 1859, '60, '71. John R. Robertson, 1861, '63, '64, '68 — ^4 
years. Elias H. Jenner, 1865, '72. Wm. B. Martin, 1866, '67. Harmon 
G. Mitchell. 1869, '70. Alonzo C. Pickard, 1873, '74, '75. 

Biographical and Genealogical. 

Uriah Bentley, from Rensselaer county, came to Chautauqua county in 
May, 1810, and settled on lot 9, township 2, range 12, now in the north part 
of the town of Busti. He cleared a small piece of land, which he planted 
with potatoes, and buUt a small house after the common pioneer pattern. 
In the ensuing fall he returned for his family, and moved to his new home 
with a horse team, by way of Mayville, where he arrived the last day of No- 
vember, 1 8 10. There being no road on the west side of the lake, he 
shipped his family and goods down the lake in a long canoe, reaching his 
home at midnight. Uriah Bentley was a son of Caleb Bentley, and was bom 
in Berlin, Rensselaer Co., June 21, 1779, and was married, December 28, 
1800, to Nancy Sweet, who was bom May 7, 1779. Of Mr. Bentley it is 
perhaps sufficient to say, that he passed through the common experience of 
the industrious pioneer, and, like most of the early settlers, reared a goodly 
number of worthy sons and daughters. They were : i. Nancy, who mar- 
ried, first, Nicholas Frank, who died in the South, while on a lumbering tour, 
soon after marriage ; second, Dan Higley. They have several children, and 
reside in Iowa. 2. Polly, wife of Charles W. Sammis, who died in 1849. 
She resides in Polo, 111., and has 8 children. 3. Uriah S., who married 
Almira Daniels, and is deceased. She married, second, Clark Sweet, and 
resides in Harmony. 4. Sidy I £., wife of Isaac Noble ; she had a daughter, 
Minerva, and is deceased. Mr. N. has a second wife, and lives at Fluvanna. 
5. Hiram, who died at about 60, unmarried. 6. Simeon G., who married 
Alice, daughter of Gideon Gifford, and has no children. 7. Alexander, 
who married Lavantia Norton, resides at Fluvanna, and has 4 sons : Sardius ; 


Gustavns A., who married Sarah WilUams; Charles M., and Uriah. 8. Gus- 
tavus A,, who married CorneUa, daughter of John Steward, Sr., and had 
two daughters: Marian, who died at 17, and Frances C, wife of John S. 
Briggs, of Russelburg, Pa., and a son, Fred A. 9. Ulrica C, wife of 
Theron E. Palnieter, Clear Lake, Cerro Gordo Co., la. ; has three children. 
10. il/i>z^rwa, who married Alfred W. Steward, and is deceased; he resides 
in Clymer. 

Asa Bly, from Vermont to Otsego Co., N. Y. ; removed thence to 
Chautauqua Co., in 18 — , And bought on lot 47, tp. 2, r. 12, the land on 
which his sons Myron and Theron settled ; the former in 1809, the latter in 
18 10. Myron moved down the Ohio river, and died in Kentucky ; and his 
family returned. His son Myron, Jr., now resides in Ashville. 

Theron Ely, son of Asa Bly, was born in Bennington, Vt., July 31, 1786, 
and removed, in 1810, from Otsego Co., N. Y., to Harmony, on lot 47, near 
the lake. He married, in 1805, Phebe Bemus. His children were : Theron 
S. ; Harvey, who married Julia Ann Stoneman ; Desire, wife of Henry Love- 
joy ; Henry Harrison, who lives on the homestead ; Sally, deceased ; Perry, 
who married Esther Lovejoy, and served in the late war, and was killed in 
the battle of the Wilderness ; and William, who died at about 1 7. Theron 
Bly was a member of assembly in the year 1832, associated with Dr. Squire 
White, of Fredonia. He died in March, 1850, aged nearly 64 years. 
, Theron S. Bly, son of Theron Bly, was born in Edmeston, Otsego Co., 
Jan 29, 1806, and came, when 4 years old, with his father to Harmony. In 
1830, at the age of 24, he was elected a justice of the peace, and reelected 
for a second term of 4 years. He was for many years engaged in the mer- 
cantile, milling and grain business, at Ashville. He was county clerk from 
Jan., 1859, for a full term of three years. In 1862, he removed to James- 
town, where he has been a justice of the peace from 1864 to the present 
time ; having served in that office in both towns for about 20 years. He 
was married, in 1830, to Mary Bly, of Madison Co., who died in March, 
1850. His children were : i. ^«ri7/a _/., wife of Dr. Marvin Bemus, who re- 
moved to Wisconsin, enlisted in the late war, and, on his way to the army, 
was killed by a raib-oad accident near Chicago. 2. Mary E., wife of Edson 
E. Boyd, a physician at Ashville, 3. Cordelia, who married Dwight Snow ; 
they reside at Cohoes, Albany Co. 4. Ellen, deceased. 5. Webster W., 
who is married, and lives at Cohoes. In 1854, Mr. Bly married for a second 
wife, Sarah A. Carpenter, who is still living. 

Dea. Richard Butler, a native of Wethersfield, Conn., removed from 
Hamilton, N. Y., to Ellicott, now comer of Busti, with his sons Solomon and 
Harlow, and purchased the farms of Wm. Deland and John Numan, on 
which farms the three families settled. All united with the Congregational 
church, of which the father was chosen a deacon. He died in June, 1839, 
aged 78. His widow died at the old homestead, March, 1852. 

Emri Davis, bom in Wardsborough, Vt., Oct. 20, 1794, came to Ellicott 
with his brother Ebenezer, July 3, i8iz. They were traveling from Vermont 

BUSTI. 235 

on foot ; and between Buffalo and Cattaraugus creek, they he^rd of the 
declaration of war against Great Britain. There was a general alarm. Many 
fled with their families to the East, having sold their crops and improvements 
for little more than enough to pay the expenses of their removal. Timid 
ones generally believed the Indians would soon murder those who remained. 
Emri Davis married Amy, daughter of Joseph Akin, and soon after settled 
in the Frank settlement, now Busti. He was eight times elected supervisor 
of the town. He had 3 sons : Lafayette, Emri, and Adams, the last of whom 
removed to Crawford Co., Pa. All had families. Emri Davis died Jan. 23, 
i860, aged 68. 

Frank Families. — Henry Frank and his brother Christopher emigrated 
from Germany to America before the " old French war.'' They landed at 
Philadelphia, and remained in the state of Pennsylvania for a number of 
years, and removed to this state, and settled on the Mohawk river, at Frank- 
fort, Herkimer Co. Henry Frank's sons were Henry, Lawrence, and Jacob, 
who was killed in the Revolutionary war. His daughters were Eve, Mary 
and Margaret. Eve and Mary were twins ; the former became the wife of 
John Frank, Sr., of another Frank family noticed on a succeeding page; the 
latter, the wife of the father of John Myers, an early settler in Carroll. The 
wife and children of Henry Frank were captured by the Indians, in the time 
of the French war. In an account of their captivity, John Frank, a son of 
John Frank, Sr., says, in substance, as follows : His mother, at the age of ten 
years, was taken by the Indians, and kept among them three years ; and her 
twin sister, John Myers' mother, was taken at the same time, and was kept 
a year longer, as she had the small-pox when her sister was exchanged for. 
And he says, his mother's mother, five daughters, and a son eighteen mon^s 
old, were taken to near Montreal — all at the same time. The mother had 
to ca'rry the boy and keep up with the rest, or have him tomahawked. [The 
above account leaves us without information respecting the term of the 
captivity and the release of the mother and the children, other than the twin 

Lawrence Frank, son of Henry Frank, above mentioned, was born in 
Frankfort, Oct., 1749. In 1777, he was taken prisoner by the Indians and 
tories, carried to Quebec, and kept in captivity 3 years and 3 months. He 
was married in Frankfort to Mary Myers, who was bom in Germany, in 1753, 
and came, when young, with her parents to Frankfort. Lawrence Frank died 
in Busti, April 13, 1813; his widow, Dec, 1831. Their children were : 
Lawrence, Jr., Margaret, Elizabeth, Peter, Henry L., John L., Michael, 
Joseph, and Matthew. Lawrence, Jr., died in Herkimer Co.; Margaret, 
wife of Stephen Frank, died in Ohio ; Elizabeth never came to this county; 
Peter died in Ohio. Henry L. married Margaret Damoot and moved to 
Kirtland, Ohio, where both died. 

John L. Frank, son of Lawrence, Sr., was born at Frankfort, Nov. 29, 
1786, and was married to Lucretia Chapman. In 181 1, he removed to 
Busti, on lot d2, tp. i, r. 11, and subsequently to lot 6, r. 12, where Mrs. 


Frank died, March 14, 1874. Mr. F. lately died at Busti Comers. He 
had 14 children, of whom 4 daughters died in infancy. The others were : 
I. Michael C., who married Sally Sherwin, whose children were John S., 
Harriet E., Mary Jane, Matthew, Alice, Electa, and Addie. 2. Almira, the 
wife of Ransom Burrows; both deceased. 3. Charles, who married Mary 
Woodin, and has 3 sons: Warren A., George D., and John J. 4. Alonzo, 
who married Jane Woodin, and lives at Blockville. His children are Levant 
C, Harriet M., Jane, Opheha. 5. Mary Jane, who married Jacob Cham- 
bers ; and is dead. He resides at Pine Grove, Pa. 6. Harriet M., who 
married Denison Palmer, and is dead. He lives in Pennsylvania. 7. Lorenzo, 
who married Melissa Hames, and whose children are West, Sidney, and 
Clara. 8. Davis, who married, first, Alvira Brown, second, Elizabeth 
Brown, and whose children are Theodore, George, D wight, Laverne, Duane, 
DeEtta, and Earl. 9. Marietta, who married Samuel Smith, whose children 
are Levant and Frank. 10. Ariel, who married Margaret Steward, and has 
two sons, Emmet and Fred. 

Joseph Frank, son of Lawrence, was born Oct. 3, 1796, and came with 
his parents to Busti in 1811. He was a volunteer in the war of 1812, and 
killed in the Buffalo battle, Dec. 31, 181 3. He was shot through the head, 
and scalped by the Indians ; and his body was buried in a common grave 
with other killed, and never brought home. He was unmarried. 

Stephen Frank emigrated from Germany to this country about the mid- 
dle of the last century, with his son John Frank, then about 7 years old. 
The place of his first settlement is not ascertained ; but it is supposed to 
have been in Pennsylvania. John, the son, was married to Eve Frank, whose 
father was also from Germany, and settled in that state. It is not known 
that this Frank family was akin to Henry Frank and his descendants, or that 
there was any connection prior to the marriage just mentioned. All of 
them, however, removed to Frankfort from Pennsylvania before the Revolu- 
tionary war. 

John Frank, Sr., son of Stephen, above mentioned, was born in Ger- 
many about the year 1743, and settled at Frankfort, Herkimer Co., N. Y., 
f'where he was married to Eve Frank, and whence he removed to Busti in 
181 1, where he died, Nov. 5, 1833. He, with Lawrence, son of Henry 
Frank, before mentioned, and two girls. Eve and Mary Frank, of the Stephen 
Frank family, were captured, in the " old French war,'' by the French and 
Indians, on the Mohawk, and taken as prisoners to Canada, where they were 
kept several years among the Indians before they were ransomed. John 
Frank was again taken prisoner in the Revojutionary war. At Oneida lake, 
the first night after his capture, he escapecE&om his captors, and by the aid 
of friendly Indians among the Oneidas, safely reached his home at German 
Flats. In 181 7, Stephen, son of John Frank, Sr., with his family and his 
parents, and his mother's maiden sister, moved down the Ohio river, and 
stopped at Gallipolis, Ohio, where the father, John Frank, Sr., died. The 
others proceeded to Columbus, Ind., where the maiden aunt died. Stephen, 

eJLcy^<}^ 27?-rt^>^. 

BUSTI. 237 

with two of his sons, went with a flat bottomed boat and produce to New 
Orleans ; and on his return he died on the Mississippi, and was buried on 
the shore. His brother, John Frank, Jr., went to Indiana and brought his 
mother back,, who died at his house some years after, at an advanced age. 
His mother's maiden sister, on her return from her captivity among the In- 
dians, had forgotten her mother tongue, and was taken from the Indians 
against her will, having been kept from her relatives, and forgotten them. 
The Franks suffered much from the Indians on the Mohawk. 

John Frank had three sons : i. Stephen, who married Margaret, daughter 
of Lawrence Frank the elder. Their children were : Nicholas, Matthew, Polly, 
wife of Jacob Loy, Stephen Denus, Hiram, Eye, Solomon, Elizabeth, and 
Jacob and Joseph, twins ; the last three of whom were bom after the removal 
of the family south. 2. Nicholas, who married Thankful Landon, and had 5 
children : William, Andrew, Stephen, David and Mary. William was mar- 
ried, first, to Ursula Bushnell, whose children were : Darius ; Emma, wife of 
Sylvester Abbott ; and Nicholas, who died at 1 7. He married, second, 
Christiana Diefendorf, and had by her a son, John D., now on the homestead 
of his father. Andrew was a shoemaker and tanner, having served under his 
uncle, John, Jr. He was twice married ; first, to Sibyl Ames, who had a son, 
Whitney, a daughter, Mrs. Fisher, of Randolph, and one or more dead ; 
married, second, the widow of Pearl Johnson, and removed to Wisconsin, 
where he died. Stephen married Amanda Watkins, and after her death, a 
second wife, moved west, and died there. David married, first, Laura Ben- 
nett, and after her death, her sister. His widow and family are in Minnesota. 
Mary Ann married, first, Samuel Bowdish; second, John Ellsworth, and 
has several children living. 3. John, Jr., the third son of John, Sr., married 
Elizabeth Diefendorf, of German Flats, N. Y., and removed to Frank's set- 
tlement, Feb., 1812. His children were : Abram, John D., who died at 14, 
Margaret, Harriet, Perry, Christiana, and Elizabeth, all bom here. Abraham 
married Fidelia Dexter, and had 3 children, Dwight, Gertrude, and Augusta. 
Margaret married Darius M. Davis, whose children are : Adelaide, wife of 
Frank Bartlett ; Harriet, wife of Abraham Hazeltine, cashier of the Savings 
Bank, Warren, Pa.; Albert, who married Bell Porter, and lives in Warren ; 
Hila, who married Ella Stoddard, and is in Warren ; Walter, and Dora, both 
unmarried. Perry, son of John, Jr., resides in Iowa ; Christiana married 
Francis Kidder, Jamestown, and has a daughter, Ada. Elizabeth married 
Wm. Hicks, and is not living. All of the children of John Frank, Jr., were 
in the settlement in 1859. 

Michael Frank, son of Lawrence Frank, was bom at Frankfort, Herki- 
mer Co., Dec. 18, 1788, and removed to Busti in 1811, and settled on lot 
63, tp. I, r. II, where he died May 9, 1869. He was married in Frankfort 
to Elizabeth Steward,'and had 10 children : i. Steward, who married Polly 
A. Edmunds, and had 5 children who attained to majority : Lucy A., who 
married Galusha M. Davis, and is deceased, leaving two children ; Elizabeth 
M., who married Charles Ellis, and died in Pennsylvania, and left 4 children; 


he resides in Michigan ; Mary, who became second wife of Galusha M. 
Davis, and has two children ; Joanna and Martha J., both unmarried. 2. 
Stephen, who married Abigail Hewitt in Mich., where they reside ; they have 
6 children. 3. Lewis, who married Sophrona Perkins. He i^ deceased ; 
she lives in Broome Co. 4. Lucy Ann, who died in infancy. 5. Horace, 
who married Adelia Stevens, and has a son and 3 daughters. They live on 
the old homestead. 6. Eunice, who married, first, Sylvester Babcock, and 
had two daughters, both married. After the death of Mr. Babcock she mar- 
ried Miles Lewis, of Harmony, and has two daughters. 7. Jason M., who 
married Maria Palmer, and lives in Sugar Grove, Pa., and has 2 children 
living. 8. John N., who married, first, Aurilla A. Palmeter, and had 3 
daughters; second, Mrs. Cynthia Homer. They live in Jamestown. 9. 
Emeline, wife of James D. Stearns, now of Jamestown. Their children living 
are: Frank, who married Maria Pierce, and lives with his father; and Ella M. 
James D. Stearns served three years in the late war, in a company of sharp- 
shooters, and was in the battles of Suffolk, Va., Mine Run, in the Wilderness 
campaign, etc. lo: Elizabeth Mercy, unmarried, residing in Jamestown. 

Joseph Garfield was born in Worcester Co., Mass., April 17, 1780; 
removed with his father to Stratton, Vt.; and in r8o3 was married to Lydia 
Steams. In 1816, he settled in Pine Grove, Pa.; and about 1820 in Busti, 
lot 39, where his son Joseph resides. His father, Eliakim, was a soldier of 
the Revolution. His son Joseph was a captain in the war of 1812; and 
served two terras as justice of the peace in Busti. He was an early member 
of the Congregational church, and was such at the time of his death, Dec. 9, 
1862. Mrs. G. died Sept. 15, 1852. Their children were : i. Hannah, v/\it 
of Richard Killer, of Carroll, where she died. They had 10 children, of 
whom Jediah, John, Martha Jane, Eliza, Cynthia, Alexander, and Nicholas 
are living : all reside in Carroll. 2. Eliakim, who married Priscilla Root, 
and has 6 children, Horace, Richard, Otis, Sarah, Mary, Jennie : all in the 
county but Mary. 3. Anna, wife of Horace Bacon, both deceased. Their 
children are: Mary Ann, OUve, Hannah, Joseph, Lydia, in Pa., and Priscilla. 
4. 'Samuel, in Carroll, who married, successively, Susan Eastman, Elizabeth 
Emery, and another. Children by the first wife, Anna and Susan ; by the 
second, Morris Russell, Lydia and Lucy. 5. Lydia, wife of Martin Grout, 
of Poland (?). Children living are : William, James, Martin, Lucy, and 
Lydia. 6. Joseph, who married Lucy Ann Palmer, and lives in Kiantone. 
Children : Martin, Eliakim, Samuel, and Joseph. 

Aaron Martin, a native of Dutchess Co., settled, in 1813, in the east 
part of Busti, on lot 44, tp. i, r. 11, on Stillwater creek. He was a tanner, 
and commenced tanning on a small scale, but soon relinquished it, and at- 
tended exclusively to farming. His tannery was the first in the south part 
of the county, except that of John A. Pierce, at Fluvanna, which also was 
abandoned in a few years. His children were : Wilham ; Isaac, who was in 
the war of 1812, and died in Tennessee ; George, who was a justice in Kian- 
tone; James, who removed to Kentucky; Maria, and Jane. 

BUSTI. 239 

Palmer Phillips settled on lot 11, tp. i, r. iz, which he bought in 1811. 
He was a prominent citizen. He was elected, in i8i6, supervisor of Har- 
mony, then including Busti, and held the oflBce by reelection until the town of 
Busti was formed, in 1823, and including that year. He was the leader of 
the first Methodist class formed within the limits of the town. It was formed 
by Elder John Lewis ; and its original members were Palmer Phillips and 
Asa Smith, and their wives, John Whittam, and Joseph and Daniel Phillips 
sons of Palmer. Daniel became a preacher, and died at Sug&r Grove, Pa., 
in 1851. 

Levi Pier came from Oxford, N. Y., to Busti, in 1814, and bought on 
lot — , r. II. After the death of his wife, which occurred about two years 
after, he returned to Chenango Co. ; and after two or three years he came 
back, and settled permanently, where he remained until his death. He had 
12 children : Elijah, Lois, Namah, Amasa, Sally, Silas, Abraham, Reuben, 
Oliver, Lovisa, Roxa, David. Of these the following came to this county: 
Sally, who married Aaron Root, who settled in Busti ; Reuben, who married 
Margaret Acker, Harmony ; Oliver, who married Betsey Carpenter, and lives 
at Corry; Lovisa, wife of Horace Blanchar, both deceased; Roxa, wife of 
Wm. Martin, of Kiantone ; and David, who married Esther Pierce, both 
deceased. Mr. Levi Pier died in March, 1826. 

Abraham Pier, son of Levi Pier, was bom in Great Barrington, Mass., 
April 30, 1789. He came from Oxford, N. Y., to Busti, and purchased the 
land in 181 2, where he now resides, ij^ m. south-west from Jamestown. In 
March, 18 14, he moved with his father's family from Oxford. A year or 
two after their arrival, Mrs. Levi Pier died ; and Mr. Pier returned to 
Chenango ; and after two or three years he came back and settled here per- 
manently one mile west from Abraham's, where he died. Abraham Pier was 
married to Olive Marsh, Dec. 17, 1815, and had by her 5 children, of whom 
only two survived the period of infancy : Elvira, wife of Dr. Sherman Gar- 
field, who died on his way to the South for the benefit of his health ; and 
Lovisa E., wife of Elias H. Jenner, who resides with his father-in-law, in the 
same house, but owning and occupying an adjoining farm. After the death 
of his first wife, Abraham Pier married Mary Ann Simmons, his present wife. 

Theron Plumb, a native of Berkshire Co., Mass., is said to have settled, 
in the winter of 1811-12, on lot 60, tp. 'i, r. 11, then in the town of Ellicott, 
which, however, was not formed until June following. He appears as an 
original ■pwTcha.seT only as purchasing lot 7, tp. i, r. 12, which was never in 
Ellicott. He must, however, have settled in Ellicott, as he was early a 
prominent citizen of that town, having been elected to many offices in it, and 
was in 1815 appointed, by the council of appointment, a justice of the peace, 
and held the office for several years, and was an efficient magistrate. He re- 
moved to Ohio in 1820, where he buried his wife in 1835. He returned to 
Busti in 1839. Late in life he removed to Iowa, where he died. 

JuDSON Southland was bom in Mendon, Mass., April i, 1793. His 
father, born in New Jersey, was an iron forger by trade, and soon after his 


marriage enlisted in the Revolutionary war, and was at the battles of Bunker 
Hill, Monmouth, and several others. Judson was the youngest of nine 
children. In 18 18, he, with others, started from Massachusetts, and arrived 
at Mayville the ist day of March, having made the journey by sleighing. He 
taught school during the summer, and returned in the fall on horseback, 
making the journey in three weeks. In May, 18 19, he married Rhoda For- 
bush, of Grafton, Mass. ; and in the ensuing fall they removed to Chautauqua 
Co., with a three-horse team, and, after a tedious, journey of five weeks, arrived 
at Jamestown, and made a short stop with Elisha Allen, then keeping a hotel 
at the south-east comer of Main and Third streets. In the spring of 1820, 
he built a plank house on the top of what was called English Hill, 2 y^ miles 
from Jamestown, and conveyed his wife, one child, and a hired girl, on an 
ox-sled, through the woods, by marked trees, to their new home. In 1825, 
he moved to Jamestown, where he kept the Allen House one year. He then 
built a house on the north-west comer of Fourth and Pine streets, where F. A. 
Fuller now resides. He served nine years as deputy sheriff under sheriffs 
Daniel Sherman, Benj. Douglass, and Wm. Sexton, and as sheriff from Jan. 
I, 1838, for the full term of three years. In 1841, he purchased the farm 
where he now resides, on the lake road in Busti. His wife died in Galena, 
111., Sept. I, 1853. In 1856, he married Martha P. Holbrook, of Grafton, 
Mass. Mr. Southland had 7 children — all bom at Jamestown : 1 . Caroline 
M., who married Rev. Asahel Chapin ; residing now in Vinton, Iowa. They 
have four sons : Judson S., Asahel, Edward S., and William Fisk. 2. Silas 
E., who married Caroline E. R. Aldrich, of Mendon, Mass. ; residing now 
in Busti. 3. William J., who married Marian E. Hastings, of Jamestown, 
and died in Busti, Dec. 28, 1853. Widow and one daughter reside in Kent, 
Ohio. 4. Jonathan F., who married Jane E. Barnes in Grafton, Mass. ; re- 
side in Ellicott. They have two sons, Martin Henry and Charles William. 
5. John Clark, who died in infancy. 6. Edward H., who married Caroline E. 
Randolph, of Panama ; reside now in Jamestown. 7. Caroline M., who mar- 
ried J. T. Stoneman, of Busti ; have one daughter, Carrie, and reside in Iowa. 
Ira C. Stoddard, bom at Brattleboro', Vt., was married to Charlotte 
Joy, and removed with his family, in 1819, to Eden, Erie Co., N. Y., where 
he was pastor of the Baptist church 12 years. He -subsequently ministered 
to the church of Busti 4 years; to thfe church at Ripley 5 years; and to the 
church at Mayville i year. After closing his pastoral labors, he returned to 
Busti, where he has since resided. Of his 9 children, all but one attained 
maturity: Jacob; Ira J.; Ansel; Charlotte, [deceased,] wife of George An- 
drews; Mary Elizabeth, wife of Perry Frank, Iowa ; Lucy V., wife of James 
H. Wood, Frewsburgh; Orlando J., and Hiram D. Jacob served in the late 
war. Hiram enlisted during the late war, and was in the battles of Malvern 
Hill, Fair Oaks, Gettysburg, in the Wilderness, etc., and was taken prisoner 
and confined in Libby prison. Ira J. went as a missionary to Hindoostan 
in 1847; and, after 9 years' labor there, returned. After three years he went 
to the same field; returned to America in 1873 ; and now resides in Iowa. 



Stephen Wilcox, Sr., born in R. I., August 8, 1762, was a soldier in the 
Revolution, moved to this county in 1815, and his family, with Ephraim, in 
18 16, and settled on lot 65, tp. i, r. 11, where his son Ephraim still resides. 
He died in 1846, aged 84 years. His wife died in 1849, aged 85. Their 
children w^ere: Stephen; Eunice, wife of John Steward, Sr.; Ephraim; Abel; 
Lury, wife of Edward Akin; Alfred, and Roxana, wife of Adin RusseU. 
Stephen, Jr., bought, in 181 2, a part of lot 55, tp. i, r. 11, and is said to 
have come to Busti with Cyrus Fish in 1813. 

The Baptist Church of Busti was organized August 30, 18 19, by a council 
consisting of Elders Ebenezer Smith, Paul Davis, and Jonathan Wilson. 
Members uniting at the time of the organization, were Daniel Sartwell, 
Enoch Alden, Ebenezer Davis, Benjamin Covel ; and, it is believed, Henry 
L. Frank, John L. Frank, John Frank, Jr., and Elijah Devereaux, also were 
first members. A few days after, William Frank and Mary Ann Shepard 
were admitted. The first church edifice was erected in 1836 ; the present 
one in 1853. The first pastor was Rev. Paul Davis. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Busti Corners was organized in 18 19, 
with sixty members, by Rev. Alvin Burgess, the first pastor. The church 
edifice was built the same year. 


Carroll was formed from EUicott in 1825. It was named in honor of 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Md., one of the signers of the declaration of 
independence. Kiantone was taken off in 1853. Its surface is. broken and 
hilly in the north-east and east parts, and rolling in the south and south-west. 
The highest summits are said to be about 900 feet above Lake Erie. The 
soil is a clay loam in the north and east, and a gravelly loam in the south 
and west parts. The Connewango creek, the principal stream, enters the 
town on its north line, on lot 48, about 2)^ miles east of the north-west 
comer, and, taking a winding, south-westerly course, makes a small curve 
into Kiantone ; then, after meandering southward along the west line of the 
town, leaves the township line, and thence, running in an easterly and a 
south-easterly direction, forms the town boundary between Carroll and Kian- 
tone to the Pennsylvania line. Frewsburgh, a post village in the north-west 
part, contained, in 1870, a population of 379. Fenton\alle, in the south-west 
comer of the town, has a post-office and a population of 82. 

Original Purchases in Township i, Range 10. 

1808. July, Joel Tyler, 51. George Sloan, 59; [now Kiantone.] 

1809. March, Samuel Anderson, 57; [now Kiantone.] June, Charles. 
Boyles, 42. Isaac Walton, 41. 

1 8 10. March, George W. Fenton, 52. 


i8ii. October, Matthew Turner, 53. November, Ebenezer Cheney, 54. 
Matthew Turner, 54. 

181 2. January, John Frew, 61. 

181 3. September, Robert Russell, 57; [lot now in Kiantone.] Decem- 
ber, Amasa Littlefield, 36. 

1814. March, Ebenezer Cheney, 36. May, Ebenezer Cheney, 46,47, 
54, 55. Ebenezer Davis, 37. Benj. Jones, 23, 28. Levi Jones, 24, 28. 
Elijah Braley, 43. Horatio Dix, 28. July, James Hall, 54. September, 
Aaron Forbes, 64. November, Robert Russell, 57 ; [now in Kiantone.] 

1815. March, Josiah H. Wheeler, 46. Wheeler and Hall, 32, 40. Wm. 
Sears, 31. 

1816. May, Jonathan Covell, 43. Eli Fames, 38. 

1817. May, Benjamin Russell, 30. 

1 8 18. May, Aaron Forbes, 64. November, Levi Jones, 23. 

1819. January, Josiah H. Wheeler, 39. 

1820. June, John Frew, 62. 

1821. November, John Myers, [lot not given.] 

1822. September, Isaac Eames, 39. 

1823. October, James Hall, 15. 

1824. January, John and James Frew, 20. Feb., John Myers, 20. April, 
John Frew, 27. Sept., Daniel Wheeler, 27. Oct., Truman Comstock, 31. 

1826. May, Hiram Covey, 14. James Covey, 14. Jonah R. Covey, 14. 
June, Taylor Aldrich, 28. 

1827. June, Wm. Haines, 26. John F. Bragg, 48. October, Robert 
Russell, 49. 

A correct and reliable sketch of the earliest settlement in Carroll is not 
easily obtained. The State Gazetteer says Joseph Akin, from Rensselaer Co., 
was the first settler in town, located on lot 29, in Jan., r8o7 ; and gives the 
names of several other early settlers in that town, none of whom ever resided 
therein ; but settled on and near Stillwater creek in the town of Kiantone. 
The County Gazetteer and Directory of 1873 substantially adopts the mistake ; 
and, in its sketch of Kiantone, gives the names of the same persons as first 
settlers of that town also. And accuracy is the more difficult from the fact, 
that the names of the first settlers and dates of purchase do not appear on 
the Company's book. Judge Foote says : " From 1798, [when the range and 
township lines were run,] to 1807, no further surveys were made in Ellicott ; 
[meaning the four townships embraced in that town when formed.] During 
this interval, a few persons settled on lands not yet surveyed into lots." 

It is presumed that the earliest settler within the present bounds of Carroll 
was one of the three who took up their lands in 1809. They were : Isaac 
Walton, lot 41, June 29, and Joel Tyler and Charles Boyles, July 28. Tyler 
is known to have been on his land a month or longer, prior to the date of his 
article. Geo. W. Fenton came the next year ; and John Frew, early in 1812. 

John Russell, residing on the Mahoning, in Pennsylvania, in the neighbor- 
hood of the Frew family, came out to Connewango in 1800, to explore the 
country in Western Pennsylvania. He located a lot of land, and returned 
with a good report of the country about Connewango, by which many were 
induced to emigrate with him. Russell being a carpenter, he made a boat 


in two parts, which could be put together and taken apart at pleasure. It 
was calculated for a light draught of water, to go up the Susquehanna, Sine- 
mahoning, etc., to take the goods of the emigrating company, comprising 
John Russell and his family, including his sons Robert, John, and Thomas, 
Mr. Hood, Lapsley, John Bar, Hunter, and others. Also David and James 
Brown, [John came afterwards,] young men and single, from Belfast, Ireland. 
Hugh Frew and his sons started with the company. Frew and Russell had 
each a yoke of oxen and some cows. The journey up the streams, with the 
teams through the woods, was slow and tedious. They came up the Sine- 
mahoning, and across portage, with boat, to drift wood, and took the boat 
apart, and brought it on wagon wheels to canoe place on Allegany river ; put 
the boat together again, calked and pitched it, and came down the Allegany 
to the Connewango, and up that stream to a little above where Russellburg 
now is ; thence to " Beech Woods," so called, now Sugar Grove. Hugh 
Marsh, from New Jersey, Robert Miles, father of Frederic, Robert, and John, 
and Stephen Ross, father of Benjamin, had got in befpre them. At Warren 
there was no building- except the Holland Land Company's store-house, in 
which resided a family who had charge of the Holland Company's stores sent 
thither to sell to the settlers. Daniel Jackson had a small mill, (the bolt 
turned by hand,) at the mouth of Winters' or Jackson's run, above Warren. 

When the emigrants arrived at Beech Woods, they had no beds except the 
ticks, which, for the want of straw, they filled with leaves scraped from the 
ground. Their clothes were of home-made linen and woolen cloth. They 
had no money to buy more ; and they had to wear mostly linen and tow, 
summer and winter, because flax they could raise. The woods abounded 
with wolves to kill sheep, and bears to kill hogs. Deer were plenty, but the 
settlers had no guns. After a while, they procured guns and supplied them- 
selves with venison. The Indians, who hunted in the fall and winter, would 
sell venison and moccasins ; but they would take in payment only silver, 
salt, or flour, of which the settlers had none to spare. They soon learned to 
make good moccasins and other articles of clothing. They tanned their deer 
skins with deer's brains and smoke, as the Indians did. In the winter they 
found a plenty of bee trees, as the bees would come out in warm, thawing 
days, and fall upon the snow. They would then mark the trees, and cut 
them the next summer or fall. The farm in Pennsylvania, on which John 
Russell settled in 1800, joined the state line. John and his sister Molly, 
wife of Jesse Northrup, were the only children of John Russell, Sr., living in 
1866. John Russell died at his old homestead in February, 1818. His 
widow survived him about 10 years. 

Thomas Russell, son of John, was married to Polly, daughter of Judge 
Jonathan Thompson, July 12, 1815. They removed to their new mill on 
Cassadaga creek in August, and lived in a log house. They had 1 1 children, 
9 of whom were living in 1866. Thomas Russell was born in Ireland in 
1783, and was about 5 years old when the family came over the ocean. He 
died in Jamestown, where he was residing, Sept. 11, 1865, aged 82. 


John Owen was a native of Windsor, Conn., and was a soldier in the old 
French war, and in the war of the Revolution. He came with his family 
from the Susquehanna river to Warren, Pa., about the year 1806, and up the 
Connewango in 1808. After several removals, he settled on lot 41, east side 
of the Connewango, adjoining the state line, where he resided 25 or 30 
years, and kept a tavern, or house of entertainment, more especially for 
lumbermen in rafting times, during spring and fall floods, and for travelers 
on the state road that crossed the Connewango at the state line. He kept 
also a private ferry for those wishing to cross that stream previously to the 
building of the bridge. He is said to have been, one of the most keen, 
joking, story-telling, good-natured men. Many a man has laughed at the old 
man's stories and jokes till his sides were sore. He had a singular impedi- 
ment in his speech, a kind of stutter, which seemed to add to the interest 
and point of his stories and jokes. Many a night, when his floors were 
covered with weary raftsmen for want of sufficient beds to hold them all, they 
were kept awake till a late hour by his queer and witty stories. He was a 
stranger to sickness ; and it might be truly said that he " died of old age." 
He was with the English army in the attack on Quebec in the old French 
war, and was a pensioner for services in the American army in the Revolu- 
tionary war. He died in Carroll, Feb. 6, 1843, aged 107 years, according to 
the records of Windsor, Conn., his native town. Ira Owen, a son of John 
Owen, by his third wife, came with his father to Connewango, and settled on 
land east of his father, where he lived till he left the country. He was with 
the Chautauqua militia at the Buffalo battle, and had the reputation of a 
brave soldier, and an excellent marksman. In the presence of a number of 
his fellow-soldiers, he took deliberate aim with his rifle, and killed a pursuing 
Indian, while our militia were retreating from Black Rock. -Reuben, the 
youngest son, lived with his father till his father's death, and continued to 
live on the old homestead. 

In the vicinity of Frewsburgh, John Myers, from Herkimer Co., settled 
early on the Connewango, where he kept a hotel, and where he still resides, 
at an advanced age (?). Of his 8 sons, Peter, the eldest, is not living ; John, 
Jacob, Robert, Lyman, James, and William, reside in the town ; Charles, in 
the West. Of the 5 daughters, Betsey, wife of Jacob Sternberg, resides in 
town ; Mary married George Budlong, removed West, and is deceased ; Re- 
becca is the wife of James R. Frew, and is not living ; Adaline married 
Orson Annis, and removed West ; and Jane married William Hunt, and 
lives in Jamestown. 

Horatio N. Thornton, bom in Otsego Co., N. Y., removed with his father 
to Ripley in 1816. In 1828 he settled in Kiantone, and in 1831 was married 
to Eunice N. Greene; and removed in 1837 to where he now resides, i m. 
north-east from Frewsburgh. His children were : Helen R., who married 
Joseph Bamsdall, and resides at Titusville, Pa.; Harriet B., who married 
Joseph B. FoUett, and resides at Kansas City, Missouri ; Horatio N., who 
died in infancy; Rufus G., who died at 23 ; and Horatio K. 


Otis Moore settled early on lot 45, and owned the saw-mill i m. east of 
Frewsburgh, which he subsequently rebuilt, and which is now owned by his 
son Otis. His children are : Mahala, wife of Dwight Keet, Fentonville ; 
Minerva, wife of HoUis Boyd, gone West ; Persis, who married Reuel Jones, 
Frewsburgh ; Isabel, wife of Asa Tinkcom, Frewsburgh. Sons : E. G., who 
married Minerva Boyd ; Otis, who married Maria Moore, and lives on the 
farm of his father ; George, who married Deborah, daughter of W. H. Har- 
rison Fenton, at Fentonville ; Leverett, married, and lives at Frewsburgh. 

Luther Howard settled in Frewsburgh and purchased where his son Dyer 
Howard now lives. Another son, Leland, was killed by being thrown from 
a horse. Mitta is the wife of Geo. W. Fenton, Jr. Sarah was married to 
James Parker, who died in 1863. Eliza Ann is the wife of David Frew, of 
Frewsburgh. Maria married Washington Young, and after his death, Charles 
Howard, who resides in the village. 

In the south part of the town, Edmund White settled early on lot 27, and 
subsequently removed to Fluvanna. His sons, James, Wesley and Silas, 
reside in the village ; Warner, in Penn. A daughter, Isabel, married Eli 
Davis, and lives on the old White place ; Agnes married Rev. Emerson 
Mills, now of Forestville; Cynthia married Charles Ward, and lives in 
Frewsburgh ; Elizabeth, wife of Warner Bush, a Methodist preacher, resides 
in California. 

In the south-west part of the town, Otis Alvord was an early settler at 
Fentonville, and died there. Francis, a son, is a preacher of the Universal- 
ist faith ; another son, Frederick, is proprietor of the Weeks House, James- 
town. Luther Forbish, from Massachusetts, came to Carroll about the year 
1830, and settled on lot 34, where he resided until his death, in 1863. He 
had 12 children, 6 sons and 6 daughters. Of the sons, Daniel,. Corydon, 
Luther A., and Joel, reside in Carroll ; Marion is in Sheffield, Pa. ; Henry- 
died at about 22. Of the daughters, Eliza Ann is the wife of John H. ^^^lt- 
sie ; and Mary, wife of Dyer Howard ; both in town ; Lucy and Sarah, mar- 
ried, are in Iowa ; Melvina, married, is in Warren, Pa. ; Nancy, deceased, 
was the wife of Samuel Rice. 

Dorastus Johnson, from Cattaraugus Co., about 1845, settled at Fenton- 
ville, lot 33, where he now resides. He had 6 sons and a daughter. Ira, 
one of the sons, died in the late war, in the battle 0/ Fredericksburg ; 
Calvin, another son, served in the war, and died of disease contracted in 
the army. 

Jacob Adams, from Massachusetts, about 1845, settled on lot 42. His 
wife was a sister of Luther Forbish. Their sons were : Hiram and Joseph, 
who live in town ; Cyrus, who died in the late war ; and Ira, who died a few 
years ago in Carroll. 

In the north part of the town, Moses Taft, from New England, settled in 
Carroll on Case creek, and was one of a company owning a mill, the lowest 
erected on that stream. He afterwards removed to Michigan. Case creek 
derived its name from Case, a pioneer on the east side of the Conne- 


wango, and a brother of Laban Case. He built a shanty, and made a small 
improvement on the shore of the Connewango; but the agent of the Holland 
Company refused to seU him the land ; and he was compelled to abandon it. 

Hiram Thayer, from Hampshire Co., Mass., came to Jamestown in 1819, 
and to this town in 1820. In 1829 he bought a part of lot 39, where he has 
resided till the present time. He married Mary Eames, and has had 9 
children : John M., who was married to Margaret Cowen, and resides in 
Nebraska; Isaac W., to Lucy Cowen; Mary Ann, to Wm. Mahan, and lives 
in Penn. ; Lois Eliza, who died at 21, unmarried ; Hiram E., who was mar- 
ried to Mary Lawson, and lives in town ; Sibyl B., to Wm. H. H. Fenton, 
Jr. ; EUen M., to Emery Davenport, Poland; Orris E., to Emma Markham; 
and Frank E. 

Veron Eaton, from Vermont, about r823, settled lyi miles north-east 
from Frewsburgh, where he now resides, at the age of 77. His children 
were : Judson, who died at about 29 ; Pauline ; Elizabeth, wife of Edwin 
Curtis, both deceased ; Martha, wife of Ebenezer Thornton ; Mary ; and 
Sarah, killed by lightning, at the age of 24. 

Dutee Herrington settled early on lot 32, and has long owned a saw-mill 
on Case's run. Orsino Comstock settled on lot 3r, and died there, leaving 
two sons : Butler, who has removed to Minn. ; and Philo, whq lives in 
Frewsburgh. Another son, Asa, * * ». Goodin Staples settled early in 
the north-east part of the town, on lot 8. His sons, Goodin and Elisha, 
reside there. John Bragg settled in that part of the town where his sons 
Joshua, Joseph, Isaac, and James reside. Richard Hiller settled on lot 30. 
His sons were : Jedediah, John, Alexander, and Nicholas. Jedediah resides 
in Pennsylvania ; the others, in town. 

John Townsend settled near the center of the town, and bought the saw- 
mill previously built by Reuben and John Thayer. He subsequently rebuilt 
the mill, which is now owned by his son Samuel. Another son, William, 
lives with his mother in the neighborhood. The father is not living. 

Christopher Whitman, a member of the Society of Friends, settled where 
his son Arthur now resides, near the center of the town. Another son, 
Dexter, resides in Frewsburgh. 

The first town meeting was held at the house of Wm. Sears, March 6, 
1826, [now in Kiantone,] and the following named officers were elected: 

Supervisor — James Hall. Town Clerk — John Frew. Assessors — ^James 
Parker, Levi Davis, James Frew. Commissioners of Highways — E. Kidder, 
Geo. W. Fenton, Simeon C. Davis. Overseers of Poor — E. Kidder, Geo. W. 
Jones. Collector — Asa Moore. Constables — Asa Moore, Hiram Dickerson. 
Commissioners of Schools — John Frew, James Hall, James Parker. In- 
spectors of Schools — Wm. Sears, Simeon Covell, Levi Davis. Pound-keepers — 
Geo. W. Fenton, Wm. Sears. 

Supervisors from 1826 to 187J. 
James Hall, 1826 to '33, and 1839 — 9 years. James Parker, 1834 to '37, 


and 1856, '57 — 6 years. Esbai Kidder, 1838. Phineas Spencer, 1840. 
Judiah E. Budlong, r84i. Gordon Swift, 1842, '43, '44. John Frew, 1845. 
Reuben E. Fenton, 1846 to '52 — 7 years. Edwin Eaton, 1853, '73. Wm. 
H. H. Fenton, 1854, 1865 to '71 — 8 years. Charles L. Norton, 1855, 1858 
to '64 — 8 years. Lucius M. Robertson, 1872. Wm. Sheldon, '74. Albert 
Fox, 1875. 

Perhaps no other township in the county has had so many saw-mills in 
operation at the same time, as that which constitutes the town of Carroll. 
We find on the county may of 1854, the names of five proprietors of mills on 
the small stream which rises in the south-east part of the town, and enters the 
Connewango creek near Fentonville. Within about a mile above Fenton- 
ville were the mills of L. Forbush, D. WUtsie, J. Brokaw, another the owner 
of which is not named, and S. Smith's miU near the head of the stream. On 
Frew's run was Frew's saw-mill, near the Connewango. Above this were 
James Wheeler's, Otis Moore's, Job Toby's, John Myers, Jr.'s, John Town- 
send's, Henry Bennett's, James Frew's, N. Gavit's, Cowen's, and one or two 
others. Also Hugh A. Frew's flouring-mill, at Frewsburgh. On Case run, in 
the north and north-east part of the town, were the mills of Smith Cass, D. 
Harrington, G. W. Fenton, Jr., J. & C. Pope, Charles Pope ; and on 
branches of the stream, the mills of A. Comstock and L. Cowen. There 
was also, in the north-east comer of the town, a steam saw-mill owned by 
Franklin Baker — the whole number being between twenty and twenty-five. 
Probably all were not running so late as twenty years ago. And by the 
diminution of water and timber, the number has been greatly diminished ; 
the number at present in operation has not been ascertained. 

Jeflferson Frew started a steam saw-mill at Frewsburgh about 2 years ago, 
which is now in operation. About 750,000 feet of lumber are made in a 
year at this mill, and run down the river. 

Edward Hayward and Edwin Moore established, in 1872, a hand-sled fac- 
tory, and made, in two years, about 18,000 sleds, and then converted it into 
a stave-mill — the staves to be used for butter packages and kegs, for shipping 
to the eastern market. They have made about 800,000 the past year. This 
factory was begun by Moore, Spink & Co. Edwin Eaton bought it in the 
spring of 1874; and Edward W. Scowden stocks the mill, and hires the pro- 
prietors to manufacture the staves, and will probably keep up the. amount 

Wood & White established a stave-factory about 1868 or 1869 ; ran it a 
few years; then [1872] rented it to Scowden, who ran it about 2 years, 
[to the fall of '74], making about 600,000 staves the first year, and 700,000 
the next. April 14, 1875, it was destroyed by fire. 

^firkin-stave factory was started in 1864 or '65, by Edward Hayward. In 
187 1, it was bought by John, Jr., and Henry Myers, and converted into a 
manufactory for barrel staves, and is now in operation. 


Biographical and Genealogical. 

George W. Fenton was bom Jn Hanover, N. H., Dec. 20, 1873. In 
1804, he left Broadalbin, N. Y., where his father had settled, and traveled to 
Pittsburgh, then a small village, and thence down the Ohio on an exploring 
tour to Louisville, Ky. He returned to Pittsburgh, and commenced trading 
in goods and provisions, in a canoe, up the Allegany river and French creek, 
which business he followed two or three years. In the winter of 1805-6, he 
taught a school at Warren, Pa., the first ever taught there. He there married 
Elsie Owen, who was bom in Lunenburg, N. Y., July 8, 1790. He is said 
to hive removed to his new log cabin on the south side of the outlet of 
Chautauqua lake, in the spring of 1807, where the only settlers on the outlet 
were William Wilson and James Culbertson, who were on the north side. 
In 1809, he sold his farm, and removed to lot 52, on the east side of the 
Connewango. [The date of the purchase of this land was March, 18 10.] 
Mr. Fenton died March 3, i860. His widow died Feb. 26, 1875. Their 
children were : i. Roswell O., who married Lenora Akin, and had 4 sons 
and 4 daughters; Mr. Fenton deceased. 2. George tV.,yr., who married 
Mitta Howard, and has 2 sons and 4 daughters. 3. William If. H., who 
married Catherine Edmonds, and has a son, William H. H., Jr., and had 4 
daughters, of whom one died in infancy. 4. John F., who married Maria 
Woodward, and is deceased ; he had 3 sons and 5 daughters ; one of the 
sons died in infancy. 5. Reuben E., [see sketch. Hist, of Jamestown.] 

Hugh Frew was bom in Killyleagh, county of Down, Ireland, about 
1758, and was married to Mary Russell, in the same place, in 1787. They 
sailed from Belfast, Ireland, in May, 1794, and arrived at Wilmington, Ches- 
ter Co., Pa., in June. Mr. Frew was very poor when he landed. He worked 
at ditching the first six months, at $4 a month; and his wife supported the 
family by spinning flax on the little wheel. With the money received for the 
six months' wages, he bought a cow, which died before he had taken fi-om 
her a single mess of milk. He removed to Dansville, North Branch of 
Susquehanna, Pa. Being a miller, as the Frews had been by occupation for 
generations, he obtained a situation in a grist-mill with three run of stones, 
at $8 a month. In 1800, the family emigrated through the wilderness, up 
the Sinemahoning creek to the head of the Allegany, and down the Allegany 
to Warren, and up the Connewango to Beech Woods, now Farmington, Pa, 
where they located and endured great hardships. There was not then a 
white settler in Chautauqua county. Hugh Frew and his wife and sons, after 
their arrival in August, cleared 5 acres of land and sowed it with wheat the 
first fall, by working day and night. The father and sons, John and James, 
cleared up a farm, built a grist-mill, and were in comfortable circumstances. 
David, the only other, and the youngest son, died soon after landing at Wil- 
mington. John and James subsequently settled in Carroll. The family 
finally sold the farm in Pennsylvania, and all removed to Frewsburgh. Hugh 
Frew died there in December, 1831, aged 73. [See Russell Family.] 

John Frew, son of Hugh, was bom in Killyleagh, Ireland, Aug. 2, 1789, 


and emigrated with his father to America, and to Farmington, Pa. [See 
sketch of Hugh Frew.] In 1809, John Frew bought an interest in lands on 
the east side of the Connewango, in the present town of Carroll, at Frews- 
burgh, where he erected mills with Thomas Russell. His brother James 
purcha.sed the interest of Thomas Russell. They built mills, cleared farms, 
and prospered. John Frew helped Edward Work build his saw-mill on the 
outlet of Chautauqua lake. He said he commenced sawing for Work on 
his mill, May 8, 1809, and worked through the summer. From the plank 
he sawed, 12 salt-boats were made to take salt down the outlet and the 
Allegany to Pittsburgh. Much salt was taken down in the fall of 1809. 
John and James Frew and Thomas Russell erected their saw-mill at the 
mouth of Frew's run, on the east side of the Connewango, in 18 11. In or 
about the year 18 14, Russell sold his interest to the Frews, who erected near 
the saw-mill a grist-mill from the remains of the old grist-mill in Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1817; their father being concerned with them. It was an overshot 
mill and did much grinding, and was tended by their father. John and 
James Frew had all their property in common; and no jealousy ever ap- 
peared to exist between them. They were, however, advised to divide their 
property to prevent difficulty in their families in case of the death of either 
of them. This was amicably done not long before the death of James, who 
was killed at the raising of a building. In 18 16, John Frew was elected 
supervisor of the town of EUicott, [then embracing Carroll,] and was con- 
tinued in that office by reelection until 1822, inclusive, after which he de- 
clined a reelection. He was appointed a judge and justice in 1820, which 
offices he declined. He is said to have been a man of sound judgment and 
strict integrity, and a friend and liberal patron of the early improvements of 
the county. Having lived to see the wilderness become a well cultivated 
country, and the site of his residence in Carroll a prosperous village bearing 
his own name, he closed his life in September, 1865, aged 76 years. 

James Frew, second son of Hugh, was bom in Killyleagh, Ireland, about 
1791, and was married to Rebecca, daughter of Josiah H. Wheeler, of 
Frewsburgh. Mr. Frew resided in Frewsburgh until his death. He was killed 
in assisting to raise a building, by the falling of a bent, which struck him on 
the back of the neck. He died August 24, 1834, aged 43 years. While in 
partnership with John, he seemed to choose managing business at home, and 
having his brother attend to business out of town. He was disinclined to 
hold any public office, though he was once prevailed on to accept the office 
of assessor. He was out in one campaign with Gen. Harrison's army in the 
war of 18 1 2, and endured great hardships and privations at Maumee, River 
Raisin, etc. He was known as a superior marksman with a rifle. He had 5 
sons: John H., Miles, Josiah, Jefferson, and David. 

RuFus Greene, bom in Amherst, Mass., removed from Vermont to what 
is now Kiantone, in 1827 ; thence, after three years, to this town, on lot 51, 
near the Connewango, on the farm owned by the late Roswell O. Fenton. 
Mr. Greene was for many years a justice of the peace. He had 6 children : 


Eunice N., wife of Horatio N. Thornton; Mary, wife of Albert M. Thornton ; 
Sarah, who married Wm. Corkins, and is deceased; Lutheria, who married 
Perrin Sampson, and lives at Springville, Erie Co., N. Y., with whom her 
mother now resides; Emily, wife of Henry W. Sampson, South Valley, Catt. 
Co.; Rufus, Jr., who married Kate L. Gould, and removed, in 187 1, to 
Newell, Buena Vista Co., Iowa. Rufus Greene died Jan., r868. 

Joseph Waite, the eldest son of Silas Waite, was bom in 'Wardsborough, 
Vt., July 4, 1787, and was married, Oct. 17, 181 1, to Olive Davis, who was 
born in the same town, Sept. 16, 1786. She was related to the Davises in 
Kiantone and Busti. Mr. Waite was a thorough " Green Mountaineer," over 
six feet high, and weighed about 250 pounds. The town was rough and 
mountainous, and his parents were poor. His advantages for education were 
very limited. He learned to write on birch bark. He learned at school 
simply to read, write, and cypher. He learned the trade of saddle and har- 
ness-making, and carried it on for a brief period. He was appointed a 
deputy sheriff in his native county; and, by attending courts, he acquired a 
taste for the law business. In 1816, he came with his wife, two children, 
and his worldly goods, in a two-horse wagon, to the south part of Chautauqua 
county, the journey occuppng six weeks. He purchased the " betterments" 
on a small farm in Carroll, where he passed through the usual experiences of 
early pioneer life. He went into the lumbering business, in which he was 
very unsuccessful. The landing on the Connewango where he drew, with 
ox-teams, his logs and shingles, is still called " Waite's Landing." Being 
unfitted for manual labor, by reason of a rupture, he turned to the profession 
of law. He moved to Jamestown in 1821, and commenced the study in his 
35th year, and practiced his profession there about 30 years. He attained a 
respectable standing at the bar, and served in the offices of justice, district- 
attorney, examiner in chancery, supreme court commissioner, and county 
superintendent of the poor, and performed the duties of these offices with 
general acceptance. In 1854, he emigrated to Fond du Lac, Wis., to live 
with his children; and on the 8th of January, 1855, he died of apoplexy, 
after a sickness of 26 hours. In 1870, his remains were removed to the new 
cemetery at Jamestown, and deposited by the side of those of his wife, who 
died Feb. 27, 1851. They had two children, besides one that died in child- 
hood: Franklin H., who resides in Mankato, Minn.; and Davis H., editor 
and pubUsher of the Jamestown Journal. 

JosiAH H. Wheeler was bom in Concord, Mass., in 1762, and married 
Mary Miles, who was bom Feb. 10, 1765. They came with-a large family 
from Wardsborough, Vt., to Ellicott, [now Carroll,] and purchased the land 
and saw-mill on Frew's ran, belonging to Matthew Turner, lot 53, tp. i, r. 10. 
Wheeler and his sons stocked and ran the mill with their own labor, and 
soon cleared up a good farm. He had 5 sons : James, Josiah, Francis, 
Miles, and Daniel. The sons, or most of them, as they came of age, were 
helped to land on which to start in life. The daughters were : Rebecca, 
wife of James Frew ; Polly, wife of John Rose, of Frewsburgh ; and Anna. 

^^^^c^^^:^ y^^Ct^, 


Josiah H. Wheeler died, [date not ascertained.] His wife died in 1857, 
aged about 92 years. She well remembered, till her death, the time when 
the report was spread that the British were coming to Concord to destroy 
the military stores collected there by the colonists, and when, at the age of 
ten years, she fled with her mother into the adjacent forests, where most of 
the women and children were concealed, until the British returned to Boston. 
James, the eldest son of Josiah H. and Mary Wheeler, married Nancy Rose, 
of Frewsburgh, then recently from England. Josiah, another son, married a 
daughter of James Parker, of Carroll, and after her death, married a cousin 
of his first wife — a daughter of David Eaton, of Portland. 

The Frewsburgh Baptist Church was formed Jan. i, 1858, and was com- 
posed of about 60 members of a church then existing, but now extinct, 
known as the " First Baptist Church of Carroll." It was first called the 
" Second Baptist Church of Carroll," and took its present name Sept. 20, 
1842. It was recognized by an ecclesiastical council, Feb. 14, 1838. March 
10, 1838, John G. Curtis and Phineas Annis were chosen deacons. Until 
1842, the church had no regular pastor, but was supplied a part of the time 
by Revs. Arza Stone, Benj. Oviatt, and J. Wilson. It was received into the 
Harmony Baptist Association in 1838; and in 1842, joined with the First 
Church in sustaining Rev. M. Colby as pastor for about one year. The 
church was then again without a pastor until 1845. Its subsequent pastors 
were Frederick Glanville, A. Frink, Elisha B. Sparks, W. H. Randall, Emer- 
son Mills, Lucien L. Gage, Judson H. Miller, Wm. Entwistle, J. S. Blandin, 
A. D. Bush, and Abner Morrill. Present deacons are Phineas Annis, John 
C. Martin, George L. Foster, and John D. Bain. The first church clerk 
was Abida Dean ; the present clerk, John D. Bain. The Baptist Society, 
under the general law of the state, was formed Jan. 14, 1850. The first 
trustees were Phineas Annis, Elias Howard, George W. Fenton, John Myers, 
Jr., and Jacob Persell. Present trustees — Geo. W. Fenton, John Myers, Jr., 
Parker E. Miller, John C. Martin, John D. Bain, George L. Foster, and 
Ray W. Porter. Parker E. Miller is clerk and treasurer. 


Charlotte was formed from Gerry, April 18, 1829, and comprise? the 4th 
township in the nth range, according to the Holland Land Company's sur- 
veys. Mill creek, the principal stream, passes through the geographical 
center of the town, in a south-westerly direction, crossing the south line i J^ 
miles east of the south-west comer, near Sinclairville, and flowing into the 
Cassadaga creek in Gerry, near its west line, on lot 63. Luce Hill and 
Lake Hill, the highest points, are about 1,000 feet above Lake Erie. The 
land is moderately hilly ; and the soil is chiefly a clay loam. The town of 
Charlotte was surveyed into lots in the year 1808, by John Lamberton, for 


the Holland Land Company, and first settled in 1809. At a meeting of the 
citizens held at the house of David Randall at the Center, at the suggestion 
of Mrs. Randall, the town was named from a town having that name on 
Lake Champlain, in Vermont. 

Original Purchases in Township 4, Range 11. 

1809.' April, Arva O. Austin, 63. John N. Gregg, 62. John Picket, 

62. Abel Prior, 6z. Barnabas Cole, 36. May, Nathaniel Holdridge, 45. 
Robert W. Seaver and Barney Edson, 37. Wm. Devine, 29. Joseph 
Arnold, 61. November, Samuel Sinclear, 41. Seth Richardson, 54. 

1 8 10. January, Joel Burnell, 46. 

181 1. May, Samuel Vaughan, 31. 
1813. March, John Cleland, Jr., 53. 

1816. February, Jacob Flanders, 57, 58, 59. March, Samuel Sinclear, 
41. April, S. Austin, 56. . June, Abraham Winsor, 33. 

1817. November, John Howard, i. 

1818. June, Samuel Camp, 17. 

18 1 9. March, Samuel Hurley, 25. April, Justus Torrey, 18. May, 
Ezra Richmond, 33. July, Abraham Reynolds, 26. 

182 1. June, Nathan Lake, 20. Calvin Lake, 20. 

1823. April, Walker Lewis, 39. Martin Cleland, 55. 

1824. July, Caleb Clark, 55. September, Daniel B. Lake, 21. Decem- 
ber, Samuel Cleland, 30. 

1825. October, Charles Lyman, 40. Crocker Richardson, 59. Wm. 
Spinkemagle, 32. 

1826. January, Isaac Phippin, 20. February, Hiram Straight, 30. May, 
David Randall, 13. September, Arba P. Straight, 23. Robert Robertson, i. 
October, Alanson C. Straight, 24. November, Bela Tracy, 57. 

The north-western portion of the town was explored in March, 1809, by a 
party of young men, who, about the first of April, settled upon lots 62 and 

63, in that part known as the Picket district. John Picket settled upon 
the farm where he now resides. He constructed upon the bank of Picket 
brook a log house, the first built in the town. Daniel Picket with his family 
settled upon the farm now owned by the heirs of Eliab Bamum ; and Arva O. 
Austin and wife upon the farm nowowned by the heirs of Van Rensselaer Fisher. 
These were the only persons who passed the winter of 1809-10 in Charlotte. 
January 25th, 18 10, the first white child was born, Phebe, daughter of Arva 
O. Austin. She afterwards became the wife of Adin Wait. John Cleland, 
Jr., came in, in March, 1810, and took up land on lot 5 4- In September, 
Mrs. Arnold, wife of Joseph Arnold, then residing in the Picket settlement, 
died ; and on the day following, Jerusha Barras, her sister. They were 
buried in one grave, near the road side, on the farm of Chauncey Pierpont. 
These were the first deaths in the town. 

A remarkable incident occurred at an early period in the history of this 
town, in which one of the Pickets was the subject. The account is taken 
from a long and interesting sketch of early times, published in a Fredonia 
paper, and communicated by one of the Cleland brothers, of Charlotte ; 

" A remarkable surgical operation was performed in Charlotte about fifty 


years ago, Ira Picket and myself were at work on a mill-dam, in January. 
We were raising the dam with gravel. A thaw came and loosened the em- 
bankment, when the bank suddenly gave way. I escaped, but Picket was 
caught by the falling mass. Being in a stooping posture, the frozen mass 
struck him on his back, and passed toward his head, stripping off his cloth- 
ing, tearing his scalp from his head, so that it fell over one side of his face, 
and crushing one eye so that it lay on his cheek. His head, one foot, and a 
hand, were caught under the earth. In my fright, I lifted and held the piece 
of earth that fell on his foot, and that would have taken several men ordina- 
rily to lift. I held it till his father and brother came from the mill, six rods 
away, for, had I let it fall, it would have crushed his whole body. They suc- 
ceeded in freeing his foot. I took his crushed head in my lap, and laid his 
scalp back, when I saw dirt and gravel under it. I had to take it off again, 
when I saw the scull was badly crushed. We got him home and sent for a 
physician, who was three hours in performing the operation. He took thirty- 
two pieces of bone from his head, the patient being perfectly conscious all 
the time. [Chloroform was not given in those days.] At the patient's 
request, I held his hands during the whole operation. They seemed the 
longest three hours I had ever known. Strange to say. Picket recovered 
entirely, even to his eye-sight, and was present at the Old Settlers' Reunion 
at Fredonia. It seemed marvelous that I should clasp the hands that I held 
those three heart-rending hours fifty years ago. The physician was Dr. 
Ezra Williams, of Dunkirk, father of the Hon. J. T. Williams, who also is a 

In March, 181 1, Nathan and Oliver Cleland, brothers of John Cleland, 
Jr., and in the fall, Samuel, another brother, with their father, John Cleland, 
came and settled upon lot 54. The Cleland brothers are living, aged as 
follows: Samuel J., 87 years; John, 83; Oliver, 81; and Nathan, 80. Many 
of their descendants reside in the town. In the fall of 181 r, Moses Cleland 
was married to Sally Anderson, by Rev. John Spencer ; this was the first 
marriage celebrated. Joel Burnell, in 18x1, settled upon the farm where he 
died. He was at one time an associate judge of this county. Madison 
Burnell, his son, was bom there in 1812. He afterwards became one of the 
distinguished lawyers of Western New York. Ransom Burnell, another son, 
was also bom there ; he is a lawyer and resides in California, and has been 
the speaker of the assembly in that state. Among other early settlers in this 
part, who have left descendants residing in the town, were. Freeman Ellis, 
Edward Dalrymple, Eliakim Barnum, Jacob Hall, James Cross, David Ames, 
and Caleb Clark. Orton, the son of the last, was surrogate of the county 
from 1848 to 1852, inclusive — 4 years. John B. Cardot came in from 
France, and settled in this part of the town. He was followed in later years 
by many other respectable families from that country. 

Charlotte Center was first settled by Robert W. Seaver, a soldier of the 
Revolution. He in the spring of 1809, with Bama Edson, explored the 
town, then a wildemess, and selected 90 acres of land, which included the 
home of the late John Edmonds. Here Mr. Seaver settled. He died in 
Charlotte in 1836. His son Randolph resides in Sinclairville. In the spring 
of 1809, Wm. Devine also came in, and settled upon the west part of lot 29, 


where he built a log house between where the school-house now stands 
and the highway. It was the first building erected at the Center. Oliver 
Gilmour, Daniel Jackson, and Aaron Seaver were early settlers; and in the 
fall of 1826, Stephen Lyman, a brother-in-law of Major Sinclear, settled near 
the Center. Perry Lyman, his son, at present deputy sheriff, resides at Sin- 
clairville. In 1811, Barney Cole died, and was buried at the Center. He 
was the first male person who died in the town. At an early day a shop 
was built on Mill creek, at the Center, by Edward Landas, for wool-carding 
and cloth-dressing, which was in after years used as a pail factory, turning 
shop and wood miU factory. About 18 17, the first saw-mill was built there. 
In 1869, a steam mill was erected there by Addison Lake and Edwin Tuttle. 
About 1851, Joseph Landas built and opened the first store at the Center; 
though others had, for brief periods, sold limited amounts of merchandise. 
In 1 82 1, Nathan Lake and his brother Calvin came in from Vermont, and 
settled a little east of the Center. Their brothers Daniel B. and Luther 
Lake came in to live in 1826, and settled on the street which was afterwards 
known as the " Lake Settlement." Nathan Lake was the first supervisor of 
the town, elected in 1830, and again in 1835, '37, '42, and '45. Allen A. 
Stevens, son-in-law of Nathan Lake ; Horace E. Kimball, son-in-law of 
Daniel B. Lake ; and Henry C. Lake, son of Calvin Lake, have also been 
supervisors. [See List of Supervisors.] Henry C. Lake has also been a 
member of the legislature from this county. Hugh Harper, from the county 
of Donnegal, Ireland, came in, in 1828, and settled a little south of the 
Center ; and a few years later, his brother William, followed by other families 
from the north and other parts of Ireland. They have numerous descendants 
here, who make good and respectable citizens. The population of Charlotte 
Center, according to the census taken in 1875, is 120. 

Sinclairville derives its name from Major Samuel Sinclear. Having pur- 
chased the whole of lot 41, which embraces the land where the village is 
situated, in November, 1809, he commenced the settlement of the place by 
causing the body of a log house to be built in the woods, miles away from 
all roads. It was built at the intersection of the roads leading from Sinclair- 
ville, one to Charlotte Center; the other to Cherry Creek. In March, 1810, 
he and Wm. Berry and his family, and John Sinclair and Chauncey Andrus, 
hired help, arrived at this log house; the snow then lying deep over the 
ground. They occupied, for two days and nights, a wigwam made of poles 
and hemlock boughs, until they had completed their log house, into which 
they then moved. In the fall of 18 10, Mr. Sinclear cut a wagon road from 
Fredonia to Sinclairville, the first opened into the central part of the county; 
and on the 22d of October, 1810, his family, which included his step-sons, 
Obed and John M. Edson, arrived. During the summer of 1810, he erected 
a saw-mil, and in the iaU a frame dwelling house, which was for many years 
the village tavern; and in 181 1, a grist-mill. Each of these buildings was 
the first of its kind erected in Charlotte and in the central and eastern part 
of the county. Abraham Winsor, a brother-in-law of Mr. Sinclear, came in 


from Madison county, and in 1813 built an ashery, and in 1815 opened a 
store. In early years he transported down the Cassadaga, in canoes, the pot 
and pearl ashes he had manufactured, and theilce down the Allegany to Pitts- 
burgh, where he received in exchange flour, tobacco, nails, glass, and other 
merchandise, which he brought back in boats for the store in SLnclairville. 

The north-east part of the town remained a wilderness later than any other 
portion. Alanson Straight was the first to commence Improvements. He 
settled about 1832 upon the farm now owned by Byron Lewis. In 1832, 
Nelson Chase settled upon the farm which he now owns ; and a little later 
in the same year, Nathan Penhollow upon the farm where his son William 
now resides. Calvin Abbey, Elijah Lewis, Wm. W. Rood, Neri Crampton, 
Daniel Hoisington, Henry Smith, Wm. Luce, G. R. Mathewson, Peter Odell, 
and Nelson Mansfield, were early settlers there. John Wilkes, who came in 
1851, built the first saw-mill in .this part of the town, in 1865. Upon his 
farm the last bear was killed. In 1839, James Hopkins, Patrick Doran, and 
Garrett Wlieeler, came in from the west of Ireland, and in following years 
others from Ireland settled there. 

Kent Street and adjacent territory was first settled by families principally 
from the south of England. Samuel Hurley was the pioneer ; he came as 
early as 1817. Abraham Reynolds next came, in 1819, direct from London. 
Twice he walked from Charlotte to New York. His son Henry has been 
3 years supervisor of the town, and is a merchant in Sinclairville. His 
daughters Mary and Elizabeth now reside in London. Robert Le Grys came 
in 1819; John Thorn in 1834; and in 1836, firom .Devonshire, John Reed, 
whose sons are John, now in Australia ; William, a former in Charlotte ; and 
Richard, a merchant of Sinclairville. Richard Brock and Thomas D. Spik- 
ing came later. The street leading north from the Center to Arkwright, was 
also largely settled by Englishmen, wholly from Yorkshire, in the north of 
England. Thomas Pearson, Wm. Wright, and their families, and Thomas 
Dickenson, came over together in a ship from Hull, and settled on this street, 
in 1828 ; and many of their descendants reside in town. John Pearson, son 
of Thomas, has long been a business man, and is now a merchant of Sin- 
clairville. William Hilton came in 1830; his son John has been a director 
of the Erie Railway. These Englishmen, their descendants, and others who 
in later years came from that country, constitute a very large and substantial 
portion of .the population of the town. 

The first school was taught by William Gilmour in the winter of 1811-12, 
in the log house erected in 1809 by Mr. Sinclear. Dr. Orange Y. Campbell 
was the 'ax%\. physician. Drs. Henry B. Hedges, J. E. Kimball, Gilbert Rich- 
mond, and George S. Harrison, at a later period were, for many years, prac- 
ticing physicians of Sinclairville, and were widely known in their profession 
through the county. Charles Smith was the first shoemaker ; Samuel Brunson 
the first blacksmith. Chester Wilson, father of W. Thomas Wilson, Esq., 
long a justice of sessions of the county, was the first saddler and harness- 
maker. Nathaniel Johnson came to Sinclairville fi-om Madison Co. in 1814. 


His son Forbes, many years a resident here, was a member of the legislature 
of 1844. He and John M. Edson constructed the first tannery ; and they 
also built a grist-mill in SinclaLrville at an early day. Hannah, daughter of 
Nathaniel Johnson, married S. L. Henderson, who came in in 18 16. Their 
son W. W. Henderson, of this place, is collector of U. S. revenues for the 
27th revenue district. Dr. Henry Sargent was the earliest postmaster. The 
mails were at first carried from EUicottville to Mayville by Sampson Crooker, 
the father of Hon. George A. S. Crooker, who went through once a week on 
foot. Chauncey Andrus, Ezra Richmond, Peter Warren, father of Judge 
Emory F. Warren, Bela Tracy, a brother of John Tracy, formerly lieutenant- 
governor of this state, Asa Dunbar, Philip Sink, Henry Cipperly, Wm. H. 
Gleason, and Wm. Brown, were some of the early settlers of Sinclairville and 
the south-western part of the town. Wm. Heppenen, from Germany, settled 
in the village in 1853 ; his brother Ernest in 1854. They were followed, in 
later years, by many industrious and worthy German families, who have set- 
tled in the village and town. 

The first town meeting was held at Charlotte Center, March 2, 1830. The 
following are the names of the officers chosen : 

Supervisor — Nathan Lake. Town Clerk — Walter Chester. Justices of the 
Peace — John M. Edson, Eldred Sampson, James S. Parkhurst. Collector — 
Barzillai Ellis. Assessors- — Peter Warren, Bela Tracy, Spencer Clark. Over- 
seers of the Poor — Freeman Ellis, Abel Potter. Corners of Highways — Bela 
B. Lord, R. W. Seaver, Charles Goodrich. Com'rs of Schools — Bela B. Lord, 
Samuel T. Booth, Crocker Richajdson. Constables — Amasa Dalrymple, 
Barzillai Ellis, Benjamin Fisher. Collector — Barzillai Ellis. Sealer — Oshea 

Supervisors from i8jo to 187^. 

Nathan Lake, 1830, '35, '37, '42, '45—5 years. Bela Tracy, 1831, '33, '34. 
Samuel F. Forbush, 1832. John Chandler, 1836. Orton Clark, 1838 to '41, 
1843, '44, 1859, 'eo-— 8 years. Randolph W. Seaver, 1846 to '48 — 3 years. 
Joseph E. Kimball, 1849. Orsamus A- White, 1850, '51. John M. Edson, 
1852, '53, '54- Daniel Arnold, 1855. Wm. M. Waggoner, 1856. Allen A. 
Stevens, 1857, '68. Henry C. Lake, 1858, '61. Timothy D. Copp, 1862, '63. 
Henry Reynolds, 1864 to '66 — 3 years. Obed Edson, 1867. George S. 
Harrison, 1869 to '71 — 3 years. Horace E. Kimball, 1872 to '74, and Albert 
Richmond, 1875. , 

The progress of settlement in the village and town was slow, until about 
the year 1824, when Walter Smith and George A. French opened a store at 
Sinclairville, and engaged in considerable trade. This, with the opening of 
the Erie canal, gave a new impetus to settlement. Sinclairville continued, 
until 1845, to be an important point for the manufacture of pot and pearl 
ashes, which, prior to 1824, had been sent to Pittsburgh, but thereafter to 
Montreal and New York. Walter Chester, Thomas J. Allen, in 1838 a mem- 
ber of assembly, his brother Caleb J. Allen, Perez Dewey, Alonzo Lang- 
worthy, Nelson Mitchell and John Dewey, were some of the leading and 


older merchants of the village. Jonathan Hedges was an early innkeeper, 
and his son Elias S. Hedges an early tanner. 

Stages were first run from Fredonia to Jamestown by Obed Edson, brother 
of John M. Edson, and by Reuben Scott, about 1827. Subsequently the 
line was extended to Warren, Pa., by Obed Edson. 

Albert Richmond, from Watertown, N. Y., in August, 1833, was the first 
attorney at law; and from January, 1855, to the close of 1858 — 4 years — 
surrogate of the county. In 1832, a school-house was first built; schools 
having been previously kept in a school-house built in 1816, in the town of 
Gerry, adjacent to Sinclairville. Early in 1849, Sinclairville was made a 
station on the telegraph line leading from Fredonia to Pittsburgh. This line 
was afterwards discontinued. In 1852, the Fredonia and Sinclairville plank 
road was constructed from Fredonia, through Sinclairville, to EUicott. It 
was built principally through the exertions of the people of Sinclairville. 
Perez Dewey, of Sinclairville, was its largest stockholder and first presidei;t. 
It contributed largely to the growth of the village during succeeding years. 
June 21, 1862, "Evergreen Cemetery Association'' was organized, with 
Barnard W. Field as president, and under his superintendence its ample 
grounds have since been embellished with unusual taste. April 7, 1868, 
occurred the severest fire that has ever visited Sinclairville. Early in the 
morning the Bennett block was discovered to be on fire. Three stores com- 
prising this block, the Sinclairville House, a dwelling house and barn, a meat 
market and a shoe shop were burned, and a harness shop was torn down — 
in all seven buildings. February 6, 1870, the Sinclairville Library was estab- 
lished, with Alonzo Langworthy as its president 

The people of Charlotte were among the first to move in the construction 
of the Dunkirk, Warren &• Pittsburgh Railroad, as it was then known, now 
known as the Dunkirk, Allegany Valley & Pittsburgh Railroad. The first 
meetings to promote the enterprise were held at Sinclairville. At a meeting 
presided over by Hon. C. J. Allen, preliminary steps wer% taken to organize 
the company. T. D. Copp and Alonzo Langworthy, of Sinclairville, were 
directors from its organization until after its completion ; the former being 
during this time its president. They, by their efforts and influence, largely 
aided in effecting the construction of the road, which was completed to Sin- 
clairville, June I, 1871. November 5th, 1874, the "Sinclairville Fair Ground 
Association" was organized with H. E. Kimball as president. By the census 
of 1875, Sinclairville contained a population of 695. 

The south-east part of the town was first settled by Leman Cleveland, on 
the farm of Richard Langworthy, on lot 10. In 1814, Samuel T. Booth 
settled on the farm now owned by Thomas Spear. John Howard, in 181 7, 
on lot I. Justus Torrey, from Genesee Co. in 181 9, settled on the farm now 
owned by his son Sheldon Torrey. He chopped and cleared with his own 
hands several hundred acres of land, and during many years manufactured 
annually large quantities of maple sugar. The widow Lemira W. Camp, 
with her family, in March, 1819, settled upon 200 acres of land known as 


the Camp farm, now owned by Merlin M. Wagoner. She had been preceded 
by her son Samuel Camp. Milo, Merlin, John, Wilson, and Herman, were 
the sons of Mrs. Camp. David Sheldon, Robert Robertson, Peter Robert- 
son, John Luce, and Mr. Parsons, were early settlers in this part of the town. 

Biographical and Genealogical. 

Joel Burnell came to Charlotte in i8ip, and settled on lot 46, bought 
of the Holland Land Company in January of that year. He is described 
by one who knew him well, as a man of " original and brilliant intellect, a 
great reader, and about equally inclined to theology and the law." He was 
for many years associate judge of the county court, and for a long time a 
justice of the peace. He was also a local preacher of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church. His house was for years the preaching place and the home 
of the preachers. He had 11 children; six sons and five daughters. Of 
these no particular sketch has been obtained, except that of his son Madison, 
an eminent lawyer, which wUl be found in the historical sketch of Jamestown. 

John M. Edson is a descendant, of the sixth generation, from Samuel 
Edson, who was bom in England in 1612, and came over to Salem, Mass., 
in the year 1638 or 1639, ^nd afterwards became an original proprietor and 
first settler of Bridgewater, Plymouth Co., Mass. He was a member of the 
general court at Pl)maouth in 1676, and held other positions of public trust. 
His son Samuel, an ancestor of John M. Pkison, participated in the Indian 
wars against King Philip, and was a member of the general court at Boston 
in 1697 and 1713. Obed Edson, the grandfather of John M. Edson, was an 
early settler of the town of Richfield, Otsego Co., N. Y. 

John M. Edson was bom July 30, 1801, in Eaton, Madison Co. When 
he was about three years of itge, his father died. His mother, whose maiden 
name was Faimy Bigelow, afterwards married Major Samuel Sinclear. Mr. 
Edson moved with his step-father's family to Sinclairville, in 1810, the first 
settlement having only been made there that year. There were no schools, 
few books, and for years but a single newspaper was received in the settle- 
ment. These limited facilities gave Mr. Edson but little opportunity to in- 
dulge a natural inclination for mental improvement ; and he received but a 
limited education, the deficiencies of which were supplied, in np inconsider- 
able degree, bj a taste for reading. He, however, in early life, became 
familiar with the prompt expedients necessary in a new country, where a 
rough and ready skill to meet the difficulties incident thereto, were the qual- 
ities most in requisition. When a young man, the military spirit ran high in 
Western New York. In the regiment organized in the central and eastern 
portion of the county, he filled most of the regimental offices fi-om lieutenant 
to that of colonel, which he received May 22, 1830. Among other positions, 
he held that of justice of the peace of Charlotte for fourteen years. He 
served three years successively as its supervisor, and one term as deputy U. 
S. marshal. April 17, 1843, he was appointed by Gov. Bouck a judge of the 
court of common pleas, and served until July i, 1847, when the court as then 

o^^/.. ut.Lj^.5 


organized was abolished by the constitution of 1846. In politics he has al- 
ways been a democrat. He was the first master of the Sylvan Lodge No. 
303 of Freemasons, at Sinclairville, under the new charter granted subse- 
quently to anti-masonry. He is now 73 years of age, and resides on his 
farm adjacent to Sinclairville. 

In 183 1 he was married to Hannah Alverson, daughter of Jonathan and 
Ursula Alverson. She was bom at Halifax, Vt, June 3, 1804, and came 
with her mother to Gerry to reside with her uncle, Wm. Alverson, in 1821. 
They have two children: i. Obed, bom in Sinclairville, Feb. 18, 1832; a 
lawyer by profession, and at present a member of assembly from the second 
district of this county. He married EmUy A. Allen, daughter of Caleb J. 
Allen, born in New London, Conn., Nov. 27, 1835. Their children are : 
Fanny A., bom April 28, i860; John M., bom Sept 29, i86i ; Samuel A., 
"born Sept. 15, 1863; died Nov. 16, 1872; Mary U., bom Sept. 11, 1865; 
died Nov. 27, 1872 ; Hannah, bom Feb. 15, 1869 ; Walter H., bom Jan. 8, 
1874; and Ellen Emily, bom April 21, 1875. 2. Fanny Ursula, bom June 
4, 1834, and married Henry Sylvester, son of Melzer Sylvester. They re- 
side in Sinclairville. Their children are : Anna G., bom Jan. 5, 1856 ; 
Emily A., born Nov. 22, 1857 ; Katie, bom Nov. 20, 1863; died Aug. 18, 
1864; and Frederic H., bom Sept. 22, 1867. 

Samuel Sinclear was bom May 10, 1762, at Vassalborough, Maine. 
His parents, Joshua Sinclear and Mary Cilley, were married in Scotland, in 
1752 or 1753, and came to America about the year 1760. Samuel was the 
fifth of nine children. His elder brothers and sisters were bom in Scotland, 
the younger in Maine. He was a kinsman of Cilley, a member of Congress 
from Maine, who was killed near Washington in the celebrated duel with 
Graves, of Kentucky, and a nephew of Gen. Joseph Cilley, a distinguished 
officer of the Revolution, conspicuous for his bravery as colonel of the ist 
New Hampshire regiment at the battles of Bemis Heights and at Monmouth. 
[See Am. Hist. Records, vol. 3, p. 228; and Quackenbos' Hist. U. S., p. 247.] 
Mr. Sinclear went with the American army as an assistant to his uncle, Col. 
Cilley, and served as such one year. June 20, 1777, being then barely 
fifteen years of age, he enlisted in Capt. Amos Morrill's company of Col. 
Cilley's regiment, in Gen. Enoch Poor's brigade, and served for three years. 
He was at Monmouth and other battles, and suffered with the American 
army at Valley Forge. He served in Gen. Sullivan's campaign against the 
Indians upon the frontiers of Pennsylvania and New York, in 1779. At the 
expiration of his term of enlistment, he received an honorable discharge, 
being then but eighteen years of age. After the close of the war he erected 
a saw-mill on the Kennebec river, and engaged in getting out ship timber. 
In 1788, he removed to the state of New York, and resided successively at 
Utica and Cherry Valley, and in 1796 became one of the first settlers in the 
town of Eaton, Madison Co. He afterwards became the pioneer of the 
central part of Chautauqua county, and the founder of the village of Sinclair- 
ville. He brought with him $6,000 or $7,000, a large sum for that day, 


which he expended in purchasing lands, building mills, and making other im- 
provements there. He was elected the first supervisor of Gerry, then com- 
prising the present towns of Charlotte, Gerry, Cherry Creek, and Ellington, 
and continued its supervisor for six years. He was a strong, resolute man, 
of a commanding presence. His familiarity with frontier life; his integrity 
and good judgment, made him a leading and influential citizen, and enabled 
him to contribute much to the settlement in this part of the county. He 
drew hither many early settlers, assisted them in selecting locations, in erect- 
ing their log cabins, and starting them in their wilderness homes. He was 
a Revolutionary pensioner. He died at Sinclairville, February 8, 1827. No 
likeness has been preserved of him, and only one of his wife Fanny. 

Mr. Sinclear was twice married. February 8, 1785, he married at Vassal- 
borough, Maine, Sally Perkins, who was bom May 19, 1768, and died May 
14, 1804. Their children were : r. Molly, born 1786, married Elijah Has- 
well, and is deceased. 2. John, bom 1788, and died at Sinclairville in 1864. 
3. Solomon, born 1789, and is deceased. 4. Sally, bom 1791; died 1792. 
5. Sophy, bom in 1793; died in 1866. 6. Samuel, bom in 1794; deceased. 
7. Sally, born in 1796; married Wm. Barras. 8. Richard, born in 1799 ; 
deceased. 9. Saviuel, hoxr\.m 1801; died in Gerry, Oct. 2, 1848. Samuel 
Sinclair, Jr., was many years the publisher of the New York Tribune. 
10. Agnes, bom in 1803, is deceased. March 14, 1805, Major Sinclear 
married Fanny, the widow of Obed Edson, at Eaton. She was bom April 
7, 1777, in Colchester, Conn., and was one of twenty-one children. Her 
father, Elisha Bigelow, was of Puritan descent, and a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion. He removed, in 1793, firom Connecticut to Springfield, Otsego Co., 
N. Y., where he purchased land of Judge Cooper, father of J. Fenimore 
Cooper, where he resided until his death. Her mother, Thankful Bigelow, 
died at Sinclairville in 1839, aged 97 years. Fanny married Obed Edson in 
Otsego Co., and died at Sinclaii-ville January r2, 1852. Her husband, Obed 
Edson, died in 1804. 

The children of Fanny and Obed Edson were: i. Obed, bom in 1796, 
at Richfield, Otsego Co., and came to Sinclairville in 1810. He was a mem- 
ber of the legislature of Penn. ; a canal receiver at Johnston, Penn. ; a judge 
in Warren Co., Penn., and also in Pulaski Co., 111., where he now resides. 
2. John Milton, of Sinclairville. [See sketch, p. 258.] 3. Fanny Aurora, 
bom in Eaton, 1803; married Horace Potter, and resides at Kankakee, 111. 

The children of Fanny and Samuel Sinclear were: i. Nancy, bom in 
Madison Co. in 1806, died in 1855. Her husband. Worthy Putnam, resides 
at Berrien Springs, Mich. 2. David, bom in Madison Co. in 1807; now 
resides at Sinclairville. 3. Joseph, bom in Madison Co. in 1809; died of 
cholera in 1852, at Fort Wayne, Ind., where he resided. He had been clerk 
of Allen Co. ; a member of the Indiana state senate ; and an agent of the U. S. 
Government to remove the Indians west of the Mississippi river. 4. George, 
bom at Sinclairville July 4, 181 r ; now resides in Gerry. 5. Orlinda, bom 
in 1 81 3; married Charles Parker; died at Mayville m 1846. Her son 


David was the late marshal of Virginia. 6. Virtue, bom in 1816; married 
Chester Cole, and resides in Hillsdale Co., Mich. 7. lliratn, born in 181 7; 
died 1818. 

Abraham Winsor was bom in Providence, R. I., Jan. 16, 1778, and was 
married in 1802, to Sophia Bigelow, bom in Conn., Aug. i, 1783. He 
appears on the Land Company's book as the original purchaser of the west 
part of lot 33, tp. 4, r. 11, [now Charlotte,] in June, 1816. In a sketch of 
the family, prepared by his son, Samuel B., he is said to have come to the 
county in August, 18 10, and settled at Sinclairville, where his purchase was 
made in June, 1816. That he was here prior to th6 latter date is evident 
from the facts, that he held a commission, as lieut., under Lieut. Col. John 
McMahan, as early as Feb., 181 2 ; and that he served in the war of 181 2 ; 
being enrolled with the Chautauqua county militia. He was commissioned 
as captain, April 6, 1815, and, in 1819, as brigade quarter-master under 
Brigadier-Gen. John McMahan. Abraham Winsor had 7 children, besides 
two who died in infancy; i. John W., married Clarinda, daughter of Heman 
Bush. 2. Samuel B., who was married to Anna Sears. 3. Phebe, wife of 

Woodley W. Chandler. 4. Abram, married to Marinda . 5. Thankful, 

wife of Stephen Patch. 6. Anson P., who married Emeline Bowers. 7. Al- 
onzo, who died in California. 


Prior to the organization of any religious society in Charlotte, it was visited 
by early missionaries. The first meeting was held by Rev. John Spencer, 
Oct. 22, 181 1, in the first log house built by Major Sinclear. He and Elder 
Turner, a Baptist, often delivered a regular discourse to a single family. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church was the first religious society in the town. 
It had its origin, about the year 181 2, in a class organized at Charlotte Cen- 
ter, and consisted of Judge Joel Burnell and seven others. William Brown 
was their first minister. In 1851, they erected a house of worship at Sin- 
clairville, where the church now numbers fifty members. The society erected, 
the same year, at Charlotte Center, another church edifice. Rev. H. H. 
Moore is the present pastor of these societies. 

The First Baptist Church of Sinclairville was organized June. 2, 1826, by 
Rev. Jonathan Wilson, its first pastor. John McAlister and eleven others 
were its constituent members. In 1834, at a cost of $2,000, they erected 
the first church edifice built in the towiL Rev. Mr. Morley is now its pastor. 

The First Congregational Church of Sinclairville was formed July 22, 1831, 
by Rev. Isaac Jones, of Mayville ; Rev. Timothy Stillman, of Dunkirk ; and 
Rev. Obadiah C. Beardsley, of Charlotte, on the Presbyterian plan. It 
consisted, at first, of 23 persons. April 30, 1842, it was changed from the 
Presbyterian form, and organized as a Congregational Church, letters being 
granted as the basis of the new organization to thirteen members. Septem- 
ber 25, 1845, a house of worship which had that year been erected, was 
publicly dedicated. Rev. Charles W. Carpenter was the first pastor. 


The First Universalist Society of Charlotte was organized August 26, 1850. 
Rev. Wm. W. King was its first pastor. A house of worship was erected at 
Charlotte Center in 1851. 

The First Universalist Society of Sinclaitvilk was organized February 13, 
1859 ; and a house of worship was erected at Sinclairville. Rev. Isaac 
George was its pastor. 

St. Paul's Church of the Cross (Catholic) of Sinclairville was organized in 
1 87 1. Their house of worship is the church edifice erected by the Univer- 
salist Society in Sinclairville, which was purchased in 1871. It is now under 
the pastoral care of Rev. Father Alfrancis. 


Sylvan Lodge of Freemasons of Sinclairville was chartered about the year 
1824. Samuel Sinclear was its first master. James Scofield, the grandfather 
of Major-Gen. John M. Scofield, and Richard Stockton, were also masters. 
Its first charter was given up after the anti-masonic excitement commenced. 
It was rechartered June ri, 1853 ; and John M. Edson was its first master 
under the new charter. Caleb J. Allen, Oscar Hale, W. W. Henderson, 
Obed Edson, A. D. Tompkins, W. D. Forbush, A. P. Brunson, and John 
H. Glark, were subsequent masters. 

The Odd Fellows held regular meetings of their lodge during several years. 
Elias S. Hedges was their first noble grand. 

Sinclairville Division., No. 617, of the Sons of Temperance, was instituted 
July 2, 1850, and continued to hold its meetings for several years. 


Chautauqua was formed from the town of Batavia, April 11, 1804, and 
embraced all the territory now included within the limits of Chautauqua 
county, excepting the loth range of townships, which was added in the for- 
mation of the county. Pomfret was taken off in 1808; [see Pomfi"et;] 
Portland in 1813 ; Harmony in 1816 ; Clymer, Ellery and Stockton in 1821. 
The town is irregular in form, and is partially divided by the lake. Its north- 
em boundary runs nearly north-east and south-west, being about parallel 
with the shore of Lake Erie, at a distance fi-om the Lake of about 5 miles. 
It comprises nearly all the land in tp. 3, and the whole of tp. 4, in range 13; 
and more than half of tp. 3, and a small portion of tp. 4, in range 14. A 
small portion of tp. 3, in range 13, forms a part of Ellery, and one tier of 
lots from tp. 4 has been annexed to Stockton. The town contains 41,147 
acres of land. The surface is elevated and moderately hilly, occupying the 
watershed between the waters of Chautauqua lake and Lake Erie. Its prin- 
cipal streams are the inlet at the head of the lake ; another flowing into the 


lake near Dewittville, on the east side; Prendergasfs creek, which enters the 
lake from the west near the south-east comer of the town ; and Chautauqua 
creek, which forms about three-fourths of the west boundary of the town. 

Original Purchases in the Town of Chautauqua. — Township j. Range ij — 

West of the Lake. 

1805. August, Jonathan Smith, 29. 

1806. January, William Peacock, 29. In March, a large tract was taken 
up by James Prendergast for his father, Wm. Prendergast, and his sons and 
daughters, who settled on it the same year. [Lands elsewhere described.] 
March, James Brown, 34. April, Paulus Pardee, 34. July, Henry Mott, 33. 

1808. February, John Daggett, 34. April, Abraham Tupper, 28. 

1809. September, Matthew Prendergast, 22. Susanna Whiteside, 22, 
24. November, John J. Prendergast, 21, 23. Dec, Anselm Potter, 45. 

181 1. November, Caleb Baker, 33. James Baker, 33. 

1815. April, Henry Smith, 39. Samuel Porter, 42. September, Wm. 
Prendergast, 26, 27, 31, 32. 

1816. February, Martin Prendergast, 30. June, Benj. D. Lyon. 
1818. July, Reuben D. Mallory, 33. William Hunt, 33. 
1820. May, Elisha W. Young, 45. 

1822. May, Samuel B. Wing. December, William S. Wing, 35. 

1823. July, Charles Hill, 45. 

1824. October, Ebenezer Kimball, 42. 

Township j. Range ij — East of the Lake. 

1805. June, Filer Sacket. September, Peter Bamhart, 18. 

1806. May, Miles Scofield, 11. 

1808. August, Thomas Smith, 19. 

i8og. June, Walter G. Young, 16. Thomas Smith, 16. October, Jona- 
than Freeman, 8. Philo Hopson, 8. 
1814. September, Anson Leet, 17. 

Township 4, Range ij — North Part of the Town. 

1809. October, Philo Hopson, 27, 33. Lawton Richmond, 10, 19. 
November, Wm. Dexter, 20. Darius Dexter, 20. John W. Winsor, 20. 

1 8 10. April, Orrin Miles, 9. Rand Miles, 9. John West, 29. 

181 1. June, Albigence Robinson, 3. August, Thomas Smith, 4. Octo- 
ber, David Waterbury, i. 

1816. April, William T. Howell, 41. 

1 817. June, Nahum Parkhurst, 11. July, Fenn Deming, 37. December, 
Zaccheus Hanchett, 28. 

1825. January, Chauncey Burtch, 45. David P. Darrow, i8. June, 
Norman Green, 50. 

1829. September, Elkanah P. Stedman, 43. October, Allen Hurlbut, 23. 

The west part of the town lying in township 3, range 14, was mostly set- 
tled much later than other parts of the town. Only a small portion was 
taken up before the year 1821. The following is a .partial list of original 
and subsequent purchasers : 

Township j, Ra?ige 14. — West of the Lake. 

1810. March, Artemas Hearick, 6. April, Anselm Potter, 16. 

18 18. December, Jacob Houghton, 7. 


1822. July, James B. Lowry, 22. November, Azariah Bickford, 29. 

1824. July, Joseph Davis, 23. September, Dennis Hart, 17. Ava 
Hart, 17. Wra. Bumell, 18. October, Palta Sweatland, 3. November, 
John Tanner, Jr., 2. 

1825. March, William Bishop, 26. April, John Jeffords, 12. October, 
Isaac J. Whitney, 2. 

1826. February, Joseph Stoddard, 19. Samuel Bullock, 18. March, 
Joseph Wilmarth, 14. June, Daniel Hungerford, 10. July, Eri Picket, 28. 
Aug., Benjamin Payne, 21. Sept, Asa Parks, 34. Oct., Henry Withe, 12. 

1827. March, Jabez B. Burrows, 22. Jonathan Ballard, 22. Philo B. 
Hall, 21. July, Zaccheus Hanchett and oth€;rs, 3. Samuel Northway and 
others, 3. December, Anson Rowley, 19. 

1828. July, Gideon Palmer, 34. September, Richard M. Harrison, 23. 
1 83 1. May, Elisha W. Young and Thomas R. Treat, 38. 

The first purchase of land in the present town of Chautauqua, entered on 
the sales book of the Holland Land Company, was by Dr. Alexander Mc- 
Intyre, who settled at the head of the lake. In August, 1805, Jonathan 
Smith bought a part of lot 29, adjoining the lake, west side, and at an early 
day took a deed of the same. He was never married, and kept "bachelor's 
hall " during the remainder of his life. His character was marked by many 
rare eccentricities. He died on the land on which he first settled. In 1806, 
a large tract was purchased by the Prendergast family, on the west side of 
the lake, as stated elsewhere, a large portion of which has since passed to 
later settlers. 

The following sketch of the removal of Wm. Prendergast and his family 
from the East, and of their settlement in this county, is taken chiefly from 
the notes of Judge Foote and from oral statements of members of the 
family : 

The father, four of his sons, Thomas, James, Jediah, and William, and 
all of the five daughters, the sons-in-law, and grandchildren — in all, 29 per- 
sons, including Tom, a slave — started from Pittstown, N. Y., in the spring 
of 1805, for Tennessee. They had four canvas-covered wagons, the first two 
drawn by four horses each, the second two by three horses each, and in the 
rear was a two-horse barouche, for the older ladies. Never before had old 
Renssalaer beheld a more imposing emigrant train, nor one in whom she had 
a deeper interest. They were all people of moral worth and integrity, and 
as the train moved along amid the familiar scenes of passing years, it was 
constantly greeted with the heartfelt good-by — only properly understood by 
those who say adieu to friends for the last time. Journeying through Eastern 
Pennsylvania to Wheeling, now West Virginia, (some say to Pittsburgh, Pa.,) 
they there purchased a flat boat, and put their effects on board, and floated 
down to the falls of Ohio, [Louisville, Ky. ;] and thence, with their teams to 
Duck river, or creek, near Nashville, Tennessee, their intended location. 
James and Jediah had been there before. On their arrival there, they were 
much dissatisfied with the country. Everything was strange. The dialect 
of the people was a jargon highly tainted with the native tongue of the 
African slave. The roads were mostly mere bridle paths, and frequently 


interrupted by the gates of the planters. Their houses and the huts of the 
slaves were built without reference to the highways, but usually on some 
small stream or near a spring of water. More than all these, the school- 
house, the pride of the North, was seldom or never seen in the country; and, 
with few exceptions, ignorance seemed the everlasting heritage of the people. 
Under these circumstances, it was wisdom to pause and consider. Slavery 
was extremely hateful to the entire company. These parents could never 
consent to rear their families amid the darkness of ignorance and slavery. 

The family, before starting, had pledged themselves to settle together; but 
a majority declared they -would not settle there, but would return to the 
North. Bemus, William, and some others, declared they would go back, 
even if the rest remained. All finally turned back in their wagons, through 
Kentucky, Ohio, and Western Pennsylvania, and arrived at Erie about the 
last of September, 1805. Here they resolved to settle in Chautauqua. Wm. 
Prendergast, Sr., had from the first desired to emigrate to Canada ; but his 
sons were unwilling, choosing to remain in the States. Bemus and Thomas 
Prendergast had, in 1804, been about Chautauqua lake, and were pleased 
with the country; but Jediah had urged the family to go to Tennessee. 

There being but few settlers in Chautauqua, and a lack of provisions, the 
company went to Canada to winter, except Bemus and Thomas Prendergast, 
who remained. Thomas bought of Josiah Famsworth, the land on which he 
lived until his death, and lately occupied and still owned by the heirs of 
his son, Stephen Prendergast, in Ripley. Wm. Bemus located on the east 
side of Chautauqua lake, but lived, during the winter, in a log house near 
Arthur Bell's, now in the town of Westfield. In March, 1806, James and 
William, Jr., returned from Canada, through Batavia, where they contracted, 
at the land-office, for a tract of land, for the family, on the west side of the 
lake, erected a log house, and made other preparations for the family, who 
returned in June, except Jediah, who, being a physician, remained and prac- 
ticed his profession for several years, and returned to Chautauqua. James 
and William, both unmarried, lived with their father until fall, when James, 
not disposed to remain here, returned to Pittstown. Their money, of which, 
they had a considerable amount, was in specie. They were what was in 
those days considered wealthy. 

The father was about 78 years of age when they left Pittstown, in 1805, 
but was yet hale and healthy. He was a man of energy and perseverance, 
and determined to keep his family together by emigration, as all would not 
stay in Pittstown. "I had often," says Judge Foote, "heard Judge James 
Prendergast speak of the tour here described; and in July, 1857, 1 called on 
Col. William, the only surviving son, who related the journey to me ; and I 
make this statement from the notes I took from his own lips : and it is 
believed to be substantially correct. They were a clannish family, of similar 
habits-r-industrious, frugal, plain livers, honest, and apparently agreed in 
almost everything, and prosperous. Their society was, of choice, much 
among themselves." 


When the family went to the South, Wm. Prendergast took with him a 
pair of very fine horses and a handsome carriage, for which he was offered a 
plantation of a thousand acres, but which he refused. He drove the horses 
and carriage back from the South to Chautauqua. This was the first carriage 
ever brought to this county, and probably the first in Western New York. 
Probably no other early settler brought into the county a larger amount of 
money. It was specie, and put up in boxes, which were in the bottom of a, 
wagon. One day, whether on the way South, or on their return northward, 
we are not informed, one man of the party, while walking leisurely behind 
the train, luckily found, every few rods, a number of silver dollars, and called 
the attention of the company to his good luck. It was soon discovered, that 
one of the boxes containing their money had started its fastenings sufficiently 
to allow the escape of a dollar or two nearly every time the wagon careened 
at the obstructions in the road. 

The lands bought by the Prendergast families comprised most of those 
lying east of the two west tiers of lots of the township to the lake ; and 
from the south line of the township, [3, range 13,] north to within 2 miles of 
Mayville. From a plat of the township made from the Holland Land Com- 
pany's surveys, the lands owned by them respectively were as follows : Wm. 
Prendergast, Sr., parts of lots 26, 27 and 3r — 433 acres. The sons and 
daughters : John J., [who never resided in this county,] lots 21 and 23 — 615 
acres. Matthew, part of lot 22 — 270 acres. Martin, part of lot 30 — 220 
acres. Elizabeth, part of lot 31 — 200 acres. Susanna, widow of Oliver 
Whiteside, parts of lots 24 and 32 — 360 acres. Jediah, parts of lots 34 and 
39 — 350 acres. William, Jr., owned and lived on the homestead of his 
father, after his father's death. These lands amount, in the aggregate, to 
3,110^ acres. Besides these, there is set to Wm. Prendergast, 2d, son of 
Matthew, part of lot 25 — 227 acres, now owned by his son Martin. 

In the south-east part of the town, in township 3, r. 13, Richard Whitney 
was an early settler on lot 21, adjoining Harmony line and the lake, where 
he died. He had 3 sons, Henry, Thomas, and Richard, who resides on the 
old farm. Alonzo, son of Thomas, and Alexander H., son of Henry, reside 
on the same lot. Norman H., son of Thomas, resides at Mayville. Thomas 
was several years a justice of the peace. Richard had 6 sons : Clark, de- 
ceased ; George, a physician at Jamestown ; Andrew, deceased ; William, 
captain of the steamboat Col. Phillips ; Thomas, a physician at Frewsburgh. 

Wm. Prendergast, son of Matthew, practiced medicine in Mayville and 
Jamestown a number of years, and settled on lot 25, where his son Martin 
resides. Jared Irwin settled on lot 25, the farm now owned by John, son of 
Martin Prendergast. His sons, Edwin, George, and Matthew P., reside in 

Ichabod Wing settled about 1822 on lot 36, with a number of sons, of 
whom Wm. S. subs^uently settled on the same lot, and Samuel B. on lot 
35. Samuel and Ichabod, Jr., reside in the town. William Hunt settled in 
1816 on lot 29. [See sketch.] David Morris settled on lot 38, where he 


died. His sons were : John B., in Ripley ; Lorenzo, a lawyer in Fredonia ; 
Thomas and Edwin, deceased ; and Phineas J. Samuel Porter, on lot 42, 
bought in 1815, where he resided until his death. A daughter married 
Robert P. Hewes, and resides on the homestead. Ephraim Hammond set- 
tled early on lot 44 ; removed to Mayville, where he died. A son, Thomas, 
is of the firm of Warren & Hammond, proprietors of the Chautauqua Lake 
Mills. Robert Lawson settled lately on lot 42. He has two sons : Sidney 
R., dealer in boots and shoes, in Mayville, and the present supervisor of the 
town ; and Joseph, on the farm. 

In the south part of tp. 4, r. 14, on the west side of the lake, Alfred Pad- 
dock was an early settler on lot i, tp. 4 ; the land now owned by his sons 
Erie and Charles, and Ezra Smith. Daniel Adams settled on lot 2, where he 
now resides. Robert Donaldson, on lot 3, r. 14 ; has two sons living with 
him. Palta Sweatland also settled on lot 3 ; the land now owned by Jonas 
A. Lathrop, Horace Sweatland, and Robert Donaldson. Dennis Hart and 
Ava Hart, from Conn., settled on lot 17, on the south line of the town, where 
they still reside. 

Samuel Hustis settled on lot 25, adjoining the south line, where he now 
resides. William Fowler settled on lot 35, adjoining the line of Westfield. 
His widow and son reside on the farm. 

In the south-west part of the town, Jacob Putnam, from Pawlet, Vt, about 
1832, settled on Chautauqua creek, lot 36. He had a large family. Of his 
sons, five came : Jacob, deceased ; Ransom, who died in the late war ; Amos 
and John, residing in Chautauqua, the latter a builder in Mayville ; and 
George W., who settled on the west side of the creek, in Westfield. Two of 
his daughters have been successively married to Caleb Benson, on lot 44, in 
Westfield, tp. 3, r. 14; the latter wife still living. 

In the north part of this township, Joseph Davis settled on lot 23. He 
had several sons, one of whom, Sanford Williams Davis, owns a part of the 

East side of the lake, in tp. 3, r. 13, Peter Bamhart settled on lot 18, which 
he bought in 1805. His sons Jonathan, Peter, and Henry, also settled in 
the town. Peter, Jr.'s sons, William and Hiram, live at Hartfield; and 
Henry W., another son, is in Michigan. Peter, Jr., had daughters, Elizan 
and Malvina, both deceased. The father married, in 1813, Amy Waterbury, 
the mother of these children, who died in 1824. After her death, he married 
Sally Herrick, whose children are : Mary, Jackson, Royal, Maria, Warren, 
Eliza, Arthur, and Alson ; nearly all of them living in Iowa. Mr. Bamhart 
has lived with his present wife 51 years, and is now 87 years of age. 

Nathan Cheney and his brother Daniel came to Chautauqua Co., with 
their father, in 1807, and after a residence elsewhere in the county, they set- 
tled on lot 13, tp. 3, r. 13. Daniel died there a few years ago. Nathan still 
resides on his part of the land. [See family of Jonathan Cheney in History 
of Harmony.] • 

Darius Scofield settled early at Dewittville, where he resided until his 


death. His sons were : Seeley and Darius, both of whom have been justices 
of the peace; Gleni W., of Warren, Pa.; is a lawyer, and has been for 
several terms a representative in Congress ; Benjamin F., editor and post- 
master at Painesville, O.; Timothy Bryant, a lawyer, and is connected with 
railroad business. 

John Mason came to Chautauqua early, and finally settled at Dewittville, 
on the lot originally bought by Filer Sackett, in 1805, where he now resides. 
He married Maria, daughter of Capt. Anson Leet. Their children are : 
Arion, unmarried, with his father ; George, at Waterloo, la. ; Julia Ann, wife 
of Simeon Brownell, EUery ;. and John, married, also with his father. 

In the south-east part of township 4, range 13, John Miles, about i8ro, 
with a large family, settled on lot 9, near the east line of the town. His 
sons were : Rand, Orrin, Corey, Daniel, and Ammi, all of whom settled in 
the neighborhood; only Daniel and Ammi are living, and reside in the town. 
Arnon, another son, was killed by a log rolling over him. John, son of 
Ammi, owns the homestead of his grandfather. 

Philo Hopson, from Herkimer Co., settled about a mile north of Hart- 
field, on land bought in 1809. His sons, Lyman, Linus, and Stephen, 
settled and died in the township; Harry and Philo removed to the south 
with their father. Philo, Sr., and Wm. Bateman early built a saw-mill at 
Hartfield. Zaccheus Hanchett settled on lot 28. His son Ambrose lives 
near Hartfield. Dexter Barnes, a noted axe-maker, settled early in Stockton ; 
afteiVards removed to Hartfield, where he died. He had 3 sons : Hiram 
and Perry, who reside in Mayville; and Loman, not living. 

Darius Dexter, from Herkimer Co., came to this county in the spring of 
1808, and took the job of Mr. EUicott, to cut and clear out a mile and a half 
of the road from the head of Chautauqua lake through the village of Mayville 
towards Westfield. He cut 6 rods wide and cleared 3' rods; and also cleared 
oflf the Public Square. He returned to the East in the fall, and came back 
the next spring, with a wife ; and, in the fall, purchased a part of lot 20, 
tp. 4, r. 13, in the town of Chautauqua, about 4 miles north-east from May- 
ville; other parts of the lot being taken by Wm. Dexter and John W. Winsor, 
at the same time. Mr. Dexter served in the war of 181 2, under Capt. John 
Silsby; and since the war attained the office of colonel. He removed to 
Perry, Pike Co., 111. 

The brothers of Darius Dexter were : John, William, Daniel, Winsor, 
Otis, Samuel, George, and Stephen. All, it is believed, came to the county 
with Darius in 1809, and within a few years after, Samuel articled lot 17, 
tp. 4, r. 13, Sept., 1809. John and Darius each "booked" a village lot in 
Mayville ; but it does not appear that they were paid for. John was an early 
clerk of the county, which office he held, at different times, for 13 years. He 
and Darius had a store and ashery at. Dewittville. They removed about 
1830, to the east part of Jamestown, and built mills; the place taking the 
name of Dexterville. John removed to Wisconsin; Darius to Illinois. He 
served in the war of 18 12, and was at the battle of Black Rock. 


Jonathan Thompson came from Saratoga Co. to Mayville in 1810, and 
was appointed, in 181 1, as one of the first associate judges of the county. 
He removed, in 18 14, to the state of Pennsylvania, near the New York state 
line, having bought John Meddock's farm, adjoining that of John Russell. 
He died there of consumption, leaving a widow and a large family of children. 
The widow was living in 1864; but nearly all of the children had died of the 
same disease as that of their father. 

The first town-meeting in Chautauqua was held at the Cross Roads, [now 
Westfield,] April 2, 1805. The following are the names of officers elected : 

Supervisor — John McMahan. Town Clerk — James Montgomery. Asses- 
sors — James McMahan, Benj. Barrett, Wm. Alexander. Com'rs of High- 
ways — Thomas McClintock, James Dunn, Arthur Bell. Co7istable — ^John 
Lyon. Fence Viewer — James Perry. Overseers of Poor — ^Zattu Gushing, 
Abraham Frederick. Foundmaster — David Kinkaid. Overseers of High- 
ways — Orsamus Holmes, Peter Kane, Samuel Harrison. 

The proceedings of the town-meeting in 1805, were rendered of no effect 
by a mistake in the name of the town ; and the appointment of officers de- 
volved upon three justices of the peace, who appointed the same persons to 
the offices to which they had been elected, except Zattu Gushing, in whose 
place Orsamus Holmes was appointed. Mr. Gushing was appointed as an 
additional fence viewer. The mistake was in the spelling of the name of 
the town, " Chataughque." A justice who resided beyond Buffalo came and 
administered the oaths of office to the first town officers. Justices of the 
peace were then appointed by a council of appointment, composed of a 
senator from each of the four senate districts, and the governor. 

In 1806, the town-meeting was held at Ganadaway, [now Fredonia.] The 
following are the names of the persons elected : 

Supervisor — John McMahan. Town Clerk — James Montgomery. Asses- 
sors — William Alexander, John S. Bellows, Thomas Prendergast. Com'rs of 
Highways — James Dunn, Abraham Frederick, Thomas McClintock. Collec- 
tor — John Lyon. Constables — Abner Holmes, Andrew Spear. Found- 
masters — Thomas McClintock, Abraham Frederick. Fence Viewers — David 
Eason, George Whitehill, Basil Burgess. 

Voted, that two pounds be erected, 24 feet square, 7 feet high ; fence 
viewers to have the same compensation as constable, 6 pence for each mile, 
and one shilling for each view ; a lawful fence to be made of good materials, 
4j^ feet high, and for the height of 2 feet to be only 4 inches between rails 
or logs. 

In 18 14, was the first election of school officers under the act establishing 
a scfiool system. John E. Marshall and Henry P. Sartwell were elected in- 
spectors of common schools. It was voted to raise in the town double the 
amount received fi-om the state fund. 

In August following, the town of Chautauqua was divided into school 
districts, by Abijah Bennett, Anselm Potter, and Reuben Slayton, com- 


We find on the record the following " Certificate of Freedom :" 

"Chautauqua, April 28, 18 14. To whom it may concern: This may 
certify that Wm. Harris, of the county and town above mentioned, aged . 47 
years, about 5 ft. 7 in. high, of a black complexion, bom of free parents in 
the state of Rhode Island, town of Scituate, hath made before me such 
proof of his fi-eedom, that I am fully convinced of his fireedom, as to the 
pretense of any person to the contrary notwithstanding. 

" Given under my hand, Matthew Prendergast, 

" One of the judges of the court of common pleas of said county. 

" Recorded April 29,1814. J. Dexter, town clerk." 

Supervisors from 180J to 18'/^. 
John McMahan, 1805-6-7. Arthur Bell, 1808. Thomas Prendergast, 
1809, '14. Matthew Prendergast, 1810, '11. Samuel Ayres, 1812. John 
Scott, 1813. John E. Marshall, 1814. Martin Prendergast, 181 5, 16, 1819 
to 1833 — 17 years, [probably r8 years, the records of 1818 being missing.] 
John Dexter, 1817. Jabez B. Burrows, 1834 to '36—3 years. Wm. Pren- 
dergast, 1837 to '39. Alva Cottrell, 1840, '41, '46. Dexter Barnes, 1842. 
Cyrus Underwood, 1843, '44. Wm. Green, 1845. Willard W. Crafts, 1847, 
'48, '53. Martin Prendergast, son of Dr. William Prendergast, 1849, and 
1861 to '64. Stephen W. Hunt, 1850, '51. Hiram A. Pratt, 1852. David 
Woods, 1854, '55. John Birdsall, 1856, '57. Wm. Gifford, 1858, '59. 
Milton G. Freeman, i860. Daniel H. Hughes, 1865. Wm. P. Whiteside, 
1866. Matthew P. Bemus, 1867 to '72 — 5 years. John Birdsall, 1873, '74. 
Sidney R. Lawson, 1875. 

Biographical and Genealogical. 

Matthew P. Bemus, a son of Charles Bemus, was bom in Ellery, Jan. 
4, 1818. He came to Mayville in 1831, and served as clerk for Morris 
Birdsall in the mercantile business. In connection with Robertson White- 
side, he bought out the interest of Birdsall in the business ; and afterwards 
sold out his interest to Whiteside. At the age of 22, he was appointed, by 
the board of supervisors, county treasurer, and held the office by reappoint- 
ment 7 years. In 1845, he was elected county clerk, in which office he 
served from Jan, i, 1847, for the term of three years. For five successive 
years, 1868 to 1872, he was member of assembly. About the year 1852, 
he and Wm. P. Whiteside built the Chautauqua Mills, now the property of 
Warren & Hamnjpnd. He took an active part in obtaining the grant for the 
Qross Cut Railroad, and held at different times the offices of treasurer and 
president of the company. He also built, and for a time kept, the Chau- 
taaqua House. He was married to Elizabeth M. Walter, who wa%bom 
April 9, 1822. They have three children : Robertson W., who Hferied 
Mary Parkhurst ; Helen, wife of Dr. Reynolds Curtis ; Francis R., wife of 
Silas W. Bond. All reside in Mayville. 

John Birdsall, son of Morris Birdsall, was bom in Chenango Co., 
N. Y. He studied law with his uncle, James Birdsall, at Norwich, and was, at 
a very early age, admitted to practice. In 1826, then residing at Lockport, 





he was appointed by Gov. De Witt Clinton circuit judge of the eighth dis- 
trict. A year or two after, he was married to Ann Whiteside, and became a 
resident of Mayville. In 1831, he represented this county in the assembly. 
He represented this district in the senate in 1832 and 1833 j ^^'^ i*i 1834 he 
resigned the office. His wife died in 1833 ; and in 1836 he was married to 
Sarah Peacock. In 1837, he went to Texas, and was appointed chief justice 
of that republic, by its president, Sam Houston, by whom also he was ap- 
pointed attorney-general of the state, which position he occupied at the time 
of his death, in 1839. His son John, now residing at Mayville, was bom 
August 21, 1828 ; married, in 1855, Emeline P. Cottrell, and had 2 children, 
William P. and Francis A. He married for his second wife, in i860, Sarah 
M. Cottrell, and had, by her, 2 children, Anna W. and John C. 

Jesse Brooks, from Windham Co., Conn., first to Albany, N. Y., and 
thence to Madison Co., removed to Mayville, in 1824, and commenced the 
mercantile business, in which he was engaged for several years. He was for 
20 years a justice of the peace, and succeeded Jedediah Tracy as postmaster, 
which ofRce he held, at different times, 20 years. His sons were : Asahel 
Lyon, in 111.; Walter RoUin, residence, writer not informed ; Charles, in Can- 
ada ; Ogden, in Wis.; and Merrett, in Bufialo. He has 2 daughters living • 
Adalaide, wife of Morse Smith, lawyer, Danbury, Conn. ; and Emeline, wife 
of Daniel Gamsey, Muskegon, Mich. 

William Gifford, from Washington Co., settled in the south part of 
EUery, in 1825, where he was engaged for a few years in farming and in 
the lumbering business, and then removed to Busti. ■ A few years after, in 
1833, he was appointed keeper of the poor-house, in which office he 
continued 8 years; and in 1841 he removed to Mayville, where he now re- 
sides. His sons are : Edson, who married, first, Martha Wing ; second, 
Lydia Whipple ; third, [name not furnished.] He resides in Illinois. Horace, 
who married Rhoda A. Stearns, and is the owner of the Gifford House, and 
a partner in the cane-seat manufacturing business, in Jamestown ; George W., 
who married C. Maria Farwell, and is a banker, in Mayville; Joseph C, who 
married Rachel R. Messenger, and is a dentist, in Westfield ; and James, 
who married Ann M. Preston, and died at Waterford, Erie Co., Pa. 

William Green, a native of Springfield, Otsego Co., came in 1824, to 
Mayville, where he still resides. He was for many years a clerk in the land- 
office in this place, and had previously served in that capacity in the land- 
offices in Batavia and EUicottville. He was subsequently admitted to the 
practice of law, and has been a justice of the peace continuously to the 
present time, during a period of 25 years. He had 8 sons, of whom 5 are 
living. Franklin and George reside in town; Jefferson, in California; Otto, 
in Washington ; and Anson W-, in North-east, Pa. , A daughter, Mary 
Louisa, is the wife of Dr. Wm. Chase. 

Omar Farwell, son of Samuel Farwell, was bom in 1799, at West- 
minster, Vt., and was married in 1827, to Fanny Shepard, and came to May- 
ville in 1828, bringing with him a stock of leather which he sold. He 


engaged in the tanning business, having rented a tannery of Adam Campbell, 
in which he continued the business for two or three years. He soon after 
erected a tannery for himself, and established a'store for the sale of its pro- 
ducts. He died October i, 1872. He had 4 children : r. C. Maria, wife 
of George Gifford, and resides at Mayville. 2. Frances C, who married 
ChSrles Underwood, and died in December, 1874. 3. Jf. Louise, who 
married Frank Green, and resides at Mayville. 4. Omar S., who married 
Lizzie Ferguson, and lives at Mayville. 

Oliver Hitchcock, from Washington Co., N. Y., came to Ripley in 
1 8 14. In 1 81 6 he settled on the west side of the lake, near Fair Point, and 
resided in the county until his death. He died in Ellicott in 1864. He 
was for many years a member of the Methodist church, maintaining through- 
out an exemplary Christian eharacter. He was married to Elvacinda Hunt, 
daughter of Wm. Hunt. Their children were : i. Eunicy, who died at 7. 
2. William, who married Maria Gosline ; resides in Ripley, and has 2 chil- 
dren, Clementine J. and George W. 3. Emery R., who died at 4, by falling 
into a cistern. 4. Corydon. [See History of Jamestown.] 

William T. Howell, a native of New Haven, Conn., came from Greene 
Co., N. Y., to Mayville in i8i6, and bought part of lot 41, tp, 4, r. 13, on 
which he settled, one mile north-east from Mayville, where he /esided till his 
death, Jan., 1872. His ancestors were among the first immigrants from 
England. They resided for a time on Long Island, but removed to Con- 
necticut, where Mr. Howell was bom, Feb. 11, 1788. He held the office of 
coroner in this county. He was several times elected county superintendent 
of the poor. [See Official Register.] He had 9 children, of whom 8 
reached mature age. They were : Austin T., Arietta, Ann C, Antoinette 
C., Angeline M., William T. A., James H., and Mary. All were married 
except Angeline. Of the three sons, Austin T. resides in Westfield ; Wil- 
liam and James, on the farm of their father. Of the daughters, Arietta, 
who was married and is deceased ; Ann, wife of Cyrus Underwood ; Antoi- 
nette, wife of John S. Bemus ; Mary, wife of James Griffith. The three 
daughters living reside in EUery. 

Willdvm Hunt, a native of Dutchess Co., remoVed from Washington Co. 
to Chautauqua, and settled on lot 29, tp. 3, contiguous to the lake, where he 
resided until he died in 1845, aged 77 years. His lands were those noM^ 
owned and occuued by his sons, Stephen W. and James M. He had 9 
ch^dren, all of wl^m attained mature age and had families, i. Elvacinda, 
who married Oliver Hitchcock, (^ee Sketch.] 2. Eunicy, wife of Walter 
C<snieU, both deceased. He had been a member of assembly from Washing- 
tog Co. She died at MayvUle, aged 80. 3. Cornelius, who married Maria 
Smith and had 5 children, of whom two only are living, Cornelius and Catha- 
rine, both in Michigan. 4. Samuel, who married Mary Prendergast, and 
difed in Ripley ; had 3 children, William, Maria, and Eliza ; both daughters 
' were successively the wives of Dr. Simeon Collins, of Ripley. William also 
died there. Eliza only is living. 5. Abigail, who married Anson Hunt, 


Z^^irX ecA.^ <^ CC^l^-^t^JU^^ 






and had a daughter — all deceased. 6. Elzaide, wife of John Scott, a Metho- 
dist preacher, who finally settled in Gerry, where both died. They had 5 
children, of whom three are living, and reside in Gerry. 7. Stephen IV., who 
married Martha Erwin ; their children are : Mary Jane, wife of Sidney R. 
Lawson, present supervisor of this town ; and William, married, and resides 
on the farm with his father. 8. Pamelia, who married Walter Loomis, of 
Ripley. 9. James M., who married Rhoda Ann Hewes, and has two chil- 
dren, J. Franklin and Antoinette, both at home, unmarried.' Mrs. Hunt died 
in October, 1872. Stephen W. and James M,#nd their families dwelt with 
their parents, in the same house ; and the sons continued together, enjoying 
the property in common untU 1872, when they -amicably divided the estate. 

Anson Leet, a native of Guilford, Conn., was born in 1777, and was a 
descendant of William Leet, the first governor of the Connecticut colony, 
commissioned by the king of England. The father of Anson Leet was 
killed in the Revolutionary war. Anson, after his marriage, removed to 
Herkimer Co.; thence to Stockton about 1810; and in 1814, he settled 
permanently on lot 17, tp. 3, r. 13, on the east side of and near the lake, 
where his son William resides, and where he resided till his death, June 25, 
1843. He was married in Conn., in 1799, to Abigail Dudley, who was 
born in 1780, and is stiU living at the age of 95. They had 1 1 children : i. 
Jonathan £>., who married Lucy Hanchett, and resides in Westfield. 2.. 
Simeon, who married Harriet Weed, and lives in EUery. 3. Timothy, who 
married Cynthia Kennedy, and died Dec., 1836 ; his widow lives at Dewitt- 
ville. 4. Lewis, who married Mary Thumb, and resides in Ellington. 5. 
Eliza, wife of Nehemiah Herrick, in Jamestown. 6. Caroline, wife of Wm. 
Vorce, of Westfield. 7. Maria, wife of John Mason, of Deysrittville. 8. 
Franklin, who married, first, Sally Sumner; second, Louisa Jones ; lives near 
the homestead, and has been for many years, and is at present, a justice of 
the peace. 9. William, who resides on the homestead of his father, where 
he was born June 24, 1818. He was married, first, to Eliza Strang, who had 
a son, Anson G., who lives in Portland ; married, second, Harriet Belden, 
who has 2 sons and 2 daughters. He was elected County treasurer, in 1859, 
and served the constitutional term of three years. 10. Mary, who married 
Henry W. Bamhart, Kalamazoo, Mich. 11. Julia Ann, who died in 

Morrow B. Lowry was born in Mayville, March 6, 1813. He was a 
son of Morrow Lowry, whose mother, with her two sons, emigrated to 
America from the north of Ireland, in 1787. At the age of three, the father 
of Morrow B. removed to near Meadville, Pa. Here, where the country was 
then new and educational advantages limited, the son received all the school 
instruction he ever enjoyed. After the death of his mother, he was put to a 
trade; but not liking it, he engaged as clerk for his cousin, Hugh W. Lowry, 
of North-east. A few years after, he went to Bufialo, where, through the 
kindness of Mr. Rathbun, he obtained employment. At the age of 19, aided 
by friends whose confidence he had gained, he returned to Crawford Co., 


Pa., with a very large stock of goods, and located at Powerstown, [now Con- 
neautville,] where he laid the foundation of a successful business. Mr. 
Lowry took a lively interest in political affairs. He represented his county 
in state conventions. In 1841, he was elected by the democratic party to 
the legislature; and was elected for a second term. He was active in the 
effort to settle the still disputed land claims of the early settlers, and in pass- 
ing a bill to abolish the Nicholson court; also in aiding to secure the com- 
pletion of the Erie Extension canal, and the payment of the domestic credi- 
tors of the state. In 1851, he removed to Erie, where he was engaged in 
active business until the fail of 1859. 

Mr. Lowr/s antislavery- principles made him an early supporter of the 
"Wilmot proviso;" and his sympathies were naturally awakened in behalf of 
the cause of freedom in Kansas ; and he went to Virginia to visit his friend 
John Brown, in prison. In 1861, he was elected to represent Erie and Craw- 
ford counties in the state senate, and was, by reelections, continued in that 
office for 9 years. He was a firm supporter of the republican party and of 
the administration in its efforts to quell the rebellion; though he afterwards 
differed from most of his coadjutors upon the question of reconstruction, and 
other measures of the republican party. During the last year of his senatorial 
term, he was stricken with paralysis, from which he has never fully recovered." 
He was married in Tompkins Co., to Sarah Ann Fletcher, May 12, 1834. 

Dr. John Ellis Marshall, the only child of Thomas and Sarah Edgerton 
Marshall, was bom- in Norwich, Conn., March 18, 1785. His mother dying 
in his infancy, he was adopted by Daniel Ellis, of Franklin, Conn., and 
educated by him as his son. He was lineally descended firom Wm. Hyde, 
John Post, Richard Eklgerton, and Francis Griswold, four of the original pro- 
prietors of Norwich. He was a pupil of the Rev. Samuel Nott, of Franklin, 
having as fellow-students, Eliphalet Nott, subsequently president of Union 
College, and John Tracy, afterwards lieut. -governor of this state. At the age 
of twenty, he commenced the study of medicine with Dr. Philemon Tracy, of 
Norwich, under whose careful instruction he enjoyed peculiar advantages; 
and he attributed to Dr. Tracy's assistance and teachings, much of the suc- 
cess he attained in his profession. According to the testimony of a fellow- 
student, since a distinguished physician in Ohio, young Marshall was thorough 
in his medical studies, was gifted with a sound judgment and a discriminating 
mind; and, by his diligent applicarion to study, he laid broad and deep the 
foundation for his future eminence. He was licensed to practice by the 
Connecticut Medical Society the 3d day of August, 1808; and soon after left 
for the West, and took up his residence in Oxford, N. Y., where he opened 
his first office. Not satisfied with his location, he removed in October, the 
next year, to Mayville, where he practiced his profession, for several years, 
with marked success. 

On the 9th of February, 181 1, he was commissioned by Gov. Tompkins 
as clerk of Chautauqua county at the time of its organizarion. On the 20th 
of September, 18 10, he married Ruth Holmes, daughter of Orsamus Holmes, 

O//'^/ 1 

-O"- tjJ>ZO 


of Sheridan. Mrs. Marshall is still living at the age of 85, and resides with 
her son, O. H. Marshall, of Buffalo. On the 15th of April, 1812, Dr. 
Marshall was appointed surgeon to the second regiment of the New York 
state militia. On the 20th of December, 1813, he was ordered to join his 
regiment at Buffalo, and served five months on the Niagara frontier, when 
his regiment was disbanded. He again took the field on the ist of August, 

1814, his regiment being encamped near Buffalo, where he remained during 
the remainder of the season. The fevers, diarrhoeas, and other diseases 
which prevailed in the army, crowded the hospitals, and devolved upon Dr. 
Marshall, as senior surgeon, arduous and responsible duties. His cares, ex- 
posures, and fatigue, seriously impaired his health, and rendered him an in- 
valid during the remainder of his life. 

After the close of the war, Dr. Marshall continued the practice of his pro- 
fession, and to discharge the duties of county clerk in Mayville, until March, 

1815, when he sought a more promising field for professional labor in the 
then rising village of Buffalo. He soon took the front rank among his pro- 
fessional brethren, and acquired a solid reputation as a physician and surgeon. 
On the zd of March, 1819, he was commissioned by Gov. Clinton, as clerk 
of Niagara county, which then embraced the present counties pf Erie and 
Niagara, the duties of which he discharged until February 17, i82r. On the 
27th of March, 1819, he was appointed, by Gov. Clinton, assistant hospital 
surgeon of the sth brigade of New York state infantry, and reappointed to 
the same position by the same governor, July 12, 1826. He subsequently 
received the honorary appointments as a corresponding Fellow of the Medi- 
cine and Philosophical Society of New York city, and as an honorary mem- 
ber of the Medical Society of Geneva College. For many years he was a 
member of the masonic fraternity, and, in 18 19, rose to mark master mason. 

During the prevalence of the cholera, in 1832, when Buffalo was particu- 
larly exposed to its invasion, and when little was known of its treatment. Dr. 
Marshall was appointed health physician by the common council of the 
city. The' duties of this position were of the most arduous and responsible 
character. No vessels or canal boats were permitted to enter the city, with- 
out the certificate of the health physician. Those approaching in the night 
were detained until daylight at the mouth of Buffalo creek, or in Black Rock 
harbor. This required his attendance at these ports at daybreak. These 
fatiguing duties were performed with great efficiency, in addition to his large 
private practice, which left him scarcely an opportunity for rest. 

While in the full vigor of his intellect, in the midst of a wide and success- 
ful practice. Dr. Marshall was attacked with pleurisy, on Saturday, the 2 2d 
of December, 1838, and after a severe illness, died on the following Thurs- 
day. His medical brethren paid a just tribute to his professional talents and 
worth, and respect for his memory; and the Rev. Dr. Hopkins, pastor of 
the First Presbyterian church, of which Dr. Marshall had long been a ruling 
elder, preached to a crowded audience, his funeral sermon, in which his 
exemplary life and Christian virtues were eloquently portrayed. 


Donald McKenzie was among the most prominent citizens of Chautau- 
qua county. He became a citizen, not by the " accident of birth," but of 
his own choice ; renouncing all other allegiance, he made this. Our Country, 
his ; and on its altars swore fidelity to its constitution and laws, and ever kept 
that oath inviolate. He was bom in Scotland, June 16, 1783, and his ancestry 
was among the noblest in the kingdom. We have before us his lineage traced 
back through lairds, sirs, baronets, and earls, for many generations. The 
tombstone of a remote ancestor is yet standing, bearing an inscription in 
Gaelic or Irish characters, which, translated into English, is : Here lies Mur- 
dock McKenzie, son of the Baron of Kentail, who died on the twelfth of 
January, MCCCLXXXI, [1381.] 

In March, 1801, before he had attained his majority, Donald McKenzie 
left his Scottish home and went to Canada, where he had relatives living, and 
was there engaged for eight years in the fur trade with the North-west Fur 
Company. In 1809, he became one of John Jacob Astor's partners in the 
fur trade he was then establishing at the mouth of the Columbia river, on 
the Pacific. Mr. McKenzie, Wilson P. Hunt and party took the overland 
route from St. Louis to that point, where Mr. McKenzie remained until after 
the war with England in 181 2, and the treacherous surrender of the post by 
Mc'Dougall. By his influence everything possible was saved to the Company 
and converted into money. Having obtained, through his Canadian rela- 
tives, a pass through the then hostile territory of Canada, he conveyed his 
treasures safely through the long and savage wilderness, and by way of 
Canada to New York, and delivered them in person to Mr. Astor. After 
this he exerted himself to secure for the United States the exclusive trade of 
Oregon and the territories bordering on the Pacific ; but after a long negoti- 
ation, through Mr. Astor, with Madison, Gallatin, etc., it was abandoned. 

In March, 182 1, he joined the Hudson's Bay Company, and was appointed 
one of the council and chief factor, and had his headquarters at Fort Garry, 
in the Red river settlement Here, on the i8th of August, 1825, he married 
Adelgonda Humbert Droz, whose father, Alphonso Humbert Droz, had lately 
arrived in the settlement with his family, from the canton Berne in Switzer- 
land, specially commended to the friendly offices of Count Selkirk, the prin- 
cipal personage of the settlement Soon after his marriage, Mr. McKenzie 
was appointed governor of the Hudson's Bay Company by the British crown, 
and retained that position until he left Fort Garry in 1832. In 1833, he 
came to Mayville, where he lived until his death, on the 20th of January, 
1851. His widow and a large family of children survive him. 

Though revered and honored by all whose esteem was desirable, yet envy, 
like death, " loves a shining mark ;" and out of the transactions at the mouth 
of the Columbia, he was assailed by a few who charged him with infidelity 
to Mr. Astor's interest. But Mr. Astor's letters to him show that he retained 
Mr. Astor's undiminished confidence. Sir Alexander Ross, in his pubhshed 
works, and also in his private letters to the widow of Mr. McKenzie, nobly and 
effectually vindicates his good name, fidelity, and honor. Mr. McKenzie's 




C.I-X > s 





intellect was of a high order, his perception clear, his conclusions just ; and 
he was seldom mistaken in his judgment of men or things. His life was a 
continued romance, full of startling adventures, bold deeds, deadly perils, 
and narrow escapes, the narration of which would fill volumes, and greatly 
exceed our allotted sphere. 

Mr. McKenzie had 6 sons and 7 daughters, all living, except a daughter, 
who died in childhood. 

William A. Mayborne, son of William Maybome, was bom in England, 
Dec. 18, 181 2, and emigrated with his father to this country in 1824. He 
remained in the city of New York, at school, for two years, and then joined 
his father's family in Sherman, Chautauqua county. He was married, in 
1835, to Mary Willing; and after a year's residence in Mina, he removed 
to Mayville, where he still resides. He was for years — from 1864 to 1873 — 
county superintendent of the poor, and is at present United States postal 
agent on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad. His children 
were : Helen, who died in 1862, aged 25 ; Elizabeth A., who died in in- 
fancy ; and William Henry, who resides near Mayville. 

Thomas A. Osborne was bom at Hoosick Falls, N. Y., July i, 1800, 
and removed in 1821 from Troy to Fredonia; thence, in May, 1822, to 
Mayville, where he still resides. He was for several years a law partner of 
Jacob Houghton, at Fredonia and Mayville ; and afterward a partner, suc- 
cessively, of John Birdsall and George A. Green. He was from 1827 to 
1830, inclusive, clerk of the board of supervisors; a member of assembly in 
1834 ; and first judge of the court of common pleas in 1843 and 1844. He 
was deputy collector of customs in New York, under Greene C. Bronson and 
Heman J. Redfield, successively, during the administration of President 
Pierce. In 1834, Mr. Osborne, Wm. Smith, and Samuel S. Whallon, estab- 
lished the Mayville Sentinel. About one year afterward, it was sold to 
Beman Brockway. Mr. Osborae was its editor from its commencement un- 
til 1836, after the destruction of the land-office. In 1849, he purchased for 
his son, an equal interest in the Frontier Express at Fredonia, and furnished 
the editorial matter of the paper until after his son's death. In 1850, he sold 
his interest to E. F. Foster, and its name was changed to Chautauqua Union. 
Mr. Osborne was married, first, in Sheridan, to Mary Walters, of Sangerfield, 
N. Y., by whom he had 2 children : i. Gustavus A., bom May 25, 182- 
and died May 11, 1850. 2. Mary IV., bom Dec. 30, 1833, and died in 
Kingsville, S. C., May 5, 184-. After the death of Mrs. Osborne, he mar- 
ried, in Chautauqua, Eliza J. Huston, of Greenfield, Saratoga Co., who had 
no children. And after her decease, he married Mary Derby, of Mayville, 

widow of Godard, by whom he had a son, Albert Buel, born April 30, 

1866, who is still living. 

William Peacock was bom in Pennsylvania, Feb. 22, 1780, and removed 
to Lyons, N. Y., and thence to Batavia about 1800, where he engaged as 
surveyor for Joseph EUicott, agent of the Holland Land Company. After 
having served the Company as clerk and surveyor, at Batavia, and surveyed 


tract of 40,000 acres on the Genesee river, he laid out and surveyed the 
site for the present city of Buffalo and other places ; and subsequently sur- 
veyed the lands in Mayville and vicinity, and the village of Ellicottville. In 
1810, he commenced his agency, at Mayville, for the Holland Company, 
which agency he held until the Company sold out its unsold lands, in 1836. 
After the county had become fully organized, he was appointed by the board 
of supervisors treasurer of the county. He was also early appointed an 
associate judge of the county court. He was married to Alice Evans, a 
niece of Joseph EUicott, who died, April 19, 1859, aged 79. They had no 
children. Judge Peacock still resides at Mayville, at the advanced age of 
nearly 96 years. 

John F. Phelps, the second son of Dan and Polly Phelps, was born in 
Reading, Schuyler Co., N. Y., Feb. 27, 1819. He is a descendant of Wil- 
liam Phelps, a native of Exeter, England, born in 1 600, and came to America 
in 1630, landing at Boston. His maternal ancestors, too, were from England 
in the 17th century. His parents settled in Ripley in 1827. He came to 
Mayville as an apprentice to the printer's trade, in July, 1837, under Beman 
Brockw^jii', publisher of the Mayville Sentinel. After his apprenticeship, and 
after working as a journeyman at various places, and teaching school a year, 
he returned to MajrviUe in 1842, and was again employed by Mr. Brockway. 
In April, 1844, he purchased the establishment, and has since been sole pro- 
prietor and editor of the paper. In August, 1843, he was married to Julia 
A. Walter, seconil- daughter of Sheldon and Elizabeth Walter, who was born 
in Sangerfield, Oneida Co., July 28, 1823. Their children were : Walter S., 
who died in JcStig^ aged 21 ; John O., who resides at San Francisco, where 
he married Chariot Je, Hester, only daughter of Judge Hester, of San Jose, 
and is deputy; cqpJper of San Francisco ; Frank C., who lives with his father; 
and Julia, who 4|?djApril 3, 1874, at the age of 12. 

Anselm P<n?i5^R^§0n of Gen. Daniel Pottgr, was bom at Plyrfouth, Conn., 
Nov. 20, 1786.'- H&. entered Yale College at 17; but having, by close at- 
tention to study, become partially deranged, he did not complete his college 
course. He afterwards commenced the study of law in New Haven, and 
completed it at Litchfield, in the law school of Judge Reeve. He came to 
Mayville about 181 1, being one of the earliest lawyers in the county, and re- 
sided there until his death. His remains were subsequently carried to 
Logansport, Ind., whither his family had gone to reside. Also those of his 
eldest daughter, who had died at Mayville, were taken to the same place. 
Mr. Potter had the reputation of an upright man, and was generally esteemed. 
He became a member of the Presbyterian church at Mayville at about the 
time of its formation. 

William Prendergast, Sr., was bom in the city of Waterford, Ireland, 
Feb. 2, 1727. He was a son of Thomas and Mary Prendergast. The 
brothers of Thomas were : James, Richard, and Jeffrey. William came to 
America when a youth, and settled in Pawling, Dutchess Co., N. Y., where 
he was married to Mehetabel, daughter of Jedediah and Elizabeth Wing, of 

r/ ([r ^v.^vv^ € L^^'^ t^-^ ' -- 



C6y ij ^/?7oi:i-''cf-'t 


Beekman, N. Y., who was bom March 20, 1738. Mr. Prendergast died at 
his residence in Chautauqua, Feb. 14, tSii. His wife died Sept. 4, 1812. 
Their children were: i. Matthew; [see sketch.] 2. Thomas; [see history 
of Ripley.] 3. Mary, wife of Wm. Bemus, of EUery; [see history of EUery.] 
4. Elizabeth, who died unmarried, Aug. 30, 1824. 5. James; [see history of 
Jamestown.] 6. Jediah; [see sketch.] 7. Martin; [see sketch.] 8. John 
Jeffrey, who settled in Herkimer Co. ; and was never a resident of this 
county; was a state senator from 1814 to 1818; removed to Brooklyn. He 
had two sons: William, who died in youth; and Hon. Martin Prendergast, 
who recently died at hiffhome on Long Island — the last of the family. 
9, Susanna, who was married to Oliver Whiteside, who died before her re- 
moval to this county. They had 3 children : Martha, who married Willard 
Crafts, and removed from the county ; Ann, who married Hon. John Birdsall, 
judge of the 8th judicial district, and had a son, John Birdsall, now residing 
in Mayville; and one who died in infancy. 10. Eleanor, who died at 13. 
II. 3/ar//^a, who died, unmarried, December 9, 1849, aged 74. 12. William, 
who was a major in the war of 1812. He was promoted to the office of 
colonel, and commanded a regiment at the battle of Black Rock. Riding in 
front of his regiment, mounted on a white horse, which rendered him very 
conspicuous, the British, supposing him to be the general in command, fired 
at him by platoons. He fearlessly passed the gauntlet in safety ; though his 
horse was shot in several places and mortally wounded ; and a number of 
bullets passed through- the cloak and hat of the colonel, and one cut away 
the knot of his cravat. He was married in Chautauqua county to Deborah 
Weed, and had a son who died in infancy. 13. Minerva, who was married 
to Elisha Marvin, of North-east, Pa., and had 2 children: William E.,'in 
North-east; and Elizabeth, unmarried, who lived with him, and died recently. 
Matthew Prendergast, eldest son of William Prendergast, Sr., was bom 
in Pawling, N. Y., Aug. 5, 1756, and was married to "Abigail Akin. They 
removed to Chautauqua in 1807, on the west side of the lake, about 6 miles 
below Mayville, where now Edw. Stevens resides. Mr. Prendergast was the 
first supervisor of the town of Chautauqua after the county was fully or- 
ganized, in 18 [T, Pomfret having been' taken from Chautauqua in 1808, of 
which town Philo Orton was supervisor. He was 60 years of age before he 
emigrated from Pittstown to this county. He was infirm from rheumatism, 
and walked with a staff. He retained his Revolutionary costume, and wore 
long hair tied in a cue with a leather string; was a man of integrity and sound 
judgment, and made a good officer. He was appointed a justice of the 
peace in 1808; served many years as an associate judge of the county, and 
died at his pioneer residence, Feb. 24, 1838, aged 83 years. His children 
were : i. William, born in Pawling, and came with his father to Chautau- 
qua in 1807 ; and, in the fall of the same year, went to Thorold, in Canada, 
to study medicine with his uncle Jediah, and was with him 4 years, and re- 
turned to Chautauqua in 1811. In 1815, he married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Martin Prendergast ; lived in Mayville about two years, and removed to 


Jamestown ; and in 1820 to his farm on the west side of the lake. In April, 
1836, he removed to Mayville, and in 184 1 returned to his farm, where he 
resided until March 11, 1857, when he died of apoplexy. 2. James, who 
lived and died on his father's homestead, and whose son Maurice also died 
there ; the farm now in possession of Edw. Stevens, as above stated. 
3. Lilleus, a daughter, the wife of Jared Irvine ; both deceased. 

Jediah Prendergast, fourth son of William, Sr., was bom in Pawling, 
N. Y., May 13, 1766, and was married to Penelope Chase, who was bom in 
South Kingston, R. I., Dec. 22, 1774. He was one of the company that 
made the tour from Pittstown, N. Y., to TennaBsee, and thence north to 
Chautauqua, and one of those who went from Ripley to Canada to winter, 
where provisions were more plentiful. He did not return with the rest; but, 
being a physician, remained there to practice his profession. In 18 11, he 
left Canada, and settled at Mayville, where he commenced the mercantile 
business, in partnership with his brother Martin, in the fall of )8ii. In 
1813, they established a branch store on the Chautauqua outlet, at the 
" Rapids," now Jamestown. Both stores were continued many years. 
Jediah also bought land [350 acres] on the west side of the lake, 2 or 3 
miles below Mayville. [See p. 266.] In 1817, he was a candidate for the 
senate. One senator was to be elected for the full term of four years, and 
one for only one year to fill a vacancy. By the then existing law, the person 
having the highest number of votes was elected for the longest term. Isaac 
Wilson, of Genesee Co., was a candidate, it is beUeved, of the same party, 
and both were elected on the same ticket. But Wilson claimed the seat for 
the long term. Prendergast contested the claim on the ground that gr votes 
hkd been given for Jedediah and ro for Jed. Prendergast, which were 
intended for Jediah "Prendergast Counting these, he had a majority of 
nearly 100. The committee on elections reported in favor of Prendergast; 
but the committee of the whole negatived the report ; and Wilson took the 
seat for the full term. He also represented the county in the assembly in 
the years 1816 and 1817, and again in 1820 and 1821. At the time he rep- 
resented what was then called the Westem Senate District, his brother, John 
J., of Herkimer Co., was a senator from the Middle District. Dr. Jediah 
Prendergast was a man of varied accomplishments, a scientific scholar, and 
numbered Martin Van Buren, De Witt Clinton and Peter R. Livingston 
among his friends. He died March i, 1848. His wife, Penelope Chase, 
died while on a visit to her son-in-law, Hon. Hamilton Merritt, at St. Catha- 
rines, Canada, Feb. i, 1845. 

Martin Prendergast, fifth son of William, Sr., was bom in Pawling, 
Dutchess Co., N. Y., April 22, 1769; came from Pittstown to Chautauqua 
in 1807, and settled near his father and others of the family, on the west side 
of the lake. He married, in Pittstown, Martha Hunt, who was bom April 
14, 1774. He commenced merchandising with his brother Jediah, at May- 
ville, in 181 1, and, in 1813, opened another store at Jamestown, both of 
which were continued many years. He was elected supervisor of the town 

^tJi- li^-/. 

7' -r- .--^10 c-< '^ "^ '' 


of Chautauqua in 1815, and continued in that office by reelections till 1833 
inclusive, except 18 17, and perhaps 1818, (the records of the latter year 
being probably lost ;) having served 17 or 18 years. It has been said of 
him that he "carefully watched the public expenditures, was an estimable 
man, and a rigid economist." He was an associate judge of Niagara county 
when Chautauqua remained annexed to Niagara for judicial and other pur- 
poses. He died June 21, 1835, aged 66; his wife, Dec. 30, 1831, aged 
nearly 58. They had 2 daughters : i. Elizabeth, the wife of Dr. Wm. Pren- 
dergast, son of Matthew. [See sketch of Dr. P.] 2. Maria, who married 
Robertson Whiteside, and had 2 sons: Wm. P.,, who resides in Mayville ; 
and Martin, who lives in Illinois. 

John R. Robertson was the son of George Robertson, of Scotch descent, 
who came from Cazenovia, Madison Co., N. Y., to Sheridan in 1825, and 
removed, in 1827, to Jamestown, where John R. was born Dec. 18, 1833. 
In 1838, the family removed to Crawford Co., Pa., where he was educated at 
"Aunt Mary's School." In 1843, the family returned to this county, and 
settled in Busti, where, at the age of 14, he engaged as a clerk in the store 
of V. C. Clark. After a clerkship of five years, he became a partner, and 
continued as such for 2 years. In 1855, he associated with Emri Davis, and 
was in trade with him 2 years ; and thereafter alone until 1870, when he was 
elected county clerk. After the expiration of his official term, he purchased 
the Mayville House, of which he is still proprietor. He was married in 
1855 to Evolin B. Brown, and has 2 children living, Blanche L., aged 16; 
and Halcon L., aged 7 years. 

Milton Smith came to Mayville from Delanti. His father, fi-om Frank- 
lin Co., Mass., settled in Stockton, in 18 17, and subsequently removed to 
the village [Delanti,] where he died in 1867. Milton, while in Stockton, was 
for six successive years elected supervisor; and in 1854 was elected sheriff 
of Ae county, and removed to Mayville, where he has since resided. He 
has also held the office of collector of internal revenue in the district com- 
posed of Chautauqua and Cattaraugus counties. He w^as married to Jane 
C. Woodward. They have 2 sons : Edgar F., who is married, and resides at 
Brocton ; and Lewis M., also married, lives with his father. They have 3 
daughters : Eunice, at home ; Isabella L., wife of George W. Lawton, in 
Mich. ; and Rosetta, wife of Thomas D. Hammond, Mayville. 

Waterman Tinkcom, from Saratoga Co., settled in Mayville, in 18 10, 
and has resided there to the present time. He is 81 years of age, and is 
said to be, with one exception, the oldest resident of the village. Of his 4 
sons, two, Samuel E. and Charles A., reside in town. Daughters : Mary 
Jane was married to Wm. Ward, Mayville; Harriet A., to Philip White; 
Minerva C, to Robert B. McDonald, Titusville. 

Jedediah Tracy was bom in Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 
Jan. 2, 1777. Soon after attaining his majority, he settled, in April, 1799, 
near Colt's Station, Erie Co., Pa. In December, 1804, he returned to Mass., 
and was married to Polly Royce, of Lanesborough. They resided in Erie 


until 1815, when they removed to Mayville, where they spent the remainder 
of their days. He soon opened there a pubUc house which he kept for 
many years, and which became perhaps the most widely known and popular 
house in the county. In April, 18 19, he was appointed postmaster, and held 
the office until April, 1837, when he resigned. His promptitude and accu- 
racy in the discharge of his official duties were so appreciated by the depart- 
ment, that he was commissioned to investigate charges, settle defalcations, 
and make changes at his discretion. He was for many years overseer of the 
poor. On the organization of St. Paul's church, in Mayville, in April, 1823, 
he was chosen as vestrymjin, and served as such until April, 1843, when he 
resigned. He was for several years employed by the Holland Land Company 
as their agent to visit the different towns to examine and appraise the cattle 
taken by the Company on contracts ; and took them in droves to Philadel- 
phia. In the obituary notice of his death it is remarked : " His life was one 
of usefulness and honor, ever making friends, and having made them, ever 
retaining them." Of his ten children, three sons and two daughters still sur- 
vive to cherish his memory and imitate his example. The children of Mr. 
Tracy were : i. Jedediah Royce, who married Martha Peacock, and resided 
in Iowa; he died in 1850. 2. Laura S., who died at Mayville, aged 50. 
3. Perrv B., unmarried, resides in Iowa. 4. Clarinda, wife of George Kirby, 
removed to Detroit, where she died. 5. Phebc Parmelia, who married Aaley 
Randall, and is deceased. 6. Mary, wife of Samuel T. Nelson, Detroit. 7. 

Martha M., wife of Henry W ; died at Mayville. 8. Dewitt C, who 

married Angeline De Camp ; they reside at Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory. 
9. Harriet M., who married Jacob S. Otto, Washington, D. C. 

Samuel S. Wallon was born in Argyle, Washington Co., N. Y., April 20, 
1804. At the age of 8 years, he came with his parents to Mayville, where 
he resided until his death. With such an education as the early common 
schools furnished, combined with good sense and correct principles, he com- 
menced an active career, and attained a high and an honorable position. At 
an early period, he filled several town offices creditably and satisfactorily. 
He commenced his mercantile career as a clerk, became a partner, and at 
length sole owner of the establishment in which he first engaged. He repre- 
sented his assembly district in the legislature of 1855. In the fall of 1856, 
he was elected canal commissioner, and held that office at the time of his 
death, July 6, 1858. Mr. Whallon was an honored member of the Metho 
dist Episcopal church. He died at Erie, Pa.,' July 6, 1858. He was mar- 
ried, Sept. 6, 1829, to Maria Bell, who is still living. They had seven 
children, of whom two died in infancy. The five who survived him are all 
living. I. George W., who is married, and resides in Minnesota ; i. Mary 
M., widow of a Mr. Archibald; resides in Corry, Pa. ; 3. William M. , 4. 
Samuel S. ; 5. Frank H., wife of Lewis M. Smith, Esq., Mayville. Samuel 
A. and Martin P. died in infancy. 

Robertson Whiteside, son of John Whiteside, from Washington Co., N. Y., 
was married to Maria Prendergast, and settled in Chautauqua about 1820. 


He was for a time engaged in business with Matthew P. Bemus, they having 
bought out Morris Birdsall. He was county treasurer in 1836 and again in 
1838-39 ; and in 1841, he was a member of assembly. He had two chil- 
dren : William P., who married Maria J. Cornell, of Washington Co., and 
had four children : Edward R., Neil Martin, Ann Eliza, and Maria J. ; Mar- 
tin P., who married Sarah Holmes, daughter of Seth W. Holmes, and whose 
children are Henry and John. 

Churches and other Associations. 

The First Baptist Church of Mayville was organized with 38 members, by 
Elder Jonathan Wilson, a pioneer missionary frpm Vermont, February 7, 
1820. Mr. Wilson was the first pastor of the church. The church edifice 
was built in 1834. 

The Chautaicqua Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, at Mayville, 
was formed about 1820. Their house of worship was erected in 185 1. 

St. Paul's Church, of Mayville, was organized with about twenty members, 
in April, 1823, by Rev. David Brown, who was the first pastor. The first 
church edifice was contracted in April, 1826. It was accepted in January, 
1828, and consecrated by Bishop Hobart, Sept. 4, 1828. The present house 
was built in 1859, and consecrated by Bishop Coxe, May 18, 1865. 

The First Atethodist Episcopal Church of Dewittville, was formed with ten 
members, in 1835, by William Gifford. Their house of worship was pur- 
chased of the Baptists, the same year. The first pastor was Rev. Mr. 

The First Free-will Baptist Church of Chautauqua Hill, four miles north 
from Hartfield, was organized with five members in 1840,- by Rev. T. V. 
Main, the first pastor, and a Mr. Neely. A house of worship was built about 
1842, which has recently been occupied by the Methodists. 

Summit Church, Methodist Episcopal, near Summit Station, where a class 
had been formed, built a house of worship through the instrumentality, it is 
said, of John H. Flagler, in 1849. The first pastor after the completion of 
the church building was Rev. John K. Hallock. 

The Christian Church, at Dewittville, was organized December 25, 1852, 
by Rev. E. H. Mosher, the first pastor, and E. H. Halladay. Their church 
edifice was erected in 1856. 

Mount Pleasant Church, United Brethren, three and a half miles south-east 
from Mayville, was organized with eight members, in 1858, by Rev. Z. Sul- 
livan, who was the first pastor. A church edifice was built in 1865. 

The United Brethren in Christ, of Elm Flats, were organized with eight 
members, Feb. i, 1863, by Rev. N. R. Luce, the first pastor. A house of 
worship was erected in 1861 ; the present one, in 1870. 

St. Peter's Church, German United EvangeUcal^ Protestant, at Mayville, 
was organized with twenty members, in 1 871, by Rev. O. Schroder. Their 
church edifice was erected in 1871. The first pastor was the Rev. Jacob 


Summit Lodge, No. J12, was formed in the year 1818, as is supposed. The 
date of its charter does not appear on the records, which commence thus : 
" 5818. Mayville, November 10th. Summit Lodge opened in due form on 
the First Degree of Masonry.'' About 20 members were present. Ebenezer 
P. Upham, Sylvester B. Derby, Wm. Smith, Jr., Edward Taylor, Otis Dexter, 
Lewis Macomber, Asahel Derby, and Thomas Treat, applied to become 
members. It was voted, that two dozen aprons be procured before the next 
meeting; a half dozen to be lambskin; and that brothers Lyon and Hearick 
be a committee to procure them. To this is added : " Lodge passed to the 
degree of Fellow Craft. Lodge raised to the degree of Master. Closed in 
due form." This lodge was sustained and its meetings were regularly kept 
up, until May nth, 1824, which is the date of the last meeting under the 
then existing organization. 

In 1850, a number of the brethren, upon consultation in respect to the 
reorganization, appointed a meeting for that purpose to be held at Hartfield, 
Aug. 31st. The meeting was held accordingly; and Mayville was designated 
as the location of the lodge. A petition to the grand lodge of the state 
for a dispensation was ordered .sent, which was in due time received. The 
first regular meeting was held Nov. 4, 1850, at which were present the fol- 
lowing named members : 

Thomas B. Campbell, W. M.; Abijah Clark, S. W.; Dexter Barnes, J. W.; 
R. Taylor Comstock, Sec'y; Wm. P. Holmes, Treas. ; David L. Cochran, 
Tyler ; George Clark, J. Dea. ; David Myers, Nathan Cheney, Egbert Wilson, 
Wm. Hill, John Russell, Walter Strong. The fifth and last regular com- 
munication of the lodge at Mayville which appears on the records, was at 
the lodge-roonl, Feb. 14, 1851. Its location was changed to Westfield. 


Cherry Creek was formed from Ellington, May 4, 1829, and comprises 
township 4, range 10, of the Holland Company's surveys. In the south 
part are several swamps. The soil is clay and gravelly loam. ^The Conne- 
wango creek passes southerly through the town near its east border, and re- 
ceives the waters of Cherry creek about a mile south-easterly from the village 
of Cherry Creek. The surface is hilly in the north-west, and rolling in the 
south-east. Cherry Creek village is a little south-east of the center of the 
town ; has a post-office, the only one in town, and a population of 271. 

Original Purchases in Township 4, Range 10. 

181 5. March, Joshua Bentley, 15; [settled on by Joshua, Jr.] April, 
Joshua Bentley, 9 ; [settled on by Joseph M. Kent.] May, Gardner Crandall. 

1816. May, Barber Babcock, 19. June, Ely D. Pendleton, 20. Octo- 
ber, Reuben Cheney, 18. 

181 7. June, Elam Edson, 18. November, Rufiis Hitchcock, 49. 


1818. April, John Smith, 17. August, Hiram Hill, 49. 

182 1. October, John P. Hadley, 41. Henry Babcock, 20. Alvah Had- 
ley, 41. Julius Gibbs, 41. Robert James, 36. Nathaniel Gibbs, Jr., 11. 
Eliphalet W. Wilcox, 17. Robert Page, 13. 

1823. March, James Carr, 14. December, Enos A. Bronson, 56. 

1824. February, Eason Matteson, 10. March, Ira B. Tanner, 46. May, 
Amos Abbey, 64. Nathan Worden, 16. June, Jared Irigalls, 22. Ira 
Bassett, 25. July, Ward King, 17. October, Wm. G. Carr, 24. Dudley 
Waters, 48. 

1825. April, John Luce, 58. Wm. Lathrop, 24. May, Ira Bassett and 
Samuel W. Wilcox, Jr., 25. September, Geo. Burdick, 38. October, Aury 
Cronkhite, 21. Asahel H. Mallory, 21. Eddy Wetherly, 28. November, 
Robert James, Jr., 35. 

1826. April, Putnam Farrington, 63. October, Lyman Town and Thos. 
King, 56. December, Henry Luce, 55. 

1827. April, Ebenezer Still, Jr., 39. June, Stephen Blaisdell, r8. Sept., 
Nehemiah Osborne, 31. Israel Seeley, 31. Issachar Hammond, 30. 

1829. June, William A. Bowen, 13. July, Thomas King, 18. Decem- 
ber, Sylvester Osborne, 14. 

Concerning the time and place of the first settlement in this town, there 
are conflicting statements. French's State Gazetteer says : " The first set- 
tlement was made on lot 15, in 1812, by Joshua Bentley, ft-om Rensselaer 
Co." This is not correct. The Land Company's book shows him a pur- 
chaser, April 14, i8i2, of a part of lot 54, tp. 2, r. 11, [now Ellicott J Aug. 
6, 1814, of 297 acres of lot 7, tp. 3, r. 10 ; and April 12, 1815, of 300 acres 
of lot 16, tp. 3, r. 10, [both now Ellington;] March 2, r8i5, lot 15, tp. 4, 
r. 10; and April 12, 1815, 250 acres of lot 9, tp. 4, r. 10, [both now Cherry 
Creek.] Hence it appears that he did not buy land in Cherry Creek as early 
as 1812. Persons in this town state unhesitatingly, that Joseph M. Kent 
was the first settler. One cause of this diflference of opinion may be the fact, 
that there were two Joshua Bentleys, father and son, without being dis- 
tinguished as senior and junior. Both are called Joshua Bentley. The father 
bought both the lots in Cherry Creek, 1 5 and 9, as we are told, and lived on 
neither. The son bought the two parcels in Ellington, and, it is said, settled 
on neither. An exchange of land having been made by the two Bentleys, 
Joshua, Sr., settled in Ellington, and kept a tavern there for a number of 
years; and Joshua, Jr., settled on lot 15, or at least became its owner; and 
Kent settled on lot 9. 

An early settler of Cherry Creek says : " The first settlement in the town 
of Cherry Creek was made by Joseph M. Kent, on lot 9, in the spring of 
1815." He was a native of Royalton, Vt., and, after having resided succes- 
sively in Herkimer and Onondaga counties, removed to Gerry, [now Cherry 
Creek,] as above stated. He came with a wife and seven children, three of 
whom still reside in the town : Nancy, afterward the wife of Eliphalet W. 
Wilcox ; Samuel B., and Joseph. Mr. Kent and his family seem to have 
had quite an average share of the toils and privations of pioneer life. When 
he had 1-aised his log house and covered it with hemlock bark, and cut out 


one log for a door, he sent his wife 8 miles on horseback, through the wilder- 
ness, with no guide but marked trees, with one child in her arms and 
another behind her, to take possession of the new house. She first put 
the children through the hole, then crawled in herself with the saddle. 
With flint and spunk previously provided, she started a fire, and passed the 
night with no other company, and within the hearing of no voice but that of 
wolves. The house soon after received the addition of a door, and a floor 
made of split logs, probably hewed on one side. 

Mr. Kent, with his son George, Nancy, his eldest daughter, and John P. 
Kent, a nephew, cleared the first acre that was cleared in the town, and 
raised from it a good crop of potatoes the same year — the first crop raised 
in the town. The next spring, destitute of a supply of provisions and money, 
stern want began to stare him earnestly in the face. His faculty of invention, 
however, proved sufficient for the exigency. He felled a pine tree, the stump 
of which still remains, and made from the trunk a canoe 60 feet in length, 
launched it in the Connewango river, put into it about 1,500 pounds of maple 
sugar and a quantity of black salts, and ran it down to Pittsburgh. He 
there exchanged his cargo for flour and salt, and, with the help of his son 
George, pushed his vessel with pike poles back to Cherry Creek, having spent 
three weeks in performing the voyage. The family, during his absence, sub- 
sisted chiefly on sugar and milk. Ohver Bugbee, a settler in Ellington, and 
brother of Mrs. Kent, was at this time doing a job of chopping for Mr. 
Kent ; and having fancied himself growing weak on this diet, proposed, by 
way of change, an addition to his meals of a mess of boiled greens. Cow- 
cabbage and leeks were duly prepared, and, at the next meal, were placed 
beside the sugar and milk ; and to use his own words, he " made a wolf 
meal." Whether owing to the unwholesome nature of the greens, or to the 
want of affinity between the articles of this strange mixture, the colonel could 
not tell : suffice it to say, that, being unable to dwell quietly together, they 
violently escaped from their confinement by the way by which they had en- 
tered. He remarked that, " from that day to this, I have never hankered 
for greens." 

Joshua Bentley, Jr., according to our informant, was the second settler. 
He was from Stephentown, Rensselaer Co., N. Y., and settled on lot r 5, Sept. i, 
1815. He had previously settled early in the town of Ellery, about the year 
1808. [His name, however, does not appear on the Company's books as a 
purchaser there.] He was one of the corps of surveyors that ran the 
lines in this part of the county previously to its settlement. The center of 
the township was found, in the survey, to be on a little island in the stream, 
where was a small red cherry tree. Mr. Bentley, the axe-man, cut it down, 
drove down a stake, and named the stream " Cherry creek," which afterwards 
also gave name to the town. Mr. Bentley seemed to have a relish for forest 
life and forest scenery. He settled several miles from any inhabitant. After 
several years of enjoyment of "life in the woods," it was suddenly embit- 
tered by a most distressing bereavement. On a clear sabbath morning, the 


2d day of April, 1822, a little daughter, in her fourth year, strayed into the 
forest, and was never seen afterward. Mrs. Bentley, with two of the older 
children, started out to pick some cowslips, leaving her husband asleep on 
the floor, and the little girl at play in the door-way. She was not missed 
until Mrs. Bentley's return, about an hour afterward. A search was com- 
menced, and continued by the inhabitants of the surrounding country, but 
without discovering the least trace of the child. That she had been taken 
by the Indians, or that she had wandered away into the woods and been de- 
voured by wild beasts, was among the conjectures concerning her fate. 

James Bates, from Mass. to Onondaga Co., in 1803, came with his family 
to this county in April, 1815, but did not settle permanently until early in the 
fall. His son, James Bates, Jr., in 1870, in giving a sketch of their settle- 
ment, states that when they first came, there was in the town Joshua Bentley, 
Jr., who lived in a small log shanty on the old Chautauqua road, 50 rods west 
of Olds' Comers ; that no other persons lived in the town when they came 
in on the Indian trail the first time ; and that Wyman Bugbee came in the 
fall of 1815. He says Samuel McConnell and his family settled, in the 
spring of 18 16, on lot 47, in the north-west part of the town; and a little 
later, the same spring, Benj. FoUett, in the north part of the town; and G. 
Redington, near Wyman Bugbee's. Although the dates at which some of 
the men above named are said to have settled, do not all exactly agree with 
the dates of their purchases, Mr. Bates has probably stated them correctly. 
There were many who did not settle on their lands until a year or two years 
after their purchases had been made. Mr. Bates gives the name of the first 
settler as Joshua Bentley, Jr. The Company's books show four different 
sales to have been made to Joshua Bentley ; and in no case is the junior 
attached to the name. The son probably never was an original purchaser, 
but is believed to have settled on land taken up by his father, who had arti- 
cled in Ellington, in 18 14, lot 7, and in 1815 lot 15 ; and in Cherry Creek, in 
1 81 5, lots 15 and 9. [See original purchases in Ellington and Cherry Creek.] 

Mr. Bates also relates the particulars of an encounter with a wolf, in 18 16, 
when he was 1 5 years of age. He and a brother were going home through 
the woods. The brother had got some distance ahead and out of sight, and 
was heard to scream, and came back with his pantaloons torn. James got a 
heavy club, and went on till he saw an animal which he supposed to be a 
dog, sitting in this woods road. He tried in vain to get him out of the road, 
either by coaxing or by rough talk. He then struck him with the stick, and 
knocked out some of his teeth. This turned him out of the road. Bates 
followed him, striking a heavy blow across the back, which sent him under 
the tops of some fallen trees. He followed him, and there beat him until he 
thought he was dead ; all the while supposing him to be a dog. Wyman 
Bugbee, hearing him relate the story, said it was probably a wolf, for the kill- 
ing of which he was entitled to a bounty of $40. Bugbee, on an offer of 
$10 to attend to the business, went to the place, and found the wolf still 
alive. He was soon dispatched ; and in due time the bounty was obtained. 


Daniel Hadley came with his family to Chautauqua county, in Nov., 1817. 
He had 6 or 7 children, most of them, if not all, full grown. Four of them 
were sons, three of whom settled in Cherry Creek : Niles, Alvah, and John 
P. ; all of whom settled on different parts of lot 41. John P. still resides in 
the to\vn. He took an active part in laying out and cutting out early roads 
in the town; and in getting the town set off from Ellington, in 1829. He 
has also frequently served the town in official capacity, and now [1874] holds 
the office of town clerk. 

In the south part, early settlers were : Daniel L. Waggoner, Moses Ells, 
Clark Losee, Isaac C. Brown, Wm. S. Bullock, George W. Hitchcock, the 
last of whom removed to the village and died there. 

In the north-west part were : Ira B. Tanner, Elkanah Steward, Anson 
Newton, Alva Bannister, Ora Parks, John Essex, J. Richardson, Eben 
Abbey, Putnam Farrington, who was a general in the war of 1812 ; one of 
whose sons. Vassal, remained and died in town. Enos A. Bronson, a native 
of Conn., came from Wayne Co., N. Y., to Cherry Creek, lot 56, near the 
north line, in 1825, where he died in 1858. His sons were : William, killed 
by the falling of a tree ; Horace, also deceased ; Allen Lee, in Villenova ; 
and Munson M., in Pennsylvania. 

In the south-east part of the town. Wanton King settled on lot 9. His 
sons are : Thomas, who resides on lot 18, a mile south of the village ; Ward, 
2d, in Leon, Cattaraugus Co.; and Obadiah, in Ellington. On lot 18, Josiah 
Crumb and Enos Matteson settled. The latter purchased in 1828. Of his 
three sons, John and James reside in Ellington ; Almanson, in Texas. Aury 
Cronk, in 1825, on the south line of the town. His sons, Charles and De- 
lance, are still in town. 

In the north-east part of the town, Thomas W. Wilcox, from Hanover, was 
an early settler on the north line, about 181 9. He was noted for his indus- 
try, and for his having taken many jobs of clearing land. His sons, Daniel, 
Erastus, and Alfred, reside in Villenova ; Harlow, lives in Chicago. Isaac 
Curtis, from Stephentown, Rens. Co., settled, in 1816, on lot 23, bought in 
[8x5 ; had a son and several daughters, none believed to be living. Stephen 
Curtis, brother of Isaac, on land adjoining his brother's. He had two sons, 
Henry L. and John H.; both reside in town ; John with his father on the 
homestead. Of his four daughters, two are living. James Carr, from Otsego 
Co., settled, in 1823, on lot 15, land bought of Joshua Bentley, Jr., and 
afterwards kept a store in the village. He died in Iowa. He was supervisor 
of Ellington, in 1828-29, and the first supervisor of Cherry Creek after its 
formation. He had one son, Andrew J ., who went to Iowa ; and four 
daughters : Louisa, who married Silas Vinton^ builder of the county poor- 
house and appurtenant buildings, and several years, 1855, '59, '60, supervisor 
of Cherry Creek, now living in Gowanda ; X-ydia, and Amelia, both married, 
and removed to the West ; and Mary^^^Wm.-: G. Carr, brother of James, 
came in October, 1829, with his wife and two children, and settled on lot xs. 
A son, S. Hopkins, is married, and lives in Villenova ; Truman B., in this 


town, on lot 24 ; Willis, died in manhood, unmarried ; a daughter, wife of 
Jackson Berry, resides in the village. Wm. G. Carr was supervisor of Cherry 
Creek in 1839. 

Daniel B. Parsons, a native of Madison Co., settled, in 1850, on lot 23, 
where he died several years since. He was a farmer and drover. A son, 
Reuben W., came with his father, and resides in the village. Jairus Nash, 
from Stephentown, on lot 23, where he and his son William reside. Gardner 
Crandall, on lot 23, bought in 1815. He was married twice, and had 21 
children. Jared Ingalls, from Otsego Co., settled on lot 22, about 1826, and 
built a saw-mill. A son, Edmund, resides in the town ; another, Cyrus, not 
living. Four daughters ; Eunice, wife of Ezekiel Mount, in the village; 
Nancy, wife of Wm. S. Bullock, resides in the town ; Sally, who married 
Furman Mount, and lives in the village ; Olive, who married Willis Hyatt, 
and lives in Pennsylvania. Wm. Weaver, from Otsego Co., came in 1817, 
and, a year or two after, settled on lot 14, where he died. 

In the central part of the to\Vn, Thomas Mount, from New Jersey, came 
with a wife and 14 children — 8 sons and 6 daughters. Ezekiel, John, 
Hezekiah, Furman, and Samuel, reside in the town ; also Rebecca, a 
daughter, wife of Archibald F. Robbins. Anthony Morian, in 1835, settled 
on lot 44, and now resides in the village. Robert James, from Brookfield, 
N. Y., settled, in 1821, on lot 36, and died there. Of his sons, Robert, Jr., 
was supervisor of the town in 1831, '32. Harry died in Cherry Creek ; Jona- 
than, a physician, also died here. Several other sons removed from the 

In the south-west part, among the early settlers were : Ward, and his sons 
William, On, and Ai ; Niles Hadley, Alva Hadley, whose son, Ozro A., was 
for a time acting governor of Arkansas ; Hudson Smith, John Howard, Na- 
thaniel Dunham, Arthur Hines, Addison Phillips, John Luce, Reuben A. 
Bullock, Myron Field, Horatio Hill, Lawrence E. Shattuck. Joseph Price, 
on lot 42, had 3 sons: John, who resides in town; Lawrence and David, re- 
moved from the county. 

In the village and vicinity, among the early settlers were : Geo. H. Frost, 
who kept the first tavern in the village, and was the first postmaster ; Alfred 
Goodrich ; Welcome C. Carpenter, who has a cheese factory on the site of 
the old log tavern of G. H. Frost ; Wm. Green, who removed to Illinois ; 
John P. Hadley, Thomas Berry, Abraham Hall, James D. Wheeler, a justice 
of the peace; and Jotham Godfrey, who, about 1826, settled west of the 
village, and was for a number of years a justice of the peace, and whose son 
Jeffrey T. W. resides three and a quarter miles south of the village. David 
Myers, whose sons were fe^avid and John, who are in the West, and Oliver, 
in the village. Randall Spencer, whose sons, George and , both re- 
moved West. Seth S. Chase, whose son Olin C. resides at Cattaraugus 
station. Alvin Bannister, wha^fttfiwo sons: Henry, merchant in the village ; 
and Gideon, deceased. On Powers' Hill, George Sheffield settled on lot 29, 
where Aaron, a son, now resides ; other sons, Hiram Ontario Co. ; Alanson, 


deceased ; and Judson, in the village. Daniel Powers, a son-in-law, from 
whom the Hill takes its name, who settled on the same lot, is now in Cattar- 
augus county. 

The first birth in the town was that of Lydia, daughter of Joseph M. and 
Patty Kent, in 181 6, who became the wife of Hon. Charles B. Green, of 

The first marriage was that of James Battles and Rachel Hadley, daughter 
of Daniel Hadley, June 6, 1819. They reside in Arkwright. 

The first death was that of Rufus Hitchcock, in 1820. He fell from the 
roof of his house just as he had completed it, striking his head upon a root 
of a stump and fracturing the skull. 

The first school was taught by Reuben Cheney, in the south part of the 
town. The first summer school was taught by Angeline Pickering in school 
district No. i, near the center. 

George H. Frost kept the first inn, in 1823; and Seth Grover, the first 
store, in the village. Present innkeeper, Judson Sheffield. 

The earliest saw-mill was built by Wm. Kilbourn, in 1824, on Cherry 
creek, near the village. He attached to his mill, the next year, a shop for 
making spinning-wheels, chairs, etc. The second saw-mill was built about 
1833, on the same stream, half a mile below the former, by Robert James 
and Wm. Green, where a mill has been continued to the present time. 
Another mill was built by John Jones ; afterwards owned by Alfred Story ; 
now by Wm. Weaver. Joseph Kent built a saw-mill, in 1835, in the south- 
east part of the town ; was run about 20 years. Joseph Kent, about 1838, 
built a saw-mill and a grist-mill, half a mile above the Kilbourn mill. The 
water was conveyed by a ditch from the creek, about half a mile above the 
mill to a natural basin or hollow, near the mill, the water in this dam cover- 
ing about five acres, and being conveyed by a deep cut to the mill, thus 
forming one of the best mill sites in the country, the fall being 25 to 30 feet. 
Alfred Stone built a saw-mill on Dry creek, about 2 miles above the village ; 
now owned by John Price. Jared Ingalls built a saw-mill about 2^4 miles 
north of the village. A mill is still continued there, owned by Darius Had- 
ley. The first grist-mill was built by Hall Nickerson, about the year 1828, 
near the site of Stone's saw-mill. It had one run of stones, and was used 
only for com. In 1848, Joseph Kent built at his saw-mill a grist-mill with 
the modem appliances, with three run of stones, for grinding all kinds of 
grain. This mill was destroyed by fire in 1869, and rebuilt in 1870 by Silas 
Vinton, who had previously bought the site. In 1861, Joseph Kent built a 
steam saw-mill, on the Connewango, near Andrew J. Arnold's, in the south- 
east part of the town. It has the capacity of sawii,^ 10,000 to 1 5,000 feet of 
boards per day. Attached to the mill is machinery for the manufacture of 
lath and pickets. :^S***. '.•>.•■ 

The first blacksmith in this town wa^fj^^pn M. Kent, the first settler. 
The next was Pliny Shattuck, ij^ m. west of the village, in 1831. 

A tannery, the first in the town, was established about 1823, in connection 



with a shoe-shop, by- Thomas Carter, near where Wm. Kilbourn's saw-mill 
was afterwards built. After he had carried on the business one or two years, 
he sold the property to Kilbourn. Charles A. Spencer established a tannery 
in the village, in 1833, and continued it for maijy years. John Davidson 
erected a tannery about the year 1848, near the site of Frost's old tavern 
stand. It was conducted on a large scale for about fifteen or twenty years. 

Welcome C. Carpenter was an early carpenter and joiner, and soon after 
Samuel Newton and Samuel Mount. 

Among the early tailors were Jonathan Greenman and Russell Bartlett. 
Present one, Alfred W. Knapp. 

Present harness maker, Charles T. Reed. 

The first physician was Horace" Morgan, about 1830. The settlers had 
been previously served by Dr. Thomas J. Wheeler, of Rutledge. After Dr. 
Morgan, came Oliver B. Main, Edwin G. Bly, John B. Woodworth, Timothy 
G. Walker, and the present physicians, Francis M. Rich and Dr. Bishop. 

The first merchant in Cherry Creek was Seth Grover, in 1831, who had, in 
connection with his store, pot and pearl asheries. Later were Cyrus Thatcher 
and George H. Frost. Present merchants : Dry goods — Henry Bannister, 
John Delany. Drugs and medicines — Charles L. Wheeler. Drugs and 
groceries — Mason Allen, Lewis Ward. Groceries — Alvah Billings, Cyrus 
Mount. Hardware — Robertson & Mount, Carpenter & Smith. Tinner — 
Charles Shepard, Clothing and furnishing store — -Anthony Morian. 

The first town-meeting in Cherry Creek after its formation, was held at the 
hotel of George H. Frost, in March, 1830. The names of the officers 
elected are not ascertained, except those of James Carr, supervisor, and 
Robert James, town clerk. 

Supervisors from i8jo to iS'^j. 
James Carr, 1830, '33, '36, '40, '46, '52 — 6 years. Robert James, Jr., 
1831, '32. George H. Frost, 1834, '35. Oliver Carpenter, 1837. Horace 
Brunson, 1838. Wm. G. Carr, 1839. Wm. Kilbourn, 1841 to '43 — 3 years. 
Archibald F. Robbins, 1844. Oliver G. Main, 1845, '49, '50. Charles A. 
Spencer, 1847, '48. Joseph Kent, 1851, '56. Daniel B. Parsons, 1853, '54. 
Silas Vinton, 1855, '59, '60, '68, '71 — 5 years. Horatio Hill, 1857, '58, '64. 
Reuben W. Parsons, 1861, '63, '65. Anthony Morian, 1862, '67. George 
N. Frost, 1866, '69, '72, '73. Welcome C. Carpenter, 1870. Harris Billings, 
1874. George N. Frost, 1875. 

Biographical and Genealogical. 

Stephen Blaisdell was born in Giflford, N. H., Aug. 7, 1786. He re- 
mained there until he was about 20 years of age, when he made a public 
profession of religion. He soon after commenced preaching, and traveled 
extensively in the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Vermont, and 
Connecticut. He married, in 1810, Bathsheba Aldrich, in Templeton, 
Mass., who was born March 2, 1788. He removed to Leyden, Vt., where 
his family remained until he removed to this county, in March, 1824. He 



settled in Ellington, [then Gerry,] on lot 29. In the spring of 1827, he re- 
moved to Cherry Creek, on lot 28. He was connected with the Christian 
denomination, having been ordained to the ministry in 1808. In politics, 
he held to the principles ipculcated by the Jeflfersonian republicans. He had 
6 children : i. Sarah Ann, bom July 14, 1812 ; was married to Isaac Allen, 
and removed to Wisconsin, where she died Jan. i, 1862. She had 6 chil- 
dren : Amanda, George, Oliver, Justin, Harriet, Isaac. Oliver served in the 
late war. 2. Eliza, born Oct. 16, 1814, married Joseph Cummings, of Vil- 
lenova, who died in Randolph. She had 2 children, Sarah Ann and Stephen. 
3. Amanda L., born Jan. 26, 1820, and was married to Palmer Northup ; 
both deceased. 4. William 6'., bom Feb. 14, 1823; married, first, Lydia 
F. Shattuck, daughter of Lawrence E. Shattuck. She died June 24, i860, 
leaving 2 children, Burke and Lydia, who died at the ages of 5 and 3 years. 
Mr. Blaisdell married, second, Mary Jane Harris, daughter of Otis Harris, of 
Gerry, by whom he has three children : Martha, William, and Alfred. 5. 
Bogardus A., born July 7, 1825 ; married Catharine, sister of Philip S. Cottle, 
of Fredonia, and had 3 children : Nettie, Harry, and one that died in infancy. 
Mr. Blaisdell died, March 29th, 1874, at Keokuk, Iowa. 6. Napoleon L., 
bom April 2, 1830; married Anna Davis, of Cuba, N. Y., and had 3 chil- 
dren : Mary, Harriet, and George, who died at 7. The family removed to 
Missouri in 1865. Stephen Blaisdell died Sept. 9, 1854, aged 68 years. 

George H. Frost, from Rensselaer Co., came to Cherry Creek, in 1823, 
and kept a tavern, afterwards store, and in 1838 or '39, settled on a farm 
about 3 miles north-west from the village, and returned to the village, where 
he died in 1873. He had been several years supervisor of the town. His 
sons were : George N., who was four years supervisor of the town ; Charles, and 
Isbun, who resides at Titusville. Daughters : Selina, wife of Chas. A. Spencer; 
Fidelia, ^vife of Judson Sheffield ; she is deceased ; Eliza, wife of Chandler 
Johnson, Corry ; Mary, who married Wni. Mount, Corry ; Emeline, who 
married Wm. U. Edwards; Lillis, wife of Alonzo Edwards, Forestville; Isa- 
dore, wife of Walter Griswold ; Helen, wife of Cyrus Mount. 

Horatio Hill was born in Berkshire, Frankhn Co., Vt., in i8o8. He 
came to Chautauqua Co., and settled in Cherry Creek, on the James Wheeler 
farm, in the year 1818. He was married, Jan. i, 1833, to Seviah Wetherly, 
who was bom in Edmeston, Otsego Co., N. Y., in 18 10. They had 9 chil- 
dren : Nelson H., Lucinda, Josephine, Austin O., Orseba, Nora L., Orton, 
Orin, and Mary. Nelson H. married Maria Wilkins, and has a daughter, 
Mary. Lucinda married Byron Cleland, and has 4 children: Jennie, James, 
John, and Susie. Josephine married Silas Kent, and has a son, Elmer A. 
Nora L. married William S. Parsons ; removed to Illinois, and died there. 
Orin married Jennie Wright, of Lowell, Mich. Mary A. married J. S. Dan- 
iels, of Lowell, Mich., and has a daughter, Fannie. Austin O. died in the 
late war. • 

Joseph Kent was bom in Cortland Co., N. Y., January 22, 18 14. His 
ancestors came from Kent Co., England, in 1649, after the success of Oliver 


Cromwell's annies. Two brothers Kent emigrated to America, and settled 
in Conn., where they erected a block house of hewn oak logs for the double 
purpose of a dwelling, and for protection against the Indians. John Kent, 
grandfather of Joseph, was married, in 1758, at Cape Cod, Mass., and set- 
tled, soon after, in Royalton, Vt. He had 6 sons and a daughter : John, 
father of Rev. John P. Kent ; Elisha ; Samuel ; Charles ; Joseph M. ; Ab- 
ner, father of ASjpizo Kent, of Jam^town ; and Lydia. Joseph M. Kent, 
son of John above mentioned, was 'bom in 1774, and married Patty Bugbee 
in 1800, in Woodstock, Conn. Their children were: Nancy, wife of Elipha- 
let W. Wilcox ; George, who married Phebe King ; Dolly, wife of Ward 
King ; Polly, who married John S. Smith, and after his death, a Mr. Hinds ; 
Elisha, who married Lydia Ann Bentley, and lives in Illinois ; Samuel B., 
who married Charlotte Green, and lives in Cherry Creek ; Joseph ; Lydia, 
wife of Charles B. Green ; and Ara W., who married Lucy Ann Neat ; had 
three children, and for some unexplained cause, went, without his family, to 
California, and is now living in Albany, Oregon. Joseph Kent, whose name 
commences this sketch, came to this county when about 3 years old, with his 
father, who settled on lot 9, in the south-east part of the town, the land hav- 
ing been taken up by Joshua Bentley in April, 1815. He has lived in 
Cherry Creek 57 years. His occupation besides that of farming, may be 
known from his having been named the " Lumber King of the Upper Con- 
newango.'' Joseph Kent was married Nov. 20, 1837, to Maria Vedder, 
formerly from Otsego Co., by whom he had a son, the mother dying in child- 
bed. The son, George A. S. Kent, married Martha, daughter of Anthony 
Morian, and has 2 sons, Grant Earl and Clare E. Joseph Kent married, 
Nov., 1839, for his second wife, Rachel E. Vedder, by whom he had 2 chil- 
dren : a daughter Mariam, and a son Emory. Mr. Kent and his wife are 
both living in Cherry Creek. 

Charles A. Spencer, bom in Westmoreland, Oneida Co., June 30, 1810, 
settled in Cherry Creek in 1833, and commenced the tanning business, 
which he continued for about fifteen years. He still resides in the village. 
He was several years supervisor of the town ; 2 1 years superintendent of the 
county poor; and for about 25 years a justice of the peace. He was mar- 
ried to Selina Frost in 1840. They have 2 daughters : Francis, who married 
Melvin M. Mount, and lives in Penn.; and Adalaide, wife of Darwin M. 
Saunders, in Penn. They have 3 sons : Charles D., who married Celia 
Johnson, and resides in Arcade, Wyoming Co.; George, and Park; both at 


Churches and other Associations. 

Methodist Episcopal Church. — A class was formed as early as 1817 or 181 8. 
Among its members were Joseph M. Kent and Patty, his wife, and others 
whose names are not recollected, and, for the want of records, can not*be 
ascertained. Meetings were at first held at the house of Mr.' Kent. The 
place of meeting was afterwards moved to the Spencer school-house, west of 
the village. Among the early class leaders, were Randall Spencer, and 


Robert James, Jr. The church was fully organized with seven members, in 
1857, by Rev. O. L. Mead. Their church edifice was built in 1859. The 
present minister is Rev. A. Wilder. 

A Christian Church was organized in Cherry Creek, March 23, 1839. 
The elders officiating were Warren Skeels and N. A. Perry. Seth S. Chase 
was chosen ruling elder, and Sullivan Gardner deacon and clerk. Members 
at the organization of the church were : SulUvan Gardqpfr, Seth S. Chase, 
Putnam Farrington, Warren Skeels, Fanny Chase, Sally Carr, Lepha Weaver, 
Mary Weaver, Lucy Grover, Betsey King, Harriet James. This church has 
no meeting-house, but maintains its organization. 

The Free-will Baptist Church, in the town of Cherry Creek, was formed 
about the year 1826, by Rev. Thomas Grinnell ; and is said to have been 
the earliest religious organization in the town, and was composed of John P. 
Hadley and wife, Jotham Godfrey and wife, and Mrs. Gardner Crandall. 
The society built its first meeting-house about the year 1845. 

The First Baptist Church of Cherry Creek was formed Feb. 5, 183 1, un- 
der the title name of " Branch Church of the Connewango Church." The 
following are the names of the constituent members : Ira B. Tanner, Eunice 
Tanner, John Essex, Almerin Bly, Prudence Bly, Samuel Hodges, Lydia 
Hodges, Covel Nickerson, Carlana Nickerson, Daniel Osbom, Mercy Bab- 
cock, Betsey Matteson. In October following, Jared Ingalls and Abigail, 
his wife, united with the church. In 1832, it was deemed expedient to form 
an independent church ; and with this view, letters of admission were ob- 
tained fi-om the Connewango church. A council from churches in Hanover, 
and Gerry, and the Connewango church, met on the 26th day of October, 
and constituted in due form, the First Baptist Church of Cherry Creek. In 
January, 1833, the church elected Jairus Nash, deacon, and Covel Nicker- 
son, clerk. Their first church edifice was dedicated January 11, 1849. 
Their first pastor was the Rev. James Bennett ; the present is the Rev. John 
A. Pickard. 

Masonic Lodge of Cherry Creek. — In June, 1855, a dispensation was granted 
by the grand lodge of the state, on petition of D. B. Parsons, J. Z. SafFord, 
Curtis O. Denison, John Hubbard, Versal Farrington, together with the fol- 
lowing, who were appointed officers : Wm. S. Blaisdell, W. M.; Alvah 
BiUings, S. W.; Oliver B. Main, J. W.; George B. Aldrich, Treas.; George 
Hopkins, Sec'y. A charter was granted in June, 1856, by the grand lodge, 
with the officers above named. R. W. Parsons and John O'Neal had be- 
come members while the lodge was working under the dispensation. Since 
the organization with a charter in 1856, its membership has increased to up- 
wards of 100. William S. Blaisdell was elected master, and continued in 
that office by reelection for seven years. 

The Cherry Creek Lodge of Odd Felloi^f was instituted April 6, 1852, 
David S. Forbes installing officer. Its first officers were : John T. Clark, 
N. G.; Anthony Morian, V. G.; Silas Vinton, S.; O. C. Chase, T.; R. N. 
Tanner, P. S. Meetings of the lodge have been for some time suspended. 

CLYMER. 29s 


Clymer was formed from Chautauqua, Feb. 9, 182 1, and now comprises 
the single township i, of range 14; Mina having been taken off in 1821 ; 
French Creek, in 1829; and Sherman, in 1832. The surface is a hilly up- 
land, broken W^he valleys of Broken Straw creek and its branches, one of 
which passes southerly through the village and unites with the principal 
stream about a mile below ; another, from the north and north-east, enters it 
about a mile and a half east of the village. The soil is a gravelly loam. 
The population of the town in 1870 was 1,486, of which number the village 
contained about 400. This is the principal place of business in the town, 
and derives a considerable portion of its trade from the town of French 
Creek. Besides the post-office in the village. North Clymer is a post-office 
on the Buffalo, Corry & Pittsburgh Railroad. There are several dense settle- 
ments in the town : King's Corners, in the north-east part of the town, on the 
Harmony line ; Clymer Center, on the railroad ; and Clymer Hill, about 2 
miles west of the latter place. About one-half of the population of the town 
are Hollanders and their descendants. 

Origirial Purchases in Township i, Range 14. 

1820. May, William Rice, 59. July, Gardner Cleveland, Sr., 58. 

1821. October, Horace and Anson Starkweather, 43. Joseph Wing, 51. 
November, John Cleveland, 58. 

1822. March, Thomas Russell, 50. 

1823. January, Leonard Amidon, 52. October, William Rice, 60. 

1824. June, Ebenezer Brownell, 35. Harry E. Brownell, 28. Joseph 
Brownell, 50. 

1825. May, Amon Beebe, Jr., 30. August, Elisha Alvord, 21. October, 
Joseph W. Ross, 55. 

1826. April, Charles Ross, 56. May, Moses Randall, 23. July, David 
Phinney. October, Jeremiah Glidden, 3, 8. 

1827. March, Darius and Walter Freeman, 47. Ralph Pettit, 47. April, 
Jeremiah R. Doolittle, 37. May, David Glidden, 16. June, Samuel Bligh, 
32. August, Andrew Glidden, 16. September, Oscar F. and Daniel C. 
Glidden, 8. October, Francis F. Allen, 2. 

1828. May. Alvah Marsh, 40. Archelaus Chadwick, i. John Pettit, 
47. July, Benjamin Sullivan, 63. Samuel Ross, 27. 

1829. July, Lyman Brown, 26. September, Jeremiah Chamberlain, 53. 
October, Urbane Hitchcock, 15. ■> 

1830. August, Harry E. Brownell, 28. September, Jackson Johnson, 33. 
Thomas Russell, 50. 

The State Gazetteer says : "John Cleveland settled on lot 58, in 1820;" 
and "William Rice, from Washington Co., settled on lot 59, in 1821 ; Hor- 
ace and Anson Starkweather, from Vermont, on lot 43, in 1822." By refer- 
ence to the list of original purchases, it will appear, that Wm. Rice was the 
first purchaser, May, 1820, of lot 59; Gardner Cleveland, July, 1820, of lot 
58; the Starkweathers, of lot 43, Oct., 182 r ; and John Cleveland, lot 58, 


Nov., 182 1. This would seem to cast a doubt upon the statement that he 
was the first settler. It must, however, be remembered, that, as elsewhere 
stated, purchasers did not always settle on their lands the same year. It is 
said, by early settlers, that Mr. Rice did not settle on his land until 182 1, 
and that John Cleveland's land was a part of what had been, taken up by his 
father ; and that he settled on it before he took an article in his own name. 
Hence, it is presumed, the late Ira F. Gleason, an early settler, stated cor- 
rectly, " that the date of the first sertlement in what is now Clymer, was in 
1 82 1, and that John Cleveland was the first settler.'' 

Since the above was written, the following statement has been found, with 
John Cleveland's own signature : " John Cleveland, son of Gardner, born in 
Pomfret, Conn., Sept., 1789, moved to Paris, N. Y., when 2 years old; to 
Rutland, N. Y., in 1807; and in 1815 came to French Creek; in 1820 came 
to Clymer." This last statement agrees with that of early settlers, who say 
the Clevelands made a sojourn of a few years in French Creek before their 
purchase in Clymer. 

Since the printing of this History commenced, a former citizen of Clymer 
said to the writer, that he often heard Mr. Rice say, that he settled, in 1821, 
on the land he bought in May, 1820 ; and that a few weeks or months after- 
wards, John Cleveland settled on an adjoining lot. As Mr. Rice was 
esteemed as a man of veracity, and can hardly be presumed to be mistaken 
in the matter, the question of priority of settlement can not yet be positively 

Silas Freeman, from Cayuga Co., in 1828, settled on Clymer Hill, where 
he died. His wife died the same year. They had 13 children, of whom 
were Darius and Walter, who settled on lot 47, and Leonard B. Darius re- 
moved to Illinois ; thence to Iowa; and thence to California, where he died. 
Walter removed to Illinois, and died there. 

Leonard B. Freeman, son of Silas, was born in Cayuga Co., July 9, 1814, 
and came to Clymer in 1828, at the age of 14. He was married, April 25, 
1838, to Betsey, a daughter of Wm. F. Brown, who was bom January 10, 
182 1. He settled on Clymer Hill, near the center of the town ; whence he 
removed, in 1853, to French Creek, and in 1856 to Clymer village, where he 
now resides. His business has been that of a farmer and of a dealer in 
cattle. He has held several town offices, and was once elected a justice of 
the peace, but declined to qualify. He had 5 children : Wilhelmina, Constan- 
tine, Morley, Eugenia, wife of Phineas J. Morris, and Adelia. Morley en- 
listed in the late war, in 1861, under Col. Drake, of the 112th regiment, and 
died in the hospital, April 30, 1862. 

Peter Jaquins removed from Guilford, Chenango Co., to Cattaraugus Co., 
in 1820, and settled, in 1825, on lot 42, which he bought in 1824, near the 
present railroad depot, where he now resides. Like many other pioneers, he 
was fond of hunting, in which he was excelled by few in this region. His 
children were : Bruce, who resides near his father ; Edward, who resides in 
Kansas, and owns a large tract of land, and is an extensive dealer in cattle ; 

CLYMER. 297 

Wallace, who died in Penn. ; Art, a dealer in cattle, in town. A daughter, 
Elizabeth, resided for a time in California, where her husband died. She 
now resides in this town near her father, and has a daughter, Mary S., bom 
in California, now 16 years of age. Peter Jaquins was -a soldier in the war 
of 181 2, from Chenango Co., and was in the battle of Queenston. 

Ralph Pettit, from Cayuga Co., settled on lot 47, in the north part of the 
town, where he still resides. He has held several responsible town offices. 
His children were : Justus, Clarissa, Lovena, Ralph, Charlotte, Polly, James, 
and Burrows, besides twins, not named. Justus was married, and died in 
Penn. Clarissa, wife of Wm. Russell ; and they removed to Kansas. The 
others are married, and reside in the county. • 

Horace Starkweather, bom in Brandon, Vt., in 1794, and has been repre- 
sented by himself or some other person, to have come to Clymer in April, 
1820, and was the first to commence as a farmer in the town. This conflicts 
with the statements elsewhere given relating to the early settlement of the 
town. The Company's books show Wm. Rice's contract for land to have 
been the first in this town, in May, 1820. Starkweather's is dated October, 
1821 ; and the State Gazetteer says he settled on lot 43 in 1822. Although 
the date of contract does not always determine the date of settlement, it is 
not probable that Starkweather settled so early as 1820. 

Samuel Wickwire, from Madison Co., about 1828, settled on lot 16, north- 
west part of the town ; subsequently on lot 23, where he still resides, at the 
advanced age of 85 years. He had 4 sons: Samuel, deceased; Nathan, who 
lives in Ripley; Ira G., who owns a part of the homestead farm; and Alfred 
Y., on the farm first purchased by his father. Two daughters were : Mary, 
wife of William Rice, of Sherman ; and Cornelia, wife of William Wells, of 

Urbane Hitchcock, from Madison Co., settled on lot 15, bought in 1829, 
where he still resides. His 2 sons, Henry and Harvey, are residents of the 
town. He had five daughters, of whom none, it is believed, reside in the 

Charles Brightman, an early settler on lot 30, removed to Mason City, 
Iowa. He had no sons, but a large number of daughters, none of whom, it 
is believed, reside in the town. Mr. Brightman was for 4 years supervisor of 
the town. 

Alexander Maxwell settled on lot 30, where he now resides. His sons, 
Charles, Samuel, Edwin, and William, reside in the neighborhood of their 
father ; Henry, in Newark, New Jersey ; and George, removed to the West. 
A daughter married Wm. Cleveland, and is deceased. 

Dr. Peck settled early in the north-east part of the town, on lot 6 ; aid 
still resides there. He was an early practicing physician in Clymer. He 
had a large family of children, most of them deceased. 

David Phinney, from Brandon, Vt, settled on lot 41, in 1826, where he 
lived until his death, aged nearly 81 years. He had 3 sons, Harvey A., 
Daniel P., and David. Harvey came to Phelps, Ontario Co., in 1810, where 


he practiced medicine until 1828, when he came to Clymer, and practiced 
until his death. Daniel was a deacon of the Baptist church ; removed to 
Marengo, 111., where he now resides. David, Jr., went to California, and is 
probably not living. 

Artemas Ross, son of Charles Ross, came with his father from Chenango 
Co., in 1824, to Clymer Hill. He married Mary Jones, daughter of Thomas 
Jones, of French Creek; studied law with Abner Lewis, Esq., of. Panama; 
and was licensed as an attorney. His children were : Thomas, a druggist at 
Findley's Lake ; Charles, and Ida. 

The first town-meeting was held, April 3, 1821, at the house of Gardner 
Cleveland ; and the following named officers were elected ; the town then 
comprising four townships : 

Supervisor — Ande Nobles. Town Clerk — David Waldo. Assessors — 
Wm. Rice, Roger Haskell, John M. Fitch. Com'rs of Highways — Roswell 
Coe, John Cleveland, Alexander Findley. School Inspectors — Ephraim Dean, 
Ande Nobles, John Lynde. School Com'rs — John Heath, Roger Haskell. 
Overseers of Poor — Alexander Findley, Roswell Coe. Fence Viewers and 
Damage Appraisers — Wm. Thompson, Amon Beebe, Jr., Roger Haskell. 
Constable and Collector — Eli Belknap. 

Supervisors from 18 21 to iSyS- 

Ande Noble, 182 1. John Heath, 1822, '23, '30. Gardner Cleveland, 
1824 to '27 — 4 years. Abishai S. Underwood, 1828. Alex. Wilson, Jr., 
1829. Wm. Rice, 183 1 to '34, 1836 to '39, 1841, '42, '45 — 11 years. Har- 
vey A. Phinney, 1835. Ira F. Gleason, 1840. Moses Randall, 1843, '44. 
Samuel Bly, 1846, '47. Lyman Brown, 1848. Charles Brightman, 1849, 
'50, '58, '59. Stephen W. Steward, 1851 to '55 — 5 years. Jesse Brown, '56, 
'71, '72. Horatio Hill, 1857. Hercules Rice, i860. Lawyer S. Terry, 
1861. Hartson S. Ayer, 1862, '63, '68, '69, '70 — 5 years. Joshua Hatton, 
1864 to '67 — 4 years. Otis J. Green, 1873, '74. Jesse Brown, 1875. 

The first birth in town was that of Patience Russell, in 1823; the first mar- 
riage, that of Walter Freeman and Abigail Ross, in 1823. William Rice was 
the first blacksmith. The first school was taught by Maria Stow, sister of 
John Stow. 

The first store in Clymer is said to have been kept by John Stow, in 1823. 
John Heath and Joseph H. Williams succeeded Stow, and built a pearl- 
ashery, an indispensable appendage to a pioneer store ; black salts being the 
only product that commanded cash. Alvin Williams, brother of Joseph, suc- 
ceeded them in the store, and also kept an inn, in 1826, the first in town. 
Heath and Williams went to North-east, Pa.; traded there several years, and 
dissolved. Williams went to Erie, where he was successful in trade, and be- 
came a banker ; removed to Philadelphia, and there died. Later merchants 
at Clymer were : Gardner Cleveland, Jr., and Howard Blodgett ; Ira F. Glea- 
son and John Williams, son of Alvin Williams ; and Gleason and Stephen 
W. Steward ; Stephen W. Steward; and Ayres & Blood. Present merchants : 

CLYMER. 299 

Wm. B, Blodgett, Arthur Beach. Druggists, Ayres & Coffin. Hardware 
and stoves, Willis D. Gallup & Son. 

The first tavern was kept by Alvin Williams, in 1826. He was succeeded 
as innkeeper by his son, John Williams, who built the present public-house 
in the village. It was kept by him for several years, and is now owned and 
kept by James King. 

The first saw-mill was built by Peter Jaquins, in 1825, to which he added 
a grist-mill the next year. Eight years after their erection, they were burned. 
A new saw-mill was built immediately, and eight years thereafter, that was 
burned ; and Mr. Jaquins again built a new one, which he subsequently sold 
to. Porter Damon and John Williams, who built also a grist-mill. Williams 
sold his interest to Damon, after whose death the mills passed to his sons, 
Loren and Andrew. The latter sold his interest to Hartson S. Ayres & Bro., 
and the saw-mill was sold to Hall & Shepard. The grist-mill has been con- 
tinued by Ayres & Bro., who have within the last year much enlarged and 
improved it. Hall sold out to Welch, of Buffalo ; and the present proprie- 
tors of the saw-mill, Shepard & Welch, are erecting a large 3-story mill, in 
which machinery is to be placed for a planing and a shingle mill. William 
Rice built a grist-mill about ^ of a mile below the village, on the west 
branch of the Broken Straw, and sold it to Judson Hurlbut, who built a saw- 
mill also. Mills are now owned by his son, BjTon J., at the same place. 
Daniel Hurlbut built a saw-mill on Big Broken Straw, on lot 50, a mile below 
the Shepard & Welch mill. John B. Knowlton now owns the mill, with 
machinery for planing, turning, and the manufacture of agricultural imple- 
ments. Thomas Card built a saw-mill in the east part of the town, on lot 
20, where he still owns a mill, which is in operation. James Upton built a 
saw-mill on lot 45, the dam of which is built of stone from a large quarry of 
his own, near the mill. The mill is not now running. B. Parker early built 
a mill in the south-east part of the town, on lot 9. A mill on the same site 
is now owned by Christopher Whitford. A steam saw-mill was built by 
Shepard & Havens, at Clymer station, and is now owned by William Havens. 
A steam mill has also been recently built near the center of the town, by 
Charles Maxwell and Joshua Hatton. 

The first physician was Roswell F. Van Buren. • He was a native of 
Broadalbin, N. Y. ; came to Clymer in 1826, and removed to Carroll in 1836, 
where he practiced many years. He finally removed to tlfe West, and died 
at Cherry Valley, 111., Feb. 24, 1863. He was succeeded by Dr. Harvey A. 
Phinney, who continued in practice here until his death, which was as late 
as 1852, perhaps later. Dr. Mackers succeeded him. Later were Drs. 
Spratt, McWharf, and others. Present physician, Artemas Ross. 

The first tannery was established by Ebenezer Brownell, on lot 35. He 
was the principal tanner and shoemaker for about ten years. The next after 
Brownell were James and Cyrus Chapman, who were followed .by John 
Williams, who built a larger one, continued it for several years, and sold out 
to Fritts ; and Fritts to Walter and Loren B. Sessions, the present 


owners. A tannery was established several years ago, by Leonard Koomen, 
who sold to J. Newton McKay, on Clymer Hill, [Jackson Corners,] at which 
an extensive business is done, giving employment to about 30 men. 

Biographical and Genealogical. Brown, born in Kingston, Luzerne Co., Pa., May 30, 1801; re- 
moved to Hamburgh, Erie Co., N. Y.; thence to Clymer, and, in 1830, settled 
on lot 2&, which he had bought in 1829, where he died, March 30, 1873. 
Mrs. Brown died Sept. 30, 1873. Mr. B. was, during most of his business 
life, a cattle dealer and drover. He held the office of supervisor and other 
town offices. He had 3 sons and 4 daughters : i. Jesse, who lives near the 
late residence of his father, and was for several years supervisor. He was 
also a merchant, in company with Wm. B. Gleason. 2. Martin, who lives 
near the homestead of his father. 3. Homer, who owns and occupies the 
homestead. 4. Amelia, wife of Charles Maxwell, at Clymer Center. 5. 
Diantha, wife of David Marsh, in Ellery. 6. Ajigeline, wife of Charles 
Chappel, at the village. 7. Geraldina, wife of Harvey J. Bemis. 

Gardner Cleveland, Sr., was born in Pomfret, Conn., Sept. 25, 1763